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of it, is obviously, the nature of the country, between it and Delhi; for it is a vast plain, situated at the mouth of a pass; for such the country immediately on the west of Delhi may be considered to be, Thut up by the mountainous and close country of Mewat and Agimere, on the one hand, and by the Jumna river on the other : and whether
, Delhi, Agra, or Canoge, was the capital, this was the road to it from Tartary and Persia, the original countries of the conquerors of Hindooftan.
of Hindooftan. The course of the Jumna, above Delhi, is determined in the map by the direction of the road to Sirhind ; Kungipara, near that river, being placed in reference to Carnawl; from whence the river bends (according to the MS, maps) towards the N E to Sehauranpour and Nen. Mr. Forster, who .crossed it in his way from Loldong to Jummoo, estimated the diftance between the Ganges and Jumna at about 40 cosses, in a northwesterly direction. The place of the source of the Jumpa, we are ignorant of; but it would appear to be remote, even from the place where he crossed it within the mountains; for he found it a large river,
The upper part of the Doab *, or tract of land between the Ganges and Jumna rivers, has its geography from several MS. maps ; and a few of the positions are from Sherefeddin's history of Tamerlane, translated by M. de la Croix.
Between Carnawl and Sirbind, are found in these MS. maps, three streams or rivers, crossing the great road. Two of them are the Caggar (or Kenker) and the Sursooty (or Sereswatty) and the third has no name in the maps. The first is taken notice of in the Ayin Acbaree, as one of the lesser streams in the soubah of Delhi, and as passing on the west of Tannasar, a celebrated place of Hindoo worship. The second pafles between Umballa and Sirhind; and the third between the two others. It is probable, from circumstances, that there may be others, although deemed too insignificant
* See an explanation of the term Dooab, in the Introduction.
to merit notice. All thefe streams run to the south, or fouth-west; and probably mix either with the Indus, or Puddar: though I formerly supposed them to run to the SE into the Jumna. I had also, with M. D'Anville, supposed the Caggar to be the Hefudrus of Pliny, situated half way between the Hypbafis and Jomanes: but having now discovered the Beyah to be the river meant by the ancient Hyphasis, there can be no difficulty in pronouncing the Setlege or Suttuluz, to be the Hesudrus, as it answers in point of proportional distance.
I cannot find what river is meant by the Jidger, often mentioned by Ferithta, unless it be a branch of the Caggar; which river, as
, well as the Sursooty, has its source in the Sewalic mountains, be tween Delhi and Sirhind ; taking its course by Semanah and Sun
The Sursooty, we learn by the MS. maps, after passing by Tannasar, Sursa or Sursutti, &c. joins the Caggar.
Near to Tannasar and the lake Koorkhet, places of Hindoo worship, is the fite of the ancient city of Hustnapour, and of the war of the MAHABARUT (an episode of which has been lately translated from the original Sanscrit, by Mr. Wilkins) so that this ground, which is not far from Carnawl and Panniput, has been the scene of war in all ages; poetically, as well as historically. The countries between Delhi, and the Panjab, being fcantily supplied with water, the Emperor Ferose III. undertook the noble as well as useful talk of supplying it better, and at the faine time meant to apply the water fo furnished to the purposes of navigation. Dow, (Vol. ist. p. 327) translates Ferishta thus : “ In the year 1355, Ferose “ marched to Debalpour, where he made a canal 100 miles in
length, from the Suttuluz to the Jidger. In the following year, “ between the hills of Mendouli and Sirmore, he cut a channel from “ the Jumna, which he divided into seven streams; one of which “ he brought to Hafli, and from thence to Beraifen, where he built “ a strong castle, calling it by his own name. He drew soon after, a canal from the Caggar, passing by the walls of Sirsutti, and
joined joined it to the river of Kera; upon which he built a city, named “ after him, Feroseabad. This city he watered with another canal * from the Jumna. These public works were of prodigious advantage “ to the adjacent countries, by supplying them with water for their “ lands, and with a commodious water-carriage from place to place.” We learn also from the Ayin Acbaree, (Vol. II. p. 107 English translation) that Ferose founded the city of Hissar, (called also HissarFeroozeh) and dug a canal from the Jumna to it. And we find, moreover, that the canal from the Jumna at Kungiparah, to Delhi, was the work of Ferose : and is probably one of the seven channels mentioned by Ferishta. I apprehend then, that Hissar, or Hiffar-Feroozeh, of the Ayin Acbaree, is the same with the Ferofabad of Ferishta. But possibly, Ferose might only embellish and increase the fortifications of Hiffar, and then give his name to it; a practice very common in Hindoostan, to the utter confusion of historic records, and no less injustice to the original founders. The town of Sursutti, by the authority of the MS. maps and other circumstances, I place on the river of that name between Tannasar and Kythil (or Kuteil); and Hafli or Hansi, on the west or S W of Kythil. Hissar, or Ferosenbad, will occupy a place still further to the SW; and in this position, will be about 75 coffes from Delhi, in a west, or west-northwardly direction; and about 100 miles from the Setlege or Suttuluz, at the nearest part of Debalpour, from whence the canal was said to be drawn. The rivulet of Kerah, I cannot trace, any more than the Jidger : but I think it will appear as clear to the reader, as to myself, when the text, and the different positions in the map, are considered, that these different canals had for their immediate object, the junction of the Setlege and Jumna rivers ; and remotely, that of the Indus and Ganges ; although they do not allow us to comprehend the whole scope of Ferose's plan of inland navigation. By a slight inspection of the will
appear that this project would, if the ground adınitted of its being successfully put into execution, be one of the greatest under
takings of the kind that ever was projected; that of cutting through the isthmus of Suez, only excepted. We should then have seen two capital rivers, which traverse a large part of the continent of Asia; which enter the sea at 1500 B. miles asunder; and which stretch out their arms as it were, to meet each other ; united by art, so as to form an uninterrupted inland navigation from Cabul to Assam! I take it for granted that this canal was never completed, otherwise we should have heard more of it, as we have of the canals leading from the Jumna. The distance between the navigable parts of the Jumna and Setlege, is not 120 B. miles, direct.
Again, (in page 329 of Dow's ist volume) it is said that Ferofe turned the course of a large rivulet which fell into the Setlege, from Hirdar in the province of Sirhind, into the Selima, a smaller rivulet that ran fouthwards towards Sunnam (a place 14. G. miles S W of Semanah). Improvements of this kind, occur fo feldom in the history of Hindoostan, where barbarous conquelts and massacres, are the principal subject, that they are dwelt on with pleasure, whenever they appear : and we have only to regret on the present occasion, that the description of them is so obscure.
Semanah (or Sammanah) has its distance given from Panniput, at 52 cosses, in Sherefeddin; but its distance from Sirhind is inferred from the line of Tamerlane's march from Batnir to Panniput. I had placed it 43; G. miles in a S by E ; E direction from Sirhind: and find it in Col. Murray's map nearly the same distance (44 miles) but on a S by W bearing. It is included in the circar of Sirhind : and the circar of Hiffar, lies immediately to the south of it. On the west and S W of Hiffar and Semanah, our knowledge, both geographical and political, is very much confined. Timur's (or Tamerlane's) route from Batnir, the course of the Caggar river, and the road from Agimere to Jeffelmere, is all that we have towards filling up so large a void. The first is from Sherefeddin; the others from Mr. Hastings's, and Col. Popham's MS. maps.
The common boundaries of Agimere, Delhi, and Moultan, we have no means of ascertaining: nor is the Ayin Acbaree particular enough on this subject, to lend any aslistance towards it.
Mewat, or the hilly tract lying on the west of the Jumna, between the parallels of Agra and Delhi, as well as the northern and eastern parts of Agimere, which are mountainous also, have their geography much improved by the MS. maps communicated by Mr. Hastings, and Col. Popham. There is little to be faid on the subject of the construction of these parts. Agimere, which is the primary point that determines the parallel and scale of the western parts, will be discussed in the next section, to which it properly belongs : the positions on the north and east of it, are taken chiefly from the MSS. just mentioned.
Jaepour or Jaynagur, the capital of one of the Rajpoot Princes in the eastern quarter of Agimere, has its longitude given by Claud Boudier, at 76° g', or 2° 19' west from the city of Agra. All the MS. maps that I have consulted, place it very differently : and, I find, I cannot allow a greater difference than 1° 55', without rejecting the scales of all the MS. maps; which, as they are formed from the difference of latitude, would be absurd. Perhaps the numbers in Claud Boudier's table, are not right: M. D'Anville has them at 76° 5' in the Eclaircissemens, which is still wider from probability.
It appears by M. D'Anville, that the Rajah of Jaepour (by name Jessing) had erected two observatories, one in his newly built capital of Jaepour (which is about a league from Umbeer or Ambeer, the ancient capital) the other in one of the suburbs of Delhi. Father Claud Boudier, at the Rajah's request visited the former of these observatories about the year 1732: and I think it probable that we are indebted to the Rajah's assistance for some others of the observations made by Claud Boudier ; particularly those at Agra and Delhi. The latitude of Jaepour is 26° 56'; and M. D'Anville L 2