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The Sanferit name is given alfo to the very large Ficus Indica, with radicating branches, and to fome other varieties of that fpecies. VAN RHEEDE has by mistake transferred the name Afwatt'ha to the Placfha, which is never fo called.

75. CARACA:

SYN. Bhauma, Ch'hatráca.

VULG.

LINN. FUNGUS Agarick.

This and the Phallus are the only fungi, which I have yet seen in India: the ancient Hindus held the fungus in such deteftation, that YAMA, a legislator, fuppofed now to be the judge of departed spirits, declares "thofe, who eat mushrooms, whether springing from the

ground or growing on a tree, fully equal in guilt to the flayers of “Bráhmens, and the most despicable of all deadly finners."

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76. TA'LA:

SYN. Trinarájan.

VULG. Tál, Palmeira.

LINN. BOR ASSUS.

This magnificent palm is juftly entitled the king of its order, which the Hindus call trína druma, or grafs trees. VAN RHEEDE mentions the bluish gelatinous, pellucid substance of the young feeds, which, in the hot season, is cooling, and rather agreeable to the taste; but the liquor extracted from the tree, is the most seducing and pernicious of intoxicating vegetable juices: when just drawn, it is as pleasant as Pouhon water fresh from the spring, and almost equal to the best mild Champaigne. From this liquor, according to RHEEDE, fugar is extracted;

tracted; and it would be happy for these provinces, if it were always

applied to fo innocent a purpose.

77. NA'RICE'LA:

SYN. Lángalin.

VULG. Nárgil, Nárjìl.

LINN. Nut-bearing Cocos.

Of a palm fo well known to Europeans, little more needs be mentioned than the true Afiatick name: the water of the young fruit is neither fo copious, nor fo tranfparent and refreshing, in Bengal, as in the ifle of Hinzuan, where the natives, who use the unripe nuts in their cookery, take extreme care of the trees.

78. GUVA'CA:

SYN. Ghónt'á, Púga, Cramuca, Capura.

VULG. Supyári.

LINN. ARECA Catechu.

The trivial name of this beautiful palm having been occafioned by a grofs error, it must neceffarily be changed; and Guváca fhould be fubstituted in its place. The infpiffated juice of the MIMOSA C'hadira being vulgarly known by the name of Cath, that vulgar name has been changed by Europeans into Catechu; and because it is chewed with thin Alices of the Udvéga, or Areca-nut, a fpecies of this palm has been distinguished by the fame ridiculous corruption.

کتاب شکرستان

در نحوي زبان پارسی تصنيف

یونس اوکسفردي

A

GRAMMAR

OF THE

PERSIAN LANGUAGE.

چو عندلیب فصاحت فروشد اي حافظ تو قدر او بسخن گفتن دري بشكن

THE

PREFACE.

THE Perfian language is rich, melodious, and elegant; it has been spoken for many ages by the greatest princes in the politeft courts of Afia; and a number of admirable works have been written in it by hiftorians, philofophers, and poets, who found it capable of expreffing with equal advantage the most beautiful and the most elevated sentiments.

It must seem strange, therefore, that the study of this language fhould be fo little cultivated at a time when a taste for general and diffusive learning seems univerfally to prevail; and that the fine productions of a celebrated nation fhould remain in manuscript upon the shelves of our publick libraries, without a fingle admirer who might open their treasures to his countrymen, and display their beauties to the light; but if we confider the fubject with a proper attention, we shall discover a variety of causes which have concurred to obstruct the progrefs of Eastern literature.

Some men never heard of the Afiatick writings, and others will not be convinced that there is any thing valuable in them; some pretend to be busy, and others are really idle; fome detest the Perfians, because they believe in Mahomed, and others despise their language, because they do not understand it: we all love to excufe, or to conceal, our

VOL. II.

ignorance,

R

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