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CAL. Four-parted; divisions egged, concave, pointed, permanent,

propped by two small bracts; unless you call them the calyx.
Cor. None ; unless you give the calyx that name.
Pist. Germ roundish. Style very short, cylindrick. Stigma long, two-

parted, permanent.
Per. Berry one-seeded, navelled, smooth, somewhat flattened.
Seed globular, arilled.
LEAVEs various, some inverse egged, some oblong, some oval, pointed,

irregularly notched, alternate (some opposite), crowded, crisp, very
rough veined, and paler beneath, smoother and dark above. Berry,
deep yellow. The Pandits having only obseryed the male plant, in-
fist that it bears no fruit. Female flowers axillary, from one to four
or five in an axil.

68.

VIRANA:
Syn. Víratara.
Vulg. Béná, Gándár, Cata.
Retz. Muricated ANDROPOGON.
Roxb. Aromatick ANDROPOGON.

The root of this useful plant, which CA'LIDA's calls us'ira, has nine other names thus arranged in a Sanscrit verse :

Abhaya, Nalada, Sévya, Amrènála, Jalás'aya,

Lámajjaca, Laghulaya, Avadáha, Isbtacápat ba.
It will be sufficient to remark, that Jalásaya means aquatick, and that
Avadáha implies a power of allaying feverish beat; for which purpose
the root was brought by GAUTAMI' to her pupil SẠCONTĄL'Ą; the
flender fibres of it, which we know here by the name of Ç'bas or
Khaskhas, are most agreeably aromatick, when tolerably fresh; and

among

among the innocent luxuries of this climate, we may assign the first rank to the coolness and fragrance, which the large hurdles or screens in which they are interwoven, impart to the hottest air, by the means of water dashed through them ; while the strong southern wind spreads the scent before it, and the quick evaporation contributes to cool the atmosphere. Having never seen the fresh plant, I guessed from the name in Van Rheede and from the thin roots, that it was the Afatick Acorus; but a drawing of Dr. Roxburgh's has convinced me, that I was mistaken.

69. SAMI':
Syn. Sattu-phalá, Slivá.
Vulg. Sáën, Bábul.
LINN. Farnefan MIMOSA.
Thorns double, white, black-pointed, stipular. Leaves twice-feathered;

first, in three or four pairs; then in pairs from fourteen to fixteen. Spikes globular, with short peduncles ; yellow, perfuming the woods and roads with a rich aromatick odour. A minute gland on the petiols below the leaflets. Wood, extremely hard, used by the Brábmens to kindle their sacred fire, by rubbing two pieces of it together, when it is of a proper age and sufficiently dried.

Gum semipellucid. Legumes rather spindle-Shaped, but irregular, curved, acutely pointed, or daggered, with twelve or fourteen seeds rather prominent, gummy within. Seeds roundish, compressed. The gum of this valuable plant is more transparent than that of the Nilstick or Arabian species; which the Arabs call Ummu’lghílán, or Mother of Serpents, and the Perfans, by an easy corruption, Mug

bilan. SAMI'R A means a small Samì; but I cannot learn to what species that

diminutive form is applied.

VOL. II.

LAJJA'R U

LAJJA'Ru (properly Lajjálu) signifies bapful, or sensitive, and appears

to be the word engraved on a plate in the Malabar Garden ; though VAN RHEEDE pronounces it LAURI: there can be no doubt, that it is the swimming MIMOSA, with sensitive leaves, root enclosed in a spungy cylinder, and flowerets with only ten filaments. LINNÆUS, by a mere slip, has referred to this plant as his Dwarf ÆschyNOMENE ; which we frequently meet with in India. See 9 H. M. tab. 20. The epithet Lajjalu is given by the Pandits to the Modest MIMOSA.

70.

CHANDRACA: Syn. Chandrapuspa.

. VULG. Ch'hòta Chánd, or Moonlet. Rheede: Sjouanna Amelpodi, 6 H. M. t. 47. Linn. Serpent OPHIOXYLUM. CAL. Perianth, five-parted, small, coloured, erect, permanent; divi

fions, egged, acutish. Cor. Petal, one. Tube very long in proportion; jointed near the mid

dle, gibbous from the enclosed anthers ; above them, rather funnel

form. Border five-parted; divifons, inverse-egged, wreathed. Pist. Germ above, roundish. Style threadform. Stigma irregularly

headed; with a circular pellucid base, or nectary, extremely viscid. Per. Berry mostly twinned, often single, roundish, smooth, minutely

pointed, one-seeded. Seed on one side fattish, or concave ; on the other, convex. Flowers fafcicled. Bratts minute, egged, pointed, coloured. Tube of

the corol, light purple ; border, small, milkwhite. Calyx, first pale pink, then bright carmine. Petiols, narrow-winged. Leaves oblongoval, pointed, nerved, dark and glossy above; mostly three-fold, sometimes paired, often four-fold near the summit; margins wavy. Few shrubs in the world are more elegant than the Chandra, esp cially when the vivid carmine of the Perianth is contrasted not only with the milkwhite corol, but with the rich green berries, which at the same time embellish the fascicle: the mature berries are black, and their pulp light purple. The Bengal peasants assure me, as the natives of Malabar had informed Rheede, that the root of this plant seldom fails to cure animals bitten by snakes, or stung by scorpions ; and, if it be the plant, supposed to assist the Nacula, or VIVERRA Ichneumon, in his battles with serpents, its nine synonyma have been strung together in the following distich:

Náculí, Surafá, Rásná, Sugandhá, Gandhanáculí,

Náculéshtá, Bhujangácshi, Cl’hatricá, Suvahá, nava. The vulgar name, however, of the ichneumon-plant is Ráfan, and its fourth Sanferit appellation signifies well-Scented; a quality which an ichneumon alone could apply to the Ophioxylum ; since it has a strong, and rather a fetid, odour: the fifth and fixth epithets, indeed, seem to imply that its scent is agreeable to the Nacula ; and the seventh (according to the comment on the Amaracósly), that it is offensive to snakes. It is asserted by some, that the Ráfan is no other than the Rough Indian ACHYRANIHES, and by others, that it is one of the Indian ARISTOLOCHIAS. From respect to LINNÆUS, I leave this

genus in his mixed class; but neither my eyes, nor far better eyes than mine, have been able to discover its male flowers; and it must be confessed, that all the descriptions of the Ophioxylum, by RumPhius, BURMAN, and the great botanist himself, abound with erroneous references, and unaccountable oversights.

71. PIPPALA:
SYN. Bódhi-druma, Chala-dala, Cunjarás'anas, Anwattha.
Vulg. Pippal.
Linn. Holy Ficus: but the three following are also thought boly.
Fruit small, round, axillary, sellile, mostly twin. Leaves hearted,

scalloped, scalloped, glossy, daggered; petiols very long; whence it is called chaladala, or the tree with tremulous leaves.

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72.

UDUMBARA:
Syn. Jantu-p bala, Yajnyánga, Hémadugdhaca.
Vulg. Dumbar.
Linn. Racemed Ficus.
Fruit peduncled, top-Ihape, navelled, racemed. Leaves egg-oblong,

pointed, some hearted, obscurely sawed, veined, rough above, netted
beneath. Van Rheede has changed the Sanscrit name into Roem-
badoe : it is true, as he says, that minute ants are hatched in the ripe
fruit, whence it is named Jantu-phala; and the Pandits compare
to the Mundane Egg.

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73. PLACSHA:
Syn. Jati, Parcati.
VULG. Pácari, Pácar.
LINN. Indian Ficus citron-leaved; but all four are Indian.
Fruit feffile, small, mostly twin, crouded, whitish.
Leaves oblong, hearted, pointed, with very long slender petiols.

74. VATA:
Syn. Nyagródha, Bahupát.
Vulg. Ber.
Linn. Bengal Ficus, but all are found in this province, and none

peculiar to it.
Fruit roundish, blood-red, navelled, mostly twin, sessile. Calyx three-

leaved, imbricated. Leaves some hearted, mostly egged, obtuse, broadish, most entire, petiols

thick, short; branches radicating.

The

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