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to Bombay or the bay of Trincomaly on the island of Ceylon, or to Prince of Wales's island near the entrance of the straights of Malacca; and in addition to these they may now go to the Mauritius also.

In the North of India, or the Panjab, the rainy season commences about the middle, or rather the end of June; but the rivers begin to swell with the first heats of spring and summer, by the melting of the snow on the mountains contiguous to their sources. It appears that Alexander crossed the Indus sometime in the beginning of May;* he therefore probably found the

every vessel that attempted to reach the town. (See Orme's history, &c.)

The introduction of this event may perhaps appear irrelevant: but it shews the nature of the storms to be apprehended at the change of the Monsoon.

The conduct of Stevens may serve as an example worthy of imitation. He devoted himself to impending destruction, rather than prove deficient in what he conceived to be his duty.

* In the 11th year of his reign, and 29th of his age, 327 years before our æra. He was born on the 24th of our September, 556 years A. C. succeeded his father

rivers already swollen and constantly increasing. As he advanced, he had not only to encounter the difficulties which this circumstance alone must have opposed to his progress, but had afterwards to support the effects of heavy rains, and the extreme heats of the season. Tamerlane passed the Indus nearly at the same spot* where Alexander had crossed it 1725 years before, but he began his expedition in the month of October, the early part of the cool season, when the rivers had retired within their banks. Nadir Shah crossed it 340 years after Tamerlane, about the same place, early in the month of January.‡ These two conquerors probably knew and calculated on the seasons, a point which Alexander seems to have neglected; but when he quitted India, he must have known their course. On his return from India, he sailed with his fleet from Nicæa

Philip in the year 336 A. C. and died at Babylon on the 19th of July, 324 A. C.

The Taxila of the Greeks, now Attock.
A. D. 1733.

+ A. D. 1398.

on the Hydaspes, or Chelum, on the 23d October, 327 A. C. and, after various operations, arrived at Pattala, the present Tatta, next year, about the end of August, nearly ten months after leaving Nicæa. At Pattala he delivered the command of the fleet to Nearchus, assisted by Onesicritus, whose office seems to have been that of pilot. The fleet, after leaving the Indus, was to steer in a north-westerly direction towards Cape Eirus,* from thence to the mouth of the river Arabis, and then along the coast of Gedrosia+ and Caramania towards the gulph of Persia. The army on land, after leaving Pattala, marched in two divisions, one commanded by Alexander in person, the other by Hephæstion : while Leonatus, with a corps of light troops, was ordered to keep near the coast, for the purpose of assisting the fleet, and transmitting intelligence of its progress. Alex

* Now Cape Monze.

+ The inhabitants of this coast were named Ichthyophagi, or fish-eaters.

ander went first through the countries of the Arabitæ and Oritæ, thence into Gedrosia, and forward towards Susa.

Nearchus began his voyage from the Indus sometime between the first and tenth of October, or nearly a month after Alexander left him. He consequently sailed when the Monsoon was about to change; though he kept along shore, and had thereby the advantage of the sea and land breezes, he nevertheless found it necessary to put into a port near to Cape Eirus, where he waited 24 days on account of the weather. Having again sailed, he arrived at the river Anamis* in Caramania, about the 10th of December of the same year. Receiving intelligence there, that Alexander was with his army at five days journey from him, he gave orders for the fleet to be drawn on

* Now Mina. The Andamis of Pliny, and Andanius of Ptolemy, seem to have been a distinct river from the Anamis, though some authors have confounded them with it. See Gosselin, "Recherches sur la Géographie Systematique et Positive des Anciens," tome iii. pp. 111 et 112.

shore, and a fortified camp to be formed for its security; he then set out with a few of his companions towards the spot where he was told he should find Alexander, and shortly after had an interview with him. It appears that Nearchus left the Anamis about the first of January, 325 A.C. and arrived in the Pasitigris* in Susiana, the tenth of February.†

* The Pasitigris has by some geographers been supposed to be a branch of the Tigris; but it appears that they are distinct rivers, the former to the East of the other. The Euleus, or a branch of the Euleus, flowed close to Susa, and united with the Pasitigris in about N. Lat. 30° 26'. Alexander embarked at Susa on the Euleus and descended the stream, whilst Nearchus ascended the Pasitigris from the place where it discharges itself into the Persian Gulf. Hence naturally they met each other.

+ Reckoning from the 10th of October to the 10th of February, the voyage appears to have taken 123 days. Nearchus even in the tedious mode of navigating then in use, might have performed it in much less time than he employed, but it was a voyage of survey and discovery. In a dispute between him and Onesicritus with respect to the course to be steered, Nearchus observed, that Alexander had not sent the fleet for the purpose of

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