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mutations have taken place in every country, where the conquerors have been numerous enough to effect it: the Saxon language was at the same period suffering from the Norman conquest, what the Sanferit did from the Ghiznian. Mahomed Gori also carried his arms to the south of the river Jumna, and took the fortress of Gwalior ; which then gave name to a kingdom, that has since composed nearly the soubah of Agra : he also reduced the eastern part

of Agimere. The death of this Emperor, in 1205, occasioned a new division of the Ghiznian empire, the Persiari part remaining to Eldoze, and the Indian part to Cuttub, who founded the Patan or Afghan dynasty in Hindooftan.

The Afghans originally inhabited the mountainous tract lying between India and Persia, or the ancient Paropamisus. Before the elevation of Cuttub, to the throne, he had carried his arms, under Mahomed Gori, into Agimere and Guzerat. Lahore was his capital, originally: but the necessity of fixing the imperial residence, nearer to the centre of the new conquests, occasioned him to remove to Delhi. It may

be observed of the capitals of states, in general, that such as are neither emporiums of trade, nor meant as citadels in the last resort, are (as it were) attracted towards the quarter, from whence hostility is either intended, or expected.

The Emperor Altumsh, who succeeded to the Patan throne, in 1210, completed the conquest of the greatest part of Hindoostan proper. - He appears to be the first Mahomedan that made a conquest of - Bengal; the government of which was from this time bestowed on one of the reigning Emperor's fons. It was during this reign (1221) that Gengiz Cawn, among his extensive conquests (perhaps the most so, of any conqueror in history) accomplished that of the empire of Ghizni; putting an end to the dynasty of Charasm, which then occupied that throne : and driving before him, the unfortunate Gelali, son of the reigning Emperor ; who swam the Indus to avoid his fury. Gengiz, however, left Hindoostan undifturbed.

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About A. D. 1242, the Moguls, or Munguls, successors of Gengiz, who possessed, or rather over-run, the countries on the north-west of Hindooftan, made several irruptions into it: and Turmechirin Khan, is reported by Sherefeddin (the historian of Timur) to have carried his arms into the Dooab; but without making any establishment. Ferifhta takes no notice of the progress of this desultory conqueror, but only describes the inroads of the Moguls into the Panjab; which now frequently happened : although it was not till more than 150 years afterwards, that, under Timur, or Tamerlane, they penetrated to the centre of india. Ferishta describes also an irruption of Moguls into Bengal, by way of Chitta and Thibet, in 1244.

I have before observed, that the provinces of Hindoostan were held rather as tributary kingdoms, than as provinces of the same empire: and that they feldom failed to revolt, when a favourable opportunity offered. In 1265, Malwa regained its entire independance from the crown of Delhi; having gradually fhaken off the yoke, laid on it by Cuttub, in 1205 : and the Rajpoots were on every occasion, notwithstanding their comparative vicinity. to the capital, afferting their independency likewise. Of the state of the internal government of Hindoostan, a judgment may be formed, by the punishment inflicted on the Mewatti, or the Banditti tribe, which inhabit the hilly tract, within 30 miles of Delhi. In 1265, 100,000 of these wretches, were put to the fword; and a line of forts was constructed, along the foot of their hills. : Rebellions, massacres, and barbarous conquests, make up.

the history of this fair country, which to an ordinary observer, seems deftined to be the paradise of the world: the immediate effect of the mad; ambition of conquering more than can be governed by one iman :) the whole empire being portioned out to rapacious Governors, who domineering over the governed, until their spirits were sufficiently. debased; were at last able to persuade them, that their common interest lay in taking up arms, to render these Governors indepen

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dant: and indeed, had it brought them nearer to the point of having a regular, permanent, government, this might be true: but, in fact, it only subjected them to a new conqueror ; or to the punishment of rebellion from the former one. It would appear as if the warm climates, and more especially the open countries, situated within them, were destined to be the seats of despotism : for that the climate creating few wants, and the soil being productive without any great exertion; the inhabitants of it do not possess those energies, that in a cooler climate prompt mankind to investigate their natural rights, and to affert them. This, however, is a point that I shall not venture to decide on; although I believe it is a fact not to be disputed, that throughout the known parts of the world, despotism prevails most in the warm climates. The Patan, Mogul, and Tartarian conquerors, in Hindooftan and China, however hardy at first, have in a course of ages, funk into the fame state of effeininacy with their subjects: and, in their turn, have, with them, received a new master. Let those who are in the habit of complaining of the severity of northern climates, reflect, that whatever physical evils it may produce, it matures the great qualities of the mind; and renders its inhabitants pre-eminent among their species : while a flowery poet, or a more flowery historian, is the most emi. nent production of the tropical regions.

While the Kings of Delhi were profecuting their conquefts in the eaft and south of Hindooftan, the provinces on the west of the Indus, were, of course, neglected ; although not avowedly relinquished.. It might have been expected, that fo excellent a barrier as the upper part of the Indus, and the deserts beyond Agimere, would have induced an Emperor of Hindoostan, to give up, of choice, all the provinces that lay on the weft of this frontier : and the neglect of so prudent a conduct, occasioned the peace of the empire to be often disturbed ; and ended in their being forcibly taken away at last, by the Moguls: who, not contented with their new acquisitions on the west of the Indus, crossed that river and

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invaded the Panjab : and so formidable did they appear to Ferose II. that some tribes of them were permitted to settle in that country (A. D. 1292.) The reader will not forget the similar conduct of the Roman Emperor Valens, with respect to the Goths, who were permitted to cross the Danube, and settle in Thrace : and the fimilitude is the more striking, in that the Hindoostar empire was afterwards conquered by the assistance of the descendants of those Moguls. This Ferose II. was of the tribe of Chilligi or Killigi (from Killige, near the mountains of Gaur) but is, nevertheless, included in the Patan dynasty: the name Patan, or Pitan, being applied rather in a loose manner, to all the tribes bordering on the common frontiers of India, Persia, and the province of Balk: that is, the ancient province of Paropamisus. In

1293 this Einperor gave into the scheme of attacking the DECCAN; which, at this period, must be understood to mean the country lying generally to the south of the Nerbudda and Mahanada (or Cattack) rivers: a tract nearly equal in extent to what he already possessed in Hindoostan; and which extended from the Thores of the Indus, to the mouth of the Ganges; and from the northern mountains, to Cattack, Sirong, and Agimere: the greatest part

of Malwa, with Guzerat, and Sindi, being then independant.. The riches of the King of Deogire (now Dowlatabad) one of the principalities or states of the Deccan, gave birth to this project; and the projector was Alla, Governor of Gurrah, which nearly bordered on the devoted country. The covetousness of the Emperor made him embrace a proposal, which eventually involved in it, his own ruin ; for Alla afterwards deposed him, by means of that very plunder.

Alla's first expedition was attended with the capture of Deogire (or Deogur) and with it, an incredible quantity of treasure and jewels : with which, having increased his army, he depoted and murdered the Emperor. We cannot help acknowledging the juftice of this punishment; when we recollect the motives, on which h

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the expedition to the Deccan, was undertaken : and that moreover, the Emperor had been bribed by Alla, with part of the plunder, taken in a former predatory expedition to Billah.

When Alla (who was the first of the name) had possession of the throne, in 1295, he began his plan of conquest, by the reduction of Guzerat ; which, while it continued independant, was, by its local situation, a Itrong obstacle to his designs on the Deccan. Next, he reduced Rantampour, and Cheitore, two of the strongest holds of the Rajpoots, in Agimere. This was the first time that Cheitore had fallen to the Mahomedans. In 1303, he also reduced Warangole, the capital of Tellingana, another principality of the Deccan ; and comprehending nearly the present country of Golconda. This, as well as Cheitore, was a city and fortress of vast extent, and population. But in the midst of these conquests, and probably the effect of them, the watchful and restless Moguls, from the opposite quarter, penetrated even to Delhi; and plundered the fuburbs of it.

In the following year, the remainder of Malwa, was conquered : and in 1306, the conquest of the Deccan was resumed, under Cafoor, the General of Alla ; who proceeded to the Deogur country, by the route of Baglana, which he reduced in his which Ferishta * calls the country of the Mahrattas. Cafoor not only carried his arms into Deogur (Dowlatabad) and from thence into Tellingana, but into the Carnatic likewise, in 1310. By the Carnatic, is here meant the peninsula in general, lying on the south of the Kistna river. It is not known, how far 'he penetrated, southward, but he was directed by Alla, to reduce Maber, 'which we understand to comprehend the southern part of the peninsula. His expedition appears to be rather predatory, than otherwise ; agreeable to the genius of his master, Alla.". The quantity of treasure

way; and

• It is to be regretted that Col. Dow, did not give a literal translation of 'Ferifhta, as a text; and add his own matter, or explanations, in the form of notes. We fhould then have been able to distinguifh the one from the other. 2,5

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