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were giant-like men, as appears by comparing the words Deut. iii. 11. Og ex residuo gigantum, with the words Josh. xii. 12. Og ex reliquiis Raphaæorum ; but if the Karnaim, or Karnaiim, were these Raphæi, the word would not have been in the dual number; neither would Moses in the place of Genesis have said the Raphæi in Asteroth of the Karnaim, but either the Raphæi in Asteroth of the Raphæi, or some other way fittest for perspicuity ; for this naming of both thus in the same clause distinguisheth one from the other.
Not far from Asteroth, Adrichomius out of Brochard and Breidenbachius placeth Cedar in the way out of Syria into Galilee, four miles from Corazin. This city, saith he, is remembered in the Canticles, and in the book of Judith, and there are that of this city understand David in Psalm cxx. and here the sepulchre of Job is yet to be seen, saith Breidenbach.
Now concerning the texts which he citeth, it is so, that the Greek hath Galaad instead of the word Cedar, which the Vulgar doth use in that place of Judith, and joineth Carmel and Galilee. The Canticles, and the 120th Psalm, do rather prove that Kedar was not hereabout, than any way help Adrichomius. For that they speak of Scenitæ Cedareni, it is apparent, and as evident by the place in the Canticles that they were decolores, much more than any under the climates of the land of Canaan; whence Junius out of Lampridius and Pliny placeth them in Arabia Petræa, far from these parts. Touching the sepulchre of Job, it is certain that the Arabians and Saracens (holding those places) feign many things to abuse the Christians, and to get money. Further, it may well be affirmed, that many, if not all the historical circumstances of Job are so obscure, that we should rather by finding his country seek to get some knowledge of him, than by any presumptions founded upon him infer what his country was, and build unto him a city by conjecture.
Of Job himself, whether he were the same Jobab remembered in Genesis xxxvi. descended from Esau, and king also
of Idumea, thoughe Rupertus, Lyranus, Oleaster, and Bellarmine are of another opinion, yet St. Ambrose, Augustine, Chrysostome, and Gregory, with Athanasius, Hippolytus, Irenæus, Eusebius Emissenus, Apollinaris, Eustachius, and others, cited by St. Jerome in his 126th epistle to Evagrius, take him for the same.
The land of Huts, or Hus, wherein Job dwelt, is from the Greek foůs, which the Septuagint use for the word Huts, translated by the Vulgar sometimes Hus, as Job i. 1. sometimes Ausitis, as Jer. xxv. 20. This land is placed by Junius between Palestina and Coelesyria, beside Chamatha, or Hamath, under Palmyrene in the country called by Ptolomy Trachonitis, or Bathanæa, the bounds of which countries are confounded with Basan in this half tribe of Manasseh. And that this land of Hus was thus seated, it may in
gathered out of the place of Jeremiah xxv. 20. where he reckons the Hushites among the promiscuous borderers of the Israelites, whom he therefore calleth promiscuous, or miscellaneam turbam, because their bounds were not only joined, but confounded, and their seigniories mingled one with the other; but of this place the words of Jeremiah, Lam. iv, 21. speaking of the same prophecy, of which he speaketh in the five and twentieth chapter, must needs be expounded ; as Junius reads them, distinguishing the land of Hus from Edom : O filia Edomi, ô quæ habitas in terra Hutzi ; “O “ daughter of Edom, O thou which dwellest in the land of “ Hus.” Now because the Vulgar doth not so distinguish, but readeth, Filia Edom. quæ habitas in terra Hus ; “ Daughter of Edom which dwelleth in the land of Hus :" hence, as it seems, some of the learned have thought that Job was an Edomite, as we have said, and king of Edom; which if they understand by it Idumæa or Edom, so called in Moses's time, they are greatly mistaken, making this land of Hus to be in Idumæa, Deut. iii. 9. For it is
• Rup. Lyran. Oleast. in Gen.Bell. one into the other : whence thy used in Com. lib. 1. de Verb. Dei S. Amb. Ausitis for Ousitis, &c. Hence also sup. Ep. ad Rom. Aug. de Civit. Dei, by Junius and others it is called Au1. 18. c. 4. Chrys. Hom. 2. De pa- sanitis, and so as it seems they read tientia Job. Greg. Com. in Job. it in the Septuagint. Jun. in Gen. x.
f For ov and au are often changed 23.
very probable that Esau, when he first parted from Jacob, did not seat himself in Edom, or Seir, which lieth on the south border of Judæa, but inhabited Seir far to the east of Jordan, and held a part of those mountains otherwise called Galaad and Hermon, which by corruption the Sidonians call Shirion, and the Amorites Shenir for Seir, and from this his habitation did Esau encounter Jacob, when he returned out of Mesopotamia, who passed by the very border of Esau's abiding. It is true, that at such time as Moses wandered in the deserts, that the posterity of Esau inhabited Seir to the south of Judæa. For it is like that the Amorites, who had beaten both Ammon and Moab, did also drive the Edomites out of those parts, who thenceforward seated themselves to the south of Judæa, bordering the desert Paran, and stretched their habitations over the desert as far as Hor, where Aaron died.
Now for this Hus, which gave the name to a part of the land of Trachonitis, whether it were Hus the son of Aram, as Junius thinks in his note upon Gen. x. 23. or rather Hus the son of Nachor, Abraham's brother, the question is doubtful. For my part I rather incline to think that it was Hus the son of Nachor; partly because these families of Aram seem long before to have been lost, and partly because in Job xxxii. 2. Elihu, the fourth of Job's friends, which seems to be of Job's own country, is called a 8 Buzite, of Buz, the brother of Hus, the son of Nachor; as also Jer. xxv. in the same continuation (though some other nations named between) where Hus is spoken of, there Buz is also named.
Neither doth it hinder our conjecture, that in the place of Job xxxii. Elihu the Buzite is said to be of the family of Ram; (which Junius expounds to be as much as of the family of Aram ;) for that by this Aram we are not to understand Aram the son of Sem, Junius himself maketh it plain, buth in his annotation upon the beginning of his book, where he saith that one of Job's friends (which must needs be this
& Whence the Septuagint call him ex regione Ausitide.
Elihu) was of the posterity of Nachor, (as also in this place he confesseth so much expressly,) and inasmuch as he readeth not, e familia Aram, or Ram, but e familia Syra ; like as elsewhere Laban who sprung of Nachor is called a Syrian.
As for the h other three of Job's friends, (of whom by this note of Elihu's being of the Syrian family, or the family of Nachor,) it is implied that they were of other kindreds; as also by the Septuagint's addition, that this Elihu was of the land of Hus, or Ausitis, it is implied that they thought only Elihu to have been of Job's own country.
Franciscus Brochard the monk, in his description of the Holy Land in the journey from Acon eastward, findeth Suetha, and Theman on the east of the sea of Galilee, both very near to the land of Hus; whereof the one may seem to have denominated Bildad the Shuchite, the other Eliphaz the Themanite; two of the three friends of Job, of the which Job i. 11. But Junius thinks that the Shuchites were inhabitants of Arabia the Desert, descended of Shuach the son of Abraham and Ketura ; of whom Genesis xxv. 2. perhaps, saith he, the same whom Pliny calls Saccæi. So also he thinketh the Themanites, of whom Eliphaz was, to have been of Arabia the Desert ; and Eliphaz himself to have been of the posterity of Theman the son of Eliphaz, which was the son of Esau. And so also Nahamah, whence Tsophar, the third of Job's friends, (which in this place of Job ii. 11. are mentioned,) is by the same learned expositor thought either to be named of Thimnah, by transposition of letters, (which Thimnah, Gen. xxxvi. 40. is named among the sons of Esau that gave denomination to the places where they were seated, or else to be the same Nahamah which, Josh.xv. 41. is reckoned for a city of Juda, in the border, as he thinks, of Edom. And yet I deny not, but that near to the land of Hus in Basan, as it seems, in the tribe of Manasses, there is a region which at least in latter times was called Suitis, or of some like name. For this is evident by the history of i Gulielmus Tyrius, which reports of a fort in this region of Suita, or Suites, (as he calls it diversely,) of exceeding great strength and use for the retaining of the whole country: which in the time of Baldwine, the second king of Jerusalem, was with great digging through rocks recovered by the Christians; having not long before been lost, to the great disadvantage of the country, while it was in the hands of the Saracens. The situation of this fort is by Tyrius described to be sixteen miles from the city Tiberias, on the east of Jordan, by Adrichomius, four miles northward from the place where Jordan enters the lake Tiberias at Corazim.
i De Bell. Sacr. 1. 22. C. 15. et 21. RALEGH, HIST. WORLD. VOL. II.
h See Sixtus Senensis.
Other cities of this part of Manasses named in the scripture are these; Golan, Beheshthera, Mitspah of Gilead, and Kenath, which after the coming of the Israelites was called Nobach. Of Nobach, or Kenath, and Mitspah of k Gilehad, we have spoken by occasion among the cities of Gad; the two other were given to the Levites, and Golan made one of the cities of refuge; from which Golan we have both Gaulanitis Superior and Inferior, oft in Josephus. Beheshthera is accounted the chief city of Basan by some, but the writers corrupting the name into Bozra, it is confounded with Betser, or Bozra of Reuben, and with Bọzra of Edom. Argob is oft named for a region in this tract, and hence Jerome hath Arga, a name of a city placed by some about the waters of Merom, (as they are called by Joshua,) which make the lake Samachonitis, as Josephus calls it. This lake being as it were in the midst between Cæsarea Philippi and Tiberias, through which, as through the lake of Tiberias, Jordan runneth, boundeth part of this half tribe on the west. When the snow of Libanus melteth, it is very large, saith Brochard; otherwise more contract, leaving the marish, ground on both sides for lions and other wild beasts, which harbour in the shrubs that plentifully grow there.
Adjoining to this lake, in this country of Manasses, Josephus names two places of strength fortified by himself in the beginning of the Jews' rebellion ; Seleucia the one, and Sogane the other. In the north side of this half tribe of Manasseh, and in the north-east, the scripture nameth divers
k Josh. xxi. 27. Deut. iv. 43.