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The Vingorla Rocks in lat. 15° 52' 30" Capt. Huddart took the longitude of, next to Goa, and made it 73° 16' 30". These rocks lie about 6 or 7 miles off shore, of which we know but few particulars, farther than that it is possessed by a piratical tribe named Malwaans. The principal ports hereabouts are Melundy or Sunder-doo, a fortified island about 10 miles to the N E by N of Vingorla Rocks, and reduced by Commodore James in 1765: alfo Rairee, Vingorla, and Newtya : which last I cannot help thinking, is the Nitrias of Pliny, near which the pirates cruised for the Roman fhips.
A Dutch MS. chart afflisted me in drawing the coaft between Melundy and Antigherrya, an extent of about 70 G. miles. This chart was procured by Sir Joseph Banks for Mr. Dalrymple : and the tract comprised within it, contains the ports of Dewgur, Tamanah, Rajapour, Rampa, Antigherrya, and also Gheriah, late the capital and principal port of Angria. This place was found by Capt. Huddart to be in lon. 73° 8'; and its latitude is 16° 37'. Between Antigherrya and Bombay, are the ports and islands of Zivagee, Dabul, Severndroog, Fort Victoria (or Bancoote) Sufferdam, Danda-Rajapour, Choule and Coolabba. At Victoria, the longitude was found to be 72° 54' : latitude 17° 59'. The latitudes alone of several of these places, helped me to settle their positions, as the coast is nearly meridional ; but I hardly expect to be free from mistakes, in fixing such a number of places, within so confined a space, and with so few aids.
Bombay, the principal port and settlement of the English in this quarter, is fituated in lat. 18° 58', longitude by Mr. Howe's observation 17° 38. I have placed it in 17° 40', or 2 minutes farther to the east, which was occafioned originally by a mistake, and which would have cost too much time to rectify, had I attempted it. Bombay is a small ifand, scarcely more than 7 miles in length, and very narrow, containing a very strong and capacious fortress, a large city, and a dock-yard, and marine arsenal. It was ceded to the
English in 1662, by the Portuguese, as part of the dower of the Queen of Charles II. On the NE it is separated by a narrow strait, from Salsette, a fine island of about 15 miles square, and an acquisition from the Marattas in 1773. Bombay, Salsette, and the neighbouring shores of the Continent, form a large sound, in which are several other islands, particularly Caranjah and Elephanta, the latter famous for its subterraneous temple, and both of them acquifitions from the Marattas.
Salsette also has its subterraneous temples, cut out of the live rock : all of which appear to be the monuments of a superstition anterior to that of the Hindoos *.
Basseen, a city and fortress of note, is situated on the point of the Continent opposite to the north end of Salsette. This place fell into the hands of the English, after a smart siege in 1780, but was restored to the Marattas, together with all the other conquests made on that side of India, at the peace of 1783, Salsette and the small islands excepted. Baffeen is situated in lat. 19° 19', and under the same meridian as Bombay, as appears by the maps of that island and Salsette.
From Basseen to Surat, the surveyor with General Goddard's army, drew a measured line (as I ain informed) and the result gave 9,5 G. miles of easting, or ro'of longitude, for the difference between Bafseen and Surat ; by which the latter should be in lon. 72° 50'. The difference of latitude N from Basseen, was found to be 52', which added to 19° 19', gives 21° 11' for that of Surat. It is placed in 21° 10 30".
It is a great misfortune to geography that no one observation of longitude should have been taken, on the west of Bombay : by which default, we are precluded from correcting an extent of 7 degrees of longitude, along a coast that winds in such a variety of
* At Elora near Dowlatabad, more than 200 miles to the east of Salsette, are other tenpies of the same kind. For an account of these, see Thevenot: and for the former, Anqueiil du , Perron.
directions, and those geography is composed of materials of so miscellaneous a kind, that it can hardly be expected we should steer clear of error in the construction of it. · The position of Surat is indeed checked by the measured line of General Goddard's march from Burhanpour ; where Mr. Smith had an observation of the longitude. And we have also a measured line professedly taken with bearings on shore, as far as Amedabad. But compasses often differ ; and the variation is as often neglected.
Mr. Smith's longitude of Burhanpour is. 76° 22', (but I have taken it in my map at 76° 19', the reason of which I shall shew in its proper place) and it is taken notice of now, only with a view to shew how far Surat, as it is placed here, agrees with the observation made on the east of it.
By the survey of Goddard's march from Burhanpour to Surat the difference of longitude between the two places appears to be 3° 30' 45", which taken from 76° 22', leaves 72° 51' 15" for the longitude of Surat. I have before observed, that its longitude deduced from Bombay is 72° 50': but having taken Burhanpour at 76° 19', Surat will be in 72° 48' 15", and that is the longitude I have adopted for it; altering at the same time Goddard's difference of longitude from Basseen, to 8' 15", instead of 10'. And as Mr. Howe's longitude of Bombay was altered from 72° 38' to 72° 40', it appears that Surat stands as it would do by Mr. Howe's original obfervation, and with Goddard's original difference, of longitude.
The materials under different authorities, for the form of the coast between Basseen and Surat, do by no means accord together ; ror have I the means of determining which to prefer. From Basseen to Arnaul, a fortified island, commanding the entrance of the Angassyah, or Mandavee river, I take from General Goddard's march, the only authority I can find. From Arnaul to Nonsary or Noffary, a few miles short of Surat river, there is a chart by Lieut. Ringrose; and also a chart from St. John's Point, to Surat river by Lieut. Skynner : by which means, we have about 50
of the space contained in Skynner's chart, included also in Ringrose’s ; and an opportunity is given of comparing their bearings and distances, as well as Goddard's, which includes nearly the same space. Here, to our utter astonishment, we find two charts, professedly taken by authority, differ 11 degrees in bearing in an extent of 60 miles ! for so much more eastwardly from the north, does Mr. Skynner make the bearing of Surat from Omergong, than Goddard's map does. As to the comparison between Ringrose and Skynner's charts, from St. John's Point to Nossary, Ringrofe makes the bearing N 2°W, and Skynner N 10° E. Goddard's route coming close to the sea in the neighbourhood of St. John's, shews, if we may rely on his map, that the truth lay between Ringrose and Skynner ; but that Ringrose came the nearest to it.
Having taken Goddard's line for the general bearing, I have adapted the other charts to it, in the best manner I could; preserving all their particulars, in which they do not differ so much as in generals. Such excellent surveying marks as Tarrapour and Valentine's Peaks, and Poneira Castle, &c. offer, might easily afford data for a series of triangles ; and of course, for a general survey of this coast, in skilful hands : and take away from us the reproach of remaining ignorant of the true courses between two of our principal factories, Bombay and Surat. St. John's Point does not appear to project far from the general line of the coast, either by Goddard's or Ringrose’s accounts, though described in that manner in all former charts. The shallowness of the water near it, has probably kept navigators at too great a distance to be informed of the truth. I apprehend that the hill called Segwah, 'in General Goddard's route, is what is called Valentine's Peak by navigators.
From Surat to Amedabad, through the city of Broach, there is a route of General Goddard's profesied to be measured, and taken mathematically. We had previously maps or surveys of the country between Surat, and the river Mynie, extending inland to Brodera, Dubhoi, and Zinnore, on the Nerbudda; but none of them went
beyond the Myhie. The following is the comparison between the bearings and distances of the different inaps as far as they go. From Surat to Brodera, by Goddard N 18° 55' E 69,95 G.miles.
E 68, 4
The differences here, are not great, confidering how much, compasses and measures often differ among themselves. The medium of the 3 accounts differs so little, in any respect, from Goddard's, that we need not hesitate to adopt the rest of his line to Amedabad, which is something more than 50 miles to the north-westward of Brodera. The most remarkable difference in this quarter, is between Mr. Skynner's and others bearings and distances between Surat and Cambay.
Mr. Skynner's is
N 22° W 83,2 G. miles.
And it is remarkable that the deviation here, is from the north, towards the west; on the former occafion, it was from the south, towards the west. As Taylor's, Himming's, and Goddard's, agree fo nearly between Surat and Brodera, one cannot help giving the preference to their lines; or at least to the medium of both, between Surat and Cambay i which is placed in lat. 22° 16' 45", kon. 72° 32 4”.
Having altered the bearing of the east side of the gulf of Cambay, it became necessary, in order to preserve a proper width to the gulf, to give the west fide a direction more oblique to the meridian, than appears in the original. At the same time, as it appeared but reafonable that Groapnaught Point, should preserve the parallel of lati