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His nails are tinged with some red dye, (probably hinná,) according to a custom of great antiquity in the East (see Sir William Ouseley's “Travels," vol. iur. p. 565); and the drawing represents an extraordinary substitute for a sling, by which is supported his left arm, which perhaps had been wounded, or was diseased : this substitute is a branch of some tree, split or forked, and thick, proportionably, as a man's wrist; the forked part is rudely fastened round the neck of Taimúr, and the ends project behind in such a manner as must have proved extremely inconvenient to the wearer, like the iron collar and long projecting handle with which in some countries the unfortunate African slaves are tormented. It seems strange, that those who furnished the conqueror with splendid dresses did not at the same time supply a more convenient sling, which might have been easily made of silk or linen ; but the editor, from circumstances which he himself observed in Hyrcania, is inclined to believe that the branch had been part of some tree superstitiously venerated for its supposed medicinal virtues of preternatural efficacy.

From a very

P. 14. Here it seems necessary to correct a mistake whichi the editor made respecting those portions of Tabri's Arabic text now preserved in the Royal Library at Berlin: there Dr. Rosen examined four volumes; the other part which he mentioned belongs to the University of Leyden. eminent Orientalist, Professor Kosegarten, we learn that the four Berlin volumes of TABRI's original work in Arabic are the fifth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth. The Leyden Manuscript is the third volume. Professor Kosegarten does not know that any of the other parts exist in the libraries of Europe, and he is inclined to believe (like the author of this Essay, p. 14) that the whole work must have occupied about twenty volumes. “ Integrum hoc opus, Arabica lingua conscriptum,

“ Tabaristanensis viginti circiter partibus complexus esse vi“detur; quarum, quantum scio, nonnisi quinque in Bib“ liothecis Occidentalibus adhuc repertæ sunt,-tertia, quinta,

decima, undecima, duodecima; pars tertia, quæ Lugduni “ Batavorum in Bibliotheca Academica asservatur," &c. (See p. iv. of the Preface to Kosegarten's “ Tabaristanensis Annales," published in Arabic, with a Latin translation (from the fifth volume) at Grypliswald, 1831, quarto.) It has been already mentioned in a note to this Essay, p. 15) that Ockley found some portion of the Arabic Tabri among Archbishop Laud's MSS.; but of what volume this fragment was a part, has not been ascertained. That the second volume is preserved in the British Museum appears from the “ Oriental Collections,” before quoted (p. 14), and the Bibliothèque du Roi in Paris likewise possesses a portion; but this, liowever useful in collation, adds little to our stock of Tabri's Arabic text, since it is, unfortunately, the third volume, like the MS. of Leyden—“ Codex Bombycinus, quo continetur pars tertia “ Chronici quod Tabari sive Tabariense appellatur, idque ab auctoris nomine,” &c. (See Catal. Libr. MSS. Bibl. Reg. Galliæ, vol. 1. p. 161.) TABRI must have been a voluminous author, if, as report says, he covered with writing every day, during forty years, almost eighty pages. “ Mox etiam in “ libros componendos tantum laboris impendit, ut per qua“ draginta annos quotidie quadraginta fere folia scribendo

implevisse dicatur.” (See Kosegarten's Preface, as above quoted, p. i.)

P. 24. Concerning the “ Kitáb Fatuhh" (quü Vü), or “ Book of Victories," composed by IBN Asim of Kúfah sös piel !!), it may be remarked, (as of Teri's “ Great Chronicle" already noticed,) that the original work is chiefly

known through the medium of a very old Persian translation, The editor endeavoured, but without success, to procure a copy of the Arabic text at Shiraz, Isfahán, Tehrán, and other cities in Persia, and subsequently at Constantinople. ÃÀSIM AL Kúpi, whom he regards as the father of him who composed the “ Kitab Fatuhh,” died, according to Casiri, in the year 117 of the Muhammedan era (or of Christ 735), and was eminent as one among the seven earliest readers of the Korán :

“ Asemus Cuphiensis, unus e septem insignibus Alcorani lectoribus, cujus obitus in an. Eg. 117 incidit.” (See the “ Biblioth. Arabico-Hispan. Escurialensis," vol. 11., Index referring to vol. 1. p. 504.) That this venerable personage (Asim of Kúfah) might, in early youth, have personally conversed with veteran warriors whose valour had contributed towards the conquest of Persia, was mentioned as the editor's opinion, in a letter quoted by the Rev. Mr. Walpole (see his “ Collection of Travels,” &c. vol. 11. p. 428): and ÁÂSim, we may reasonably suppose, would have communicated the information obtained from those veterans to his son, whose Chronicle, in fact, abounds with minute details, such as indicate very strongly the genuine authority of ocular witnesses. By so powerful a recommendation, the editor of this Essay was induced, many years ago, to translate all those passages of IBN ÁÂSim's work which illustrate Persian history, the wars and negotiations between Muselmán chiefs and the Sassanian princes and their generals, with a variety of curious and interesting anecdotes, which he has not hitherto found in any other Arabic or Persian record. These will, perhaps, be soon offered to the public.

P. 26. A history of the GHAZNEVIDE dynasty has been undertaken by that able Orientalist, Professor Wilken of Berlin, and will be dedicated to the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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P. 30. Rúm. It appears from D'Herbelot, (“ Bibl. Orient.” in Roum,) that the Arabian geographer EBN AL VARDI, in his “ Kheridat al Ajáreb,” gives a very extensive signification to this name, comprehending under it the regions beginning at the Atlantic Ocean, Spain, France, England, Germany, Poland, Italy, Hungary, &c., as far as Constantinople and the Euxine Sea, where it joins Sclavonia and the borders of Russia; but the name, he adds, is more properly given to Romaniah and Romiliah, Thrace, Greece, &c. Another geographer, in his

Massahat al Ardh," or "Extent of the Earth," restricts Rúm to a part of Asia Minor. HAMDALLAH KAZvíni, in his “ Nuzahat al Kulúb,” (chap. vii.) mentions as the countries by which Rúm is bounded, Armen or Armenia, Gurjestán or Georgia, Sis, Misr or Egypt, Shám or Syria, and the Bahr-i-Rúm, the Sea of Rúm or Mediterranean :


ارمن و گرجستان و سیس و مصر و شام و بحر روم

حدود مملکت

P. 32. Tarikh Jehan Kushái (or Kushá). Of this title is the more modern work translated into French (and English) by Sir William Jones, who thus notices it in the “ Catalogue of Persian Books," annexed to his “ Persian Grammar,"

تاریخ جہانکشا یا تاریخ نادري من كلام میرزا مهدي

“ The history of the life of NADIR SHAH, king of Persia, written by MIRZA MAHADI,” as Sir William Jones explains it. This title might be more literally translated “ The Táríkh (or Chronicle) Jehán Kushá, or the Tarikh Náderi, from the pen of Mírzá MAHADI.” The full name of this author was Mi RZÁ MUHAMMED MAHADI KHÁN MÁzIN

There are many میرزا محمد مهدي خان مازندرانی-DERANI

other instances of Persian works bearing the same titles.

P. 36. Wákiát Báberi. Of this valuable work a highly in

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teresting translation has lately appeared under the following title : “Memoirs of Zehered-din Baber, emperor of Hindustan; written by himself in the Jaghatai Turki, and translated partly by the late John Leyden, Esq. M. D., partly by William Erskine, Esq. ; with Notes and a Geographical and Historical Introduction; together with a Map of the countries between the Oxus and Jaxartes, and a Memoir regarding its construction ; by Charles Waddington, Esq., of the East India Company's Engineers.” (London, 1826. Quarto.) In the Preface to this excellent work (Baber's Memoirs, page 1) the tract of country called Jaghatái is described as extending “from the Ulugh Tagh mountains on the north, to the Hindu Kush mountains on the south; and from the Caspian Sea on the west, to the deserts of Cobi, beyond Terfán, Kashghar, and Yarkend on the east.”

Pp. 38—48. The work of “ Ferishtah,” mentioned in these pages, was first published in English, several years ago, under the following title: “ The History of Hindostan, translated from the Persian by Alexander Dow, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel in the Company's service.” A new edition of this work appeared in the year 1803. (London, 3 vols. octavo.) But a most excellent translation, made by Lieutenant-Colonel Briggs, was published in 1829, entitled “ The History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India till the year 1612; translated from the original Persian of Mahomed Kasim Ferishta.” (London, 4 vols. octavo.)

P. 51. Hesht Behisht. It has been already observed (p. 57) that Persian works totally different sometimes bear the same titles. A beautiful poem by Emír KHUSRAU of Dehli is called the Hesht Behisht, or “Eight Paradises."

Eight Paradises.” Thus we find under the title of Negúristán ('w, Bj) three works com

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