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Debly. Although a more extensive and populous city than Agra, it was not so well built. 'Shah Jehan, grandson of Acbar and father of Aurengzebe, made this city his residence, and directed it to be called Shahjehanabad; and by this kind of vanity, it happens, that most of the Indian cities have a plurality of names : which occasions great confusion, when it becomes necessary to trace any event to a high period of antiquity.
Delhi, which is now situated on the right, or western bank of the Jumna, anciently stood on the opposite bank. Itis difficult to ascertain the true measure of extent of this city, which was said to contain, during the latter part of the last century, two millions of inhabitants. It is certain, that the account given by Bernier, who had good opportunities of being informed, and who deserves the greatest credit „fur veracity, does not justify so high a calculation of its inhabitants. His account was indeed written in 1663, only four years after the accession of Aurengzebe : and it is well known that under his reign, both the empire and capital were greatly augmented, : Bernier, I say; estimated the circumference of Delhi, at three leagues, only, reckoning what was within the fortifications ;- besides which, he describes several suburbs, but altogether, no. extraordinary extent for a capital city in India. He describes Agra as being considerably larger. After the plunders and massacres that it has been subject to, since the decline and downfall of the Mogul empire, we may expect it to be reduced very low: and accordingly, it is spoken of by late travellers as a city of moderate extent; and even for an Indian city, very ill built:
Claud Boudier found the latitude of Delhi. to be 28° 37'; and its longitude 77° 40'. A MS. map communicated by Mr. Hastings, and which includes fome principal roads in the Dooab, between Furruckabad, Matura, Anopesheer, and Delhi; gives 51 G. miles of westing from Anopesheer, the nearest point in the survey to Delhi ; and 16 of northing: and this agrees perfectly with the observation of longitude, and comes within one minute of the latitude. Delhi is also 40 computed cosses from Ramgaut, another
point in the survey; but this would place it 4 miles further to the east than the observation. It is placed according to the observation, and the distance from Anoperheer. Beyond Delhi, westwards, there are no points determined mathematically, by which the length and direction of the route can be ascertained ; except the computed distances between places; and some latitudes and longitudes, taken with little precision, if we may judge by a comparison of some of the observations from the same catalogue, with those taken by Eupeans.
For instance, the latitude of Jionpour and Burhanpour are from 21 to 25 miles too far north, in the Ayin Acbaree; Oude, 35 too far north; and Delhi, 22 too far fouth. We have therefore little reason to suppose that any of the others are much nearer the truth; nor is there any rule to guess on which fide the error lies. The longitudes are still more vague ; as for instance :
Here the medium of the difference is io minutes too little, in each degree.
In these places, although the longitudes in the map are not determined with precision, we may still perceive that the Ayin Acbaree. is not exact. From such kind of materials, nothing very accurate can be expected : and therefore I have never had recourse to them but in a very few cases, where every other species of information, has failed.
The construction of the geography of the tract spoken of in this section, turns chiefly on eight primary stations, or points ; and which will be discussed in order : they are, Lahore, Sirhind, Moultan, Attock, Toulomba, Batnir, Jummoo, and Bullaufpour.
The first point beyond Delhi that I have any kind of data for fixing the position of, is Lahore, a capital city in the Panjab *, and formerly a royal residence. I have several itineraries and memorandums of the road between the two places ; but fome are defective through omiflions, and others too obscure to be understood or followed. Tavernier, for instance, omits a whole stage of 15 coffes, between Furridabad and Sultanpour ; which added to his original number 191, make 206 coffes. John Steel in his itinerary (1614) reckons only 189: but though I cannot trace any omissions in it, the account is confused and obscure; and therefore I have given it up. A
inap of the Panjab, obligingly communicated by Colonel John Murray, Commissary General to the army in Bengal, gives the distance at 205 cosses, or 293 G. miles. .
Tavernier's account corrected
The medium of which is 203'; or, at 42 cofles to a degree, 291 G. miles. I have allowed 290, and taken its latitude at 31°; so that its longitude will be 72° 47', or 4° 53' west of Delhi. The Ayin Acbaree makes the longitude 5° 16', or 23' more. Its latitude is variously represented: by the Ayin Acbaree 31° 50'; by Thevenot, the same ; in an Indian table 31°; by a MS. itinerary + (dated 1662) 30° 30'; and by Col. Murray’s map 31° 15'.
Panjab, or the country of the five rivers, is a natural divifion of the country contained between the 5 eastern branches of the Indus.
+ This itinerary was obligingly communicated by the late Mr. George Perry, and appears to have been kept by a missionary who travelled from Delhi to Persia, by way of the Panjab and Sindy. It should be observed, that all the latitudes in it are too far south. The latitude of Agra is set down at 26° 45', though its true latitude is 27° 15' And Moultan in 29° 32', and Tatta in 24° 20'; which places are commonly taken at 29° 52', and 24° 40'.
Lahore is a very important point in this construction, as it regulates the positions of all the places between Delhi and the Indus; and therefore we have reason to regret that we have no better authority for fixing it.
Lahore is a place of high antiquity, and was the residence of the first Mahomedan conquerors of Hindoostan, before they had established themselves in the central parts of the country. It owed its modern improvements, however, to Humaioon, the father of Acbar, who made it his residence during a part of his troublesome reign. Thevenot says that, including the suburbs, it was 3 leagues in length at that period : and, when he saw it, about the year 1665, the city itself was above a league in extent. Jehanguire, son of Acbar, allowed the Portuguese to build a church there; and fome of its furniture remained at the time of Thevenot's visit.
The Rauvee (the ancient Hydraotes) on which it is situated, is a noble river ; and by its navigable course, has a communication with the Indus, and all its branches. The province, of which Lahore is the capital, is oftner named Panjab, than Lahore : however, Panjab being applied to a natural division of country, is applicable also, to part of Moultan. It is
It is very extensive, and remarkably fertile ; affording, in addition to all the necessaries of life, wine, sugars, and cotton wool; the last of which supplied the manufactories of the province. There are also in the tract between the Indus and Chelum, (or Behut) falt mines, wonderfully productive ; and affording fragments of rock salt, hard enough to be formed into vefsels, &c. Gold (according to the Ayin Acbaree) was found in the channels of its rivers; and the same is related of those of Kemaoon, which proceed from the fame ridge of mountains. Ice is brought from the northern mountains, to Lahore, and sold there all the year. The famous avenue of shady trees, so much fpoken of, by the early. Indian travellers, began at Lahore, and extended to Agra, near 500 English miles. Lahore is now the capital of the Seiks, a new power, whose name, even as a sect, was hardly known, until the rapid decline of the Mogul's empire, in the present century.
Sirhind is a city of great antiquity, and lies about midway between Delhi and Lahore. Tavernier reckons it 105 coffes from Delhi ; and Steel, 99. I have placed it in its proportion of the whole distance between Delhi and Lahore, which is 103 coffes, or about
147 G. miles. Col. Murray's map gives 108 coffes. Not having the latitude of Sirhind, and the line on which its parallel depends being near 300 miles in length, much must be left to chance, as to its accuracy. It happens, however, that no obstacles present themselves between Delhi and Lahore, to give any considerable elbow or bend, to any part of the road (see page 6); which is therefore, generally speaking, very straight; and only making a small bend northwards, in the neighbourhood of the Jumna river. Sirhind stands in the map, in lat. 29° 55', lon. 75° 15'.
I find by Condamine's travels in Italy, that the art of weaving filk was brought back to Constantinople in the fixteenth century, by the monks who returned from Sirhind (or Serinde according to him). For although the art was brought into western Europe, under the Roman Emperors, it had again been loft during the confusions that attended the subversion of the western empire.
It is worthy of remark, also, that Procopius takes notice, that filk was brought from Serinda, a country in India, in the time of Justinian (in the sixth century). The reader is apprized, that filk, together with the Latin name of it, is understood to have been brought from Seres or Serica' (a country of upper Asia, bordering on the N W of the Chinese wall). This was Pliny's idea : how just, I know not.
The Ayin Acbaree takes no notice of tures of silk at Sirhind : it only calls it a famous city (in the fixteenth century).
Between Delhi and Sirhind are very extensive plains, within which are situated the towns of Panniput, and Carnawl, famous for great battles, both in ancient and modern times. The reason