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books, or pages. Of which there were numbered, of fiery spirits 100 books, of aerial spirits as many, and of spirits celestial a thousand; which because they were out of the Egyptian language converted by certain learned philosophers into the natural Greek, they seemed to have been first written in that tongue. c Clemens Alexandrinus writeth, that among the books of Hermes, to wit, of the wisdom of the Egyptians, there were extant in his time thirty-six, of physic six books, of the orders of priests ten, and of astrology four.

SECT. VIII. A brief of the history of Joshua, and of the space between him and

Othoniel, and of the remainders of the Canaanites, with a note of some contemporaries to Joshua, and of the breach of faith.

AFTER the death of Moses, and in the one and fortieth year of the egression, in the first month called Nisan, or March, Joshua the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, being filled with the spirit of wisdom, took on him the government of Israel ; God giving him comfort, and encouraging him to pass the river of Jordan, and to possess and divide among the Israelites the land promised.

The beginning of Joshua's ruled St. Augustine dates with the reign of Amyntas, the eighteenth king in Assyria; with Corax the sixteenth king in Sicyonia, when Danaus governed the Argives, and Ericthonius Athens.

e Joshua, imitating in all things his predecessor, sent over Jordan certain discoverers to view the seat and strength of Jericho, the next city unto him on the other side of the river, which he was to pass over. Which discoverers being saved, and sent back by Rahab, a woman of ill fame, because she kept a tavern or victualling house, made Joshua know, that the inhabitants of Jericho, and those of the country about it, hearing of the approach of f Israel, had lost courage. Whereupon, the day after the return of the spies, which was the sixth day of the one and fortieth

c Clem. Strom. 1.6.
d Lib. 18. de Civit. Dei, c. II.

e Josh. ii. 1.
i Josh. ii. 11.

year after the egression, Joshua removed from 8 Shittim in the plains of Moab, and drew down his army to the banks of the river Jordan, and gave them commandment to put themselves in order h to follow the ark of God, when the Levites took it up, and moved towards the river; giving them withal this forcible encouragement, that they should thereby assure themselves of his favour and presence, who is Lord of all the world, when the river of iJordan should be cut off and divided, and the waters coming from above should stand still in a heap; whereby those below towards the Dead sea wanting supply, they might pass over into the land of Canaan with dry feet.

He also commanded k Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, to prepare themselves (according to their covenant made with Moses) to march in the head of the rest, and (as we call it in this age) to lead in the vanguard, which through all the deserts of Arabia, from the mount Sinai to this place, those of the tribe of Judah had performed. For these tribes being already provided of their habitations, and the country and cities of the Amorites, by the help of the rest, conquered for them; it agreed with justice and equality, that Reuben, Gad, and the half of Manasseh should also assist their brethren in the obtaining of their parts, as yet in their enemies possession.

On the banks of Jordan they rested themselves from the sixth day to the ninth ; and on the tenth day of the first month Nisan, or March, they passed over to the other side, taking with them twelve stones from the dry ground in the midst of the river; which, for a memory of that miracle by God wrought, they set up at Gilgal, on the east side of the city of Jericho, where they encamped the first night. At which place 1 Joshua gave commandment, that all born in the last fortieth year in the deserts m should be circumcised; which ceremony to that day had been omitted. Of the neglect whereof n St. Augustine giveth for cause, the people's

I Josh. iv. 19
m Josh. v. 2.

* Josh. iii. I. h Josh. iii. 3. i Josh. iii. 13. k Josh. i. 12.


Aug. q. 3. in Josh.

contempt of their superiors; Thomas excuseth it in this sort; that the Israelites knew not the certain time of their removing from one place to another; Damascen, that it was not needful by circumcision to distinguish them from other nations, at such time as they lived by themselves and apart from all nations.

On the fourteenth day of the same month, the children of Israel celebrated the passover now the third time; first, at their leaving Egypt; secondly, at mount Sinai ; and now at P Gilgal. After which, being desirous to taste of the fruits of the country, and having, as it were, surfeited on manna, they parched of the corn of the land, being not yet fully ripe, and eat thereof.

And as Moses began to distribute those regions beyond Jordan, to wit, the lands of the Amorites, which Og of Basan and Sihon held, so did Joshua perform the rest ; and after a view and partition made of the territories, he gave to each tribe his portion by lot. But this partition and distribution was not done at once, but at three several times ; first, by 9 Moses to Gad, Reuben, and the half tribe of Manasseh, of the lands over Jordan ; secondly, by Joshua to the tribe of Judah, Ephraim, and the other half tribe of Manasseh, about the fifth year of his government, proved in Joshua xiv. 10. and a third division was made to the other seven tribes at Shilo, where "Joshua seated the tabernacle of the congregation.

The victories of Joshua against the kings of the Canaanites are so particularly set down in his own books, as I shall not need to lengthen this part by their repetition. In whose story I chiefly note these particulars.

First, How in the beginning of the war those little kings, or reguli of the Canaanites, had not so much understanding as to unite themselves together against the Israelites; but according to the custom of those estates, from whose go vernors God hath taken away all wisdom and foresight, they

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left those of their own nation, which were next the invaders, to themselves, and to their own defences; hoping that the fire kindled somewhat far off, might again have been quenched, ere it could spread itself so far as their own territories and cities. But after such time as Jericho and Ai were entered, and the kings, people, and cities consumed, five of those thirty-one kings (all which at length perished in that war) joined themselves together, first attempting the Gibeonites, who had rendered themselves to Joshua. Only five, (the rest looking on to see the success,) namely the king of the Jebusites, in Jebus, or Jerusalem, the kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachis, and Eglon, addressed themselves for resistance; whose army being by Joshua surprised and broken, themselves despairing to scape by flight, and hopeless of mercy by submission, creeping into a cave under ground, were thence by Joshua drawn forth and hanged. In the prosecution of which victory he also took s Makkedah, and Libnah, and Lachis. To the relief whereof Horam king of Gezar hastened, and perished. After which Joshua possessed himself of Eglon, Hebron, and Debir, destroying these cities with their princes.

In the end, and when the south countries were possessed, the cities thereof conquered, and their kings and people made dust; the rest of the Canaanites, guided by the overlate counsels of necessity, united themselves to make one gross strength and body of an army; which Jabin king of Hazor practised and gathered together, being at that time of all the Canaanite kings the most powerful; which army being by Joshua discovered, as the same rested near the lake of Merom, he used such diligence, as he came on them unawares; and obtaining an absolute victory over them, he prosecuted the same to the uttermost effect. And, besides the slaughter of the defendants, he entered their cities, of which he burnt Hazor only, reserving the rest for Israel to inhabit and enjoy.

Secondly, I note, that Joshua shewed himself a skilful man of war, for that in those ancient times he used the stratagem of an ambush in taking of Ai; and in that he broke the armies of the first five kings of the Amorites, which attempted Gibeon, by surprise ; for he marched all night from his camp at u Gilgal, and set on them early the next day, when they suspected no enemy at hand; as he did also at Merom, when he overthrew Jabin and his confederates. After which, making the best profit of his victory, he assaulted the great city of Hazor.

· Josh. x.

i Ibid.

Thirdly, The miracles which God wrought during this war were exceeding admirable; as, the stay of the river of Jordan at the springs, so as the army of Israel passed it with a dry foot; the fall of Jericho by the sound of the horns; the showers of y hailstones which fell upon the Amorites in their flight from Gibeon, whereby more of them perished than by the sword of Israel. Again, the arrest of the sun in the firmament, whereby the day was so much the more lengthened, as the Israelites had time to execute all those which fled after the overthrow; a wonder of wonders, and a work only proper to the all-powerful God.

Fourthly, Out of the passage between Joshua and the Gibeonites, the doctrine of keeping faith is so plainly and excellently taught, as it taketh away all evasion, it admitteth no distinction, nor leaveth open any hole or outlet at all to that cunning perfidiousness, and horrible deceit of this latter age, called equivocation. For, notwithstanding that these Gibeonites were a people of the 2 Hevites, expressly and by name, by the commandment of God, to be rooted out, and notwithstanding that they were liars, and deceivers, and counterfeits, and that they did overreach, and, as it were, deride Joshua and the princes of Israel, by feigning to be sent as ambassadors from a far country, in which travel their clothes were worn, their bread mouldy, which they avowed to have been warm for newness when they first set out; their barrels and bottles of wine broken, their shoes patched, and their sacks rent and ragged: yet * Josh. iii. 13.

2 Josh. ix. 7. RALEGH, HIST. WORLD. VOL. II.

u Josh. x.9.

y Josh. X. II.


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