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The Sanscrit name is given also to the very large Ficus Indica, with

VAN radicating branches, and to some other varieties of that species. Rheede has by mistake transferred the name Afwatt'ba to the Placha, which is never so called.

75. CARACA :
Syn. Bhauma, Ch'batráca.

VULG.
Linn. FUNGUS Agarick.

This and the Phallus are the only fungi, which I have yet seen in India : the ancient Hindus held the fungus in sucn detestation, that YAMA, a legislator, supposed now to be the judge of departed spirits, declares “ those, who eat mushrooms, whether springing from the

ground or growing on a tree, fully equal in guilt to the layers of Bráhmens, and the most despicable of all deadly sinners."

76. TA'LA:
Syn. Trinarájan.
VULG. Tál, Palmeira. .
LINN. BORASSUS.

This magnificent palm is justly entitled the king of its order, which the Hindus call trina druma, or grass trees. VAN RHEEDE mentions the bluish gelatinous, pellucid substance of the young feeds, which, in the hot season, is cooling, and rather agreeable to the taste ; but the liquor extracted from the tree, is the most seducing and pernicious of intoxicating vegetable juices: when just drawn, it is as pleasant as Pouhon water fresh from the spring, and almost equal to the best mild Champaigne. From this liquor, according to Rheede, sugar is extracted; and it would be happy for these provinces, if it were always applied to so innocent a purpose.

tracted ;

77. NA'RICE'LA:
SYN. Lángalin.
Vulg. Nárgil, Nárjil.
LINN, Nut-bearing Cocos.

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Of a palm so well known to Europeans, little more needs be mentioned than the true Apatick name: the water of the young fruit is neither so copious, nor so transparent and refreshing, in Bengal, as in the isle of Hinzuan, where the natives, who use the unripe nuts in their cookery, take extreme care of the trees.

78. GuvA'CA:
Syn. Gbónt'á, Púga, Cramuca, Capura.
Vulg. Supyári.
LINN, ARECA Catechu.

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The trivial name of this beautiful palm having been occasioned by a gross error, it must necessarily be changed; and Guváca should be fubstituted in its place. The inspiffated juice of the Mimosa C'hadira being vulgarly known by the name of Cath, that vulgar name has been changed by Europeans into Catechu ; and because it is chewed with thin slices of the Udvéga, or Areca-nut, a species of this palm has been distinguished by the same ridiculous corruption.

كتاب

شکرستان در نحوي زبان پارسي

تصنیف يونس اوکسفردي

A

GRAMMAR

OF THE

PERSIAN LANGUAGE.

چو عندلیب فصاحت فروشد اي حافظ توتدر او بسخن كنتن دری بشکن

THE

PREFACE.

TH
HE Persian language is rich, melodious, and elegant; it has been

, {poken for many ages by the greatest princes in the politest courts of Afia; and a number of admirable works have been written in it by historians, philosophers, and poets, who found it capable of expressing with equal advantage the most beautiful and the most elevated sentiments,

It must seem strange, therefore, that the study of this language should be so little cultivated at a time when a taste for general and diffusive learning seems universally to prevail; and that the fine productions of a celebrated nation should remain in manuscript upon the lhelves of our publick libraries, without a fingle admirer who might open their treasures to his countrymen, and display their beauties to the light; but if we consider the subject with a proper attention, we shall discover a variety of causes which have concurred to obstruct the progress of Eastern literature.

Some men never heard of the Asiatick writings, and others will not be convinced that there is any thing valuable in them ; some pretend to be busy, and others are really idle ; some detest the Persians, because they believe in Mahomed, and others despise their language, because they do not understand it: we all love to excuse, or to conceal, our

ignorance,

VOL. II.

R

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