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Set up and electrotyped October, 1901. Reprinted April,


Norwood Press

J. S. Cushing & Co. - Berwick & Smith
Norwood Mass. U.S.A.

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SINCE neither history nor education has a meaning of universal acceptation, the "History of Education" presents for solution a problem containing two variable quantities. Without attempt at definition of either term, the following selections from the literary sources are presented as an aid to the exposition of education in its historic aspect. For the most part, these relate to education in the accepted historic meaning of the term, that of a definitely organized institutional attempt to realize in individuals the ideals controlling a given people. In the early historic period of any people such efforts are not exerted through an institution specially organized for the one purpose; hence the earlier sources are quite general in their nature, relating more to the aims and ideals of education than to its organization. The great majority of the selections, however, deal with education as the work of a specific institution, for thus it is found to be as soon as a people comes into a consciousness of its own ends and of ways of attaining them. With the Greeks a third type of sources is essential to an understanding of their educational thought and practices. These are the philosophical discussions of education, both as to its proper function and as to its theoretically perfect means.

It is not to be understood that all such sources for the Greek and Roman people are here presented; for it would be a difficult, if not impossible, task to indicate the limits of the literature that might be used as historical evidence. Nevertheless, this volume includes most of the important discussions of organized educational efforts that are to be found in classical literature. There exist other sources, such as inscriptions, vase and mural paintings, and other art works, which possess no less value as sources than the literary monuments of the past, and which offer corroborative evidence for the use of the historian.

The purpose of this volume is to render accessible to the student with limited time and limited library facilities, the ideas of the Greeks and Romans concerning education, and such descriptions of their educational systems as are given in their own literature. In lieu of such available material the student has hitherto been restricted to secondary or more remote discussions, which in many cases are not even based upon a study of the sources. It is believed that by such direct study there will result, not only a more correct idea of the education of the classical period, but also a better apprehension of the meaning of education in its historical and contemporary aspects. This volume is designed as a text; hence the sources are classified into periods, in order to afford the student aid in their interpretation, and each group of sources is accompanied by a brief introductory sketch indicating the general setting of the period to which it belongs and the main principles of interpretation to be followed. These introductory chapters furnish little more than a syllabus for study; the

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interpretation is purposely left in a large degree to the student. The brief connecting links between the various periods under which the sources are classified secure for the student a connected text, and do away with a serious limitation to the usefulness of many source books.

As far as possible, all questions of controverted historical interpretation and all textual criticism have been avoided. There has been no effort at original translation, since with one or two minor exceptions standard versions are available, and the greater need is for selection and classification. Wherever possible, selections have been made from such translations as are most readily accessible in complete form. The passages from the Dialogues of Plato are from the second Jowett edition, those from Aristotle and Thucydides are from the first Jowett editions, and most other passages from the Bohn Library editions. Where other translations have been used, due credit has been given. At the expense of no little variety, it has seemed best to preserve the punctuation and spelling of the translations used. Where, in deference to modern standards of taste, it has been necessary to expunge passages or phrases, the omission has been indicated by asterisks. This necessity is regrettable, for in the passages expunged are very frequently indicated some of the most characteristic aspects of ancient education; but in a text for general use such omissions cannot well be avoided.

The scope of the book does not include any specific account of Roman education after the Christianization of the Empire. As being more vitally connected with early

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