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temples of Mohammed, at Mecca and Medina. In these excursions he was accompanied by a celebrated musician, named Merdana, and a person of the name of Sandhu, who preserved an account of his adventures. In the course of his travels he had many disputes to maintain with learned doctors of the Brahminical and Mohammedan faith; but, being an enemy to discord, he defended his tenets with moderation, avoiding every opportunity of giving of fence. He wished to persuade men to renounce what he considered as useless, or criminal fictions, and to confine their faith to the great principle of religion, a belief in the omnipotence and unity of God. Being at Vatala, he was called upon by some Yogis-Waras,* to exhibit some miracle as proof of his powers; he replied, "I have nothing to exhibit worthy of you to behold; a holy teacher has no defence but the purity of his doctrines; the world
* Hermits, who pass their lives in privations of every thing that can serve to gratify the senses.
may change, but the Creator is unchangeable." These words, says his biographer, were no sooner pronounced than the YogisWaras fell at the feet of the humble Nanac. He seems to have spent about fifteen years in his different journeys, but on his return from his third excursion, he declared his resolution of not quitting his native country any more, and took up his residence at Kirtipur-Dehra, on the banks of the Ravi,† in a convenient dwelling that was prepared for him by the Rajah of Kullanore, who had become one of his disciples. There he spent the rest of his days in peace, and, as he loved retirement, free from the cares and bustle of this world: his wife and children dwelt at Kullanore, coming occasionally to visit him. Having obtained extensive fame for wisdom and piety, persons of all persuasions went to converse with him, or listen to his discourse; and the Sikhs say, that when they
* Bhai Guru Das Vali.
+ The Hydraotes of the Greeks.
heard him, they forgot that mankind had
came famous for his piety. The town of Kujarawal, where his father-in-law Amera had resided, was greatly enlarged and improved by him. It was afterwards for some time named Rampur, or Ramdaspur, but having caused a famous tank, or reservoir of water to be constructed, which he called Amritsar, or the fountain of ambrosia, the city now bears that name. Ram Das died in 1581, and was succeeded by his eldest son named Arjun Mal, who compiled and arranged the doctrines of Nanac, in a work intituled Adi-Granth, or The first Book.* Arjun for some time propagated
* In communications made to the author by the late Colonel Polier, he calls it Pathy, but both Pathy and Grantha signify book.
"The first sacred volume of the Sikhs contains ninety-two sections; it was partly composed by Nanac and his immediate successors, but received its present form and arrangement from Arjunmal, who blended his own additions with what he thought most valuable in the compositions of his predecessors. Though the original Adi-Granth was thus compiled by Arjunmal, from the writings of Nanac, Angad, Amera Das, and Ram Das, and enlarged and improved by his own additions and
his tenets with great success, but having excited the attention and jealousy of the Mohammedan government, he was arrested, thrown into prison, and, it is said, cruelly put to death in the year 1606. The Sikhs, who till then had been a peaceable and inoffensive sect, took arms under his son and successor Har Govind. Now arose that desperate and implacable hatred which has ever since animated the followers of Nanac and Mohammed against each other. This chieftain is reputed to be the first who permitted his followers to eat all animal food, except the cow species. Har Govind had five sons, Babu-Gúrú Daitya, SauratSinh, Tégh Sinh, Anna Ray, and Atal Ray: the two last died without issue, the
eldest died before his father, leaving two
commentaries, some small portions have been subsequently added by thirteen different persons, whose numbers, however, are reduced, by the Sikh authors, to twelve and a half; the last contributor to this sacred volume being a woman, is only admitted to rank in the list as a fraction, by these ungallant writers."-General Malcolm.