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sum of their several times above 161 years ; let it suffice, that had they lasted longer, then either must Egypt have been peopled as soon as Babel after the flood, or the dynasties, as Mercator thinks, must have been before the flood. That the arrival at Babel was many years before the plantation of Egypt, after the flood, enough hath been said to prove; and that the dynasties were not before the flood, the number of the long-lived generations between Adam and the flood, which was less than the number of the dynasties, may sufficiently witness. Or if we will think that one life might, perhaps, be divided into many dynasties, then may this have been as well after the flood as before; considering that the sons of Noah did not in every country erect such form of policy as had been used in the same ere the deluge, but such as the disposition of the people, the authority and power of the conductor, together with many other circumstances, did induce or enforce them to.

SECT. III. That these dynasties were not divers families of kings, but rather

successions of regents, ofttimes many under one king. THE short continuance of the dynasties doth shew that they were not several races of kings, as the vaunting Egyptians were wont to style them. What they were, it cannot certainly be warranted. For in restitutions of decayed antiquities, it is more easy to deny than to affirm. But this may be said, partly upon good circumstance, partly upon the surest proof, that it was the manner of the Egyptian kings to put the government of the country into the hands of some trusty counsellor, only reserving the sovereignty to themselves, as the old kings of France were wont to the masters of the palace, and as the Turk doth to the chief vizier. This is confirmed, first, by the number of the dynasties, whereof many are under Cham, and more than one under Osiris, or Mizraim; and must therefore have been successions, not of kings, but rather of counsellors and regents. Secondly, by custom of such princes, borderers to Egypt, as are mentioned in the scriptures; of whom Abimelech the Philistine, in his dealing with Abraham and Isaac about confederation, did nothing without Phicol, captain of his host ; though in taking Abraham's wife, and in his private carriage, he followed his own pleasure. Likewise of Abimelech the son of Gideon it was said, Is not he the son of Jerubbaal, and Zebul his officer ? Also Ishbosheth the son of Saul feared Abner the captain of the host. Yea, David himself hating Joab for his cruelty, did not punish him in regard of his greatness, which was such, as was feared even of Hadad the Edomite, living then in Egypt. Thirdly, this is confirmed by the temper and disposition of Cham, who was lewd, as appears by the scriptures ; therefore likely, both for his own idleness and pleasure, to have laid the burden of government upon others; and upon jealousy, the companion of unworthiness, to have changed his lieutenants often. Above all other proofs is the advancement of Joseph by Pharaoh. For Pharaoh said to Joseph, Only in the king's throne will I be above thee ; behold I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. p William, archbishop of Tyre, who flourished about the year of our Lord one thousand one hundred eighty, affirms, that the like or very same form of government by viceroys was in his time practised in Egypt, having there been in use, as he believed, ever since the time of Joseph. He plainly shews, that the soldans of Egypt were not lords of the country, however they have been so deemed ; but that they acknowledged and humbly performed the duty of subjects unto the caliph; who residing in a most magnificent palace in Cairo, did commit the charge, not only of civil government, but the power of making war and peace, with the whole office and authority royal into the soldan's hands. He that shall read in 4 William of Tyre the state of the caliph, or Mulene Elhadech, with the form of his court, shall plainly behold the image of the ancient Pharaoh, ruling by a lieutenant, as great in authority as Joseph was, though far inferior in wisdom.

To think that many names of such regents or lieutenants P William Tyr. de Bell. sacro, l. 19. C. 17, 18, 19, et 20.

4 Lib. 19, 20.

as Joseph was, have crept into the list of the Egyptian kings, were no strange imagination : for Joseph's brethren called him," the man, that is lord of the land, and the lord of the country: besides, it is not unlikely that the vainglorious Egyptian priests would as easily report him a king to posterity, as ignorant men and strangers deem him such, under whose hand all despatches of importance and royal managing of the state had passed, whilst that the king himself intending his quiet, had given his office to another. How strangers have mistaken in this kind, the example already cited of Joseph's brethren doth sufficiently witness. The reports of priests do appear in Diodorus and Herodotus, each of whom, citing their relations as good authority, say; Diodorus, that Sesostris was the ninetieth king after Menas; Herodotus, that he was the 332d after Menas; which could not have been, if Menas had been Adam. Therefore we may well conclude, that the dynasties were not so many races of kings, but successions of regents, appointed by the kings of so many sundry lineages or sorts of men. Now by whatsoever means a dynasty or regency continued, whether in one family, as being made an hereditary office, or in one order of

men, as held by faction ; sure it is, that it was the king's gift and free choice that gave the office. But the crown royal always passed by descent, and not by election ; which (beside consent of authors) the scriptures also prove. For whereas Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, if the crown had passed by election, then should Pharaoh's children hereby either have been enthralled amongst the rest of the people to the next successor; or, enjoying their father's land, though not his estate, have been more mighty than the king; as landlords of all Egypt, and the king himself their tenant. Likewise we find in Exod. xii. that God smote the first-born of Pharaoh, that was to sit on his throne : and in Isaiah it is said of Pharaoh, I am the son of the ancient king.

r Gen. xlii. 30. and 33.

s Isa. xix. JI.

SECT. IV. Of Cham, and his son Mizraim, or Osiris. THAT the succession of kings began and continued in such wise as the table hath shewed from Cham to Chencres, now it followeth to shew. Egypt is called in the scripture t the land of Ham. That this name is not given to it because the posterity of Cham did reign there, but for that himself did first plant it, we may gather by many circumstances. For I think it is nowhere found, that the countries of Cush, Put, or Canaan, as well as Egypt, were called the land of Ham. Further, it is found in u Diodorus Siculus, that Osiris calleth himself the eldest son of Cham, saying, Mihi pater Saturnus deorum omnium junior ; also, Sum Saturni filius antiquior, germen ex pulchro et generoso ortum; which must needs be understood of Cham; for this Saturnus Egyptius was Cham; as it is said, that on the monument of Ninus was an inscription, wherein Cham was called Saturnus Ægyptius. Likewise the temple of Hammon, not far from Egypt, doth testify, that Ham resided in those parts; and St Jerome, in Quæstionibus Hebraicis, saith, that the Egyptians themselves did in his days call their country Ham; as in four several places in the Psalms this country is called the land of Cham. And Ortelius, noting out of Plutarch in Osiride, that in the sacrifices of the Egyptians this country of Egypt was called Chemia, expounds it for Chamia : Ut puto, saith he, a Chamo Noes filio; to which also he addeth out of Isidore, Ægyptum usque hodie Ægyptiorum lingua Kam vocari ; That Egypt “ unto this day, in the tongue of the Egyptians, is called “ Kam.” For the beginning and continuance of Cham's reign, the same reasons may suffice to be alleged, which I have already given in proof of the time spent in the fifteen first dynasties : neither is it strange that the reign of Cham should last so long as 161 years, considering that Sem lived 600 ; Arphachshad and Shelah each above 400. But strange it had been, if one Saltis, created by Manetho, had in those long-lived generations reigned there nineteen years, and with Bæon, Apachnas, Apochis, and others of the same brood, obscured the fame and glory of Osiris, Orus, and Sesostris. Reineccius, in Histor. Julia, placeth Mizraim next, otherwise called Osiris, according to Diodorus, who saith he was the son of Hammon: Krentzhemius saith, that Mizraim and Osiris are words of near affinity and sound in the Hebrew tongue. Howsoever it be, we know that Mizraim, the son of Cham, was lord of Egypt, and Reineccius, citing good authority in this case, affirmeth, that Egypt is now called by the naturals in their own language Mezre. Neither do I see cause of doubt whether Osiris were the same with Mizraim. It is more necessary, and hard to shew manifestly, how long Mizraim or Osiris reigned. For whereas the year of his death is nowhere precisely set down, we must be fain to follow probabilities. That he is not vainly said by Annius's Berosus to have begun his reign at the birth of Abraham, when the dynasty of the Thebæi began, it appeareth, first, by the authority of Eusebius, who avoucheth as much; next by Diodorus, who saith, that he inhabited Thebes ; which habitation of Osiris there, that it might be cause of that dynasty, I can well believe; assenting so far to Reineccius, who thinks the dynasties were named only according to the several seats of the kings.

+ Psalm lxxviii. 51. cv. 23. 27. cvi. 22.

u Diod, Sic, l. I.

SECT. V. Of the time when Osiris's reign ended ; and that Jacob came into

Egypt in the time of Orus the son of Osiris. THE death of Osiris, when it was, none can certainly affirm. The only conjecture that I know is made thus. Lehabim the son of Mizraim, called Hercules Libyus, made war in Italy to revenge his father's death on the associates of Typbon, in the 41st year of Baleus king of Assyria; before which year he had made many great wars in Egypt, Phænicia, Phrygia, Crete, Libya, and Spain ; and having ended his Egyptian wars, left the kingdom to Orus. Thus far Berosus, or authors following Berosus. That Orus, last

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