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frappées en Egypte, sont très-foibles ; elles ne sont pas avouées par la plus saine critique.

“ Hérodote avoit voyagé en Egypte et dans la haute Asie: il auroit dû connoître les monnoies anciennes de ces peuples, si elles avoient existé. Un antiquaire ne peut avoir d'autre opinion' que celle des Grecs. Il voit sur les monnoies Grecques, les tentatives, les premiers essais, les pas ultérieurs et le perfectionnement graduel du monnoyage.

Si cet art eut été une invention étrangère, les Grecs l'auroient adopté dans cet état de perfectionnement qu'une longue suite de siècles auroit dû lui donner. Mais je n'ai pas le tems de traiter comme il faut cette belle question. J'ajouterai seulement que les plus anciennes monnoies qui existent aujourd'hui sont sans aucune contestation l'ouvrage des Grecs.

But after all that has been here stated, it must be allowed that the subject still lies open to discussion.*

* The reader may consult on ancient coins and weights, Bernard, de Mensuris et Ponderibus Antiquis.


It is evident that the Hindús, in the remotest times of which we have account, not only knew the art of refining metals, but had many able and ingenious artisans, who afterwards fashioned them into works of utility or ornament.

In the Ayeen Akbery they are said to have been greatly superior in the art of refining and working them to the people of any

other country. The prodigious wealth of India, in jewels, gold, and silver, is celebrated by numerous writers. Alexander in the speech to his troops after his victory over Porus, tells them that they were now going to enter those famous countries so abundant

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Brerewood, de Ponderibus et Pretiis Veterum Num. morum. Arbuthnot, Tabulæ Antiquorum Nummorum. Rechenberg, Hist. Rei. Num. Veteris, particularly the part by Gulielmus Budæus. Gronovius, de Pecunia Vetere. Kircher, dipus Egyptiacus, &c. Otho Sperlingius. Ugolino, Thesaurus Antiquitatum. Paucton, Métrologie. Science Numismatique, æuvres diverses de l'Abbé Barthelemy, tom ii, together with his different Essays on the same subject in the Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions. Doctrina Numinorum Veterum, by l’Abbé Eckhel of Vienna.

in riches, that all they had found and seen in Persia would appear as nothing, in comparison with them. * Alexander neither penetrated far into India, nor remained long there, and the treasures brought away by him in his short course, must have been soon replaced by the commerce which his expedition procured to the Hindūs with Egypt, under the Ptolemies, and which was greatly extended and increased after that country became subject to the Romans. The trade of India with foreign nations, was almost entirely maintained by its productions of gems, drugs, spices, and gums, together with its numerous valuable manufactures. The amount of the goods received being much inferior to that furnished by it, the balance in its favor was paid in specie;. the money which once entered India, as now in China, remained there; hence its wealth in the precious metals must have continued to increase yearly, from the time we are speaking of, down to the beginning of the eighth century of our æra, the epoch given to the first appearance of its Mohammedan conquerors, in the person

* See Quintus Curtius, lib. ix. c. 1.

of Valid, the sixth of the Khalifs of the Ommiad dynasty. His conquests seem to have been confined to places contiguous to the Indus: but Mahmoud, sovereign of Ghizni, who entered Indja in 1002, is said to have subdued the countries southward as far as Visiapour, every where plundering and amassing riches, demolishing the temples, and putting numbers of the inhabitants of the country to the sword, for the sole offence of refusing to preserve life at the price of abjuring their religion. The accounts given by eastern historians of the wealth found by him, though they must appear fabulous, yet shew that it was immense. Mahmoud died in 1028. His successors named Ghiznavides, from Ghizni, the capital of their dominions, continued to reign until 1157, when Shehab-eddin was deposed by Hussein Gauri, so named from Gaur, a province to the north of Ghizni. The Gaurides got possession of all the ter

ritories that had been enjoyed by their predecessors on both sides of the Indus. ShahAbdin, the fourth of the Gauride princes, during the life of his brother and predecessor, conquered Delhi and Moultan. After he became Emperor, he brought such prodigious riches from India to Ghizni, that, on his favourite daughter inquiring of the treasurer to what value they amounted, he answered, that there were three thousand pounds weight in diamonds only, by which she might judge of the rest. A private Hindú inflamed with indignation at the pollutions committed, and tyranny exercised by Shah-Abdin, vowed to kill him, and executed his vow. The dynasty of the Gaurides finished in 1212, in the person of Mahmoud, his nephew and successor. On the death of Mahmoud, who left no children, his dominions seem to have been separated and kept by the different viceroys, or officers, who governed them. In India, one of these named Nasser-Adin, kept Moultan; another, Kothab-Adin, Delhy; and on the west of the Indus, Tagy-Adin,

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