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its operations, it must have left its rear,
To the westward of Nipal, there supplies from the cultivated spaces,
and is a difficult tract, till the country again disputing the difficult country by opens in the valley of Gorkah, the origi-, they were divided. It is perfectly obnal possession of the present dynasty. vious that the very same objections would Westward of this the country is again apply to a plan of operations directed in difficult, till it somewhat improves in the the first instance against the body of district of Kemaoon. Further to the troops serving under. Umar Sing, on the westward lies the valley of the Dhoon,t banks of the Sutleje, with a view of peand the territory of Sue-na-Ghur; and netrating eastward to the capital, An further still, the more recent conquests, army entering the country between these stretching to the village, in which Umar points might possibly have succeded in Sing, a chief of uncommon talents, com occupying some portion of territory, but manded, and, indeed, exercised an au would have been perfectly nugatory as to thority almost independent.
the result of the war. It must speedily This description, slight as it is, will be have turned either to the right or to the sufficient to show you that it was impos- left, and to whichever side it directed şible to combine the inovements of a variety of columns from different points, and its communications with the Comwith a view to concentration, and to pany's provinces, completely exposed to force the enemy to a decisive battle for the enemy's troops remaining in the other, the fate of the country, and that a body and upon every one of those suppositions, of troops, acting in any one quarter,
it would have been impossible to bring would become perfectly utmanageable if the war to an end, without several cam. it exceeded a certain extent, from the paigns, an evil which it was indispensable nature of the roads, the scarcity of routes,
to avoid. such as they were, the total impracticabi These considerations determined the lity of maintaining any communication be- plan for the campaign, and it was 'protween the different columns into which it posed by a variety of operations undermust have been divided, and the scanty taken at once, for the accomplishment supplies which could be drawn from a indeed of separate objects, but these obcountry so little susceptible of cultivation. jects mutually facilitating each other, 'to
At the same time the nature and form wrest the country suddenly from them of his territory presented prodigious re piecemeal. With this view, it was intendsources of defence to the enemy against ed that the principal divisions of the army, any method of attack that should not aim under Major-General Marly, should move at the immediate and simultaneous occu from Palna, on the capital, by the route pation of any point in which he could of Etoude and Chusapanee, while a few, make a stand. It were to be apprehend- under Major-Gen. Sullivan Wood should ed, if the army succeded in forcing its penetrate into Gorkah by the route of way into the valley of Nipal, and in oc Rootswild, and prevent the transfer of cupying the capital, that it would only the war to the westward. The very same trausfer the war to the territory of Gor reasoning was applied in arranging the kah; that the dépôts would have to be
attack to be made on the troops serving transported to Catmandoo, for the pro in the western part of the enemy's 'dosecution of further operations, and that
minions. A division under Colonel Ochthe whole of the mountains and imprac- , terlony to advance from the Sutleje, was ticable regions by which these valleys are
directed against the force under "Umar separated, would become the subject of Sing, and Major-General Gillespie, at the serious and obstinate contention. The head of another, was to occupy the valley very same game might have been played of the Dhoon and the territory of Sueafterward, with respect to the territory na-ghur, and cut off the conimunication of Kemaoon, and to the westward, aloog , with the capital and the resources to the the whole extent of their dominions--the eastward. As soon as these operations enemy constantly falling back on fresh were sufficiently advanced, another cotroops and fresh resources, drawing. bis . lumn was to possess itself of Almorat,
and Kemaoon, and to open the routes • An oral, about 15 miles long, and 10 broad.
between the different divisions.
3 I 2
The chief circumstance to which the ing a force into Almorat and Kemaoon imperfect accomplishment of this plan is with a view of placing the different divito be ascribed, was the total and unac sions in communication, and completing countable inactivity of the principal di- the occupation of the country, hade acs vision during the whole season. In con quired a greater degree of importance sequence of this, Major-General Sullivan from the non-execution of the plan to the Wood was left to carry on his operations, eastward, and had become a primary ob destitute of the assistance which its co- ject of the campaign. A small force operation would have afforded as a diver under Captain Hearny, had penetrated. sion to the troops in his front. His feeble' into this country, and was even reine and unfortunate attempt totally failed in forced and placed under the command of effecting any thing, and the influence Lientenant-Colonel Nicolls, who conwhich this part of the plan, directed ducted his operations with equal activity against the heart of the enemy's country and ability. He detached one party after and the seat of the government, were'ex Husty Aule, the enemy's leader (who pected to produce in weakening or para was retiring with a division of the army lyzing their efforts to the westward, al to occupy the strong parts of the country), together lost. At the same time, the under Major Paton, who defeated "and early and unexpected fall of the gallant killed him, and with the other he carried, and lamented Major-General Gillespie, himself, by assault, the city and fort of before the fort of Kalunga, and some un Almorat, and terminated his short and fortunate circumstances among the troops brilliant campaign and the war in that of that division, threw a damp over the quarter, by a convention with the Gorkah operations in that quarter, and greatly chiefs, which reliuquished to us the posretarded the progress of the service. session of all the country to the westward
In spite, however, of all those un of the Gograh.* toward events, the plan succeeded so per These successes will probably answer fectly in the only quarters where any ef all the purposes which the war was the forts were made to carry it into effect, as tended to fulfil. It never was the intenfully to warrant the most confident ex. tion to destroy either the existence or
pectation that it would have ensured the the independence of a state which is most + accomplishment of all its objects, had usefully interposed between us and the the divisions to the eastward been con
dependencies of China; and they have ducted with equal zeal and ability. Ma lost at present at least as much territory jor-General Ochterlony, who had to con as they are capable of sacrificing, con
tend with a country of great dificulty, sistently with the situation we wish them hand with an enemy, who,' throughout to occupy.' The superiority of the British
the campaign, displayed a degree of en arms has been completely established, ergy, of genius, and of resource, un
and perhaps a juster idea of the power precedented in a native leader, by a series and resources of a regular government
of operations, combined with great 'ad- conveyed to the natives by the actual pro -2 v dress, and executed with a vigour and gress of events, than they could have rewk prudence, which ensured success, grádu- ceived from witnessing again an unintery ally forced him from post to post, and at 'rupted' series of victory. They beheka y length cooped him up, and compelled him with astonishment the steady progress of to surrender in the almost inaccessible the war, in spite of difficulties and disas
fortress of Malown. This success put us ters, and the facility with which reversés si in possession of the more recent con were repaired, under which they them
quests of the Gorkahs between the Ganges selves' must have sunk. A man of CON
and the Satleje, and produced the imme- siderable consequence said to me on one "diate surrender of the fort of Jytuk, be- occasion,' “ Of what use is it to fight
fore which Major-General Martindel (who with the English-beaten, or successful, $. had been appointed to the command of they are always conquerors !!
Major-General Gillespie's division) had. But, altliough the war has accomplish
been long occupied, and with it the valley ed its political purposes, the merits of is of the Dhoon, and the territory of Sue the original plan on which it was intend
pa-Ghurais ** #gf? In the mean time, the project of push
• Sce page 96.-Edit,
ed that the military operations should be proportioned to a state of affairs that had ever directed, must not be judged by the not been anticipated. s.175736 1937 (94sa? degree of success with which they were • Nevertheless, the plan had been so well attended. No attempt was made to carry calculated, with a reference to the nature into effect the most material part of the and form of the enemy'si country, that plan, by a vigorous movement on the ca- the divisions to the eastward, even pin pital; and this primary defect in the ex the state of inactivity in which they ro ecution, completely deranged the whole mained, operated in some measure by scheme the armies to the westward met their inert weight; and, though theysacwith a far more vigorous opposition than complished nothing themselves, they de they would otherwise have experienced, tained a large portion of the enemy's force and it was only after they were rein- in their front, and rendered the objects forced that they were placed on a footing to the westward attainable: 24," un
Delivered to the Literary and Scientific Society at Java, on the 10th of
BY THE HON. THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, PRESIDENT,
(Concluded from Page 356.) It was my intention in this place to known by the name of the Teng'gar moun. have attempted some sketch of the inte- tains, we find the remnant of a people resting and peculiar features of the Jaya still following the Hindu worship, who nese character, with reference to those merit attention not only on account of admirable institutions which distinguish their being the depositaries of the last the constitution of society among this trace of that worship discovered at this people; but I have already trespassed too day on Java, but as exhibiting a peculiar long on your kindness—and there are singularity and simplicity, of character: two subjects which have recently attract These people occupy about forty villa ed my particular attention, and which, ges, scattered along this range of hills in on account of their novelty, I am desi- the neighbourhood of the Sandy Sey, and rous of bringing to your notice. During are partly under Pasuruan and partly my late tour through the Eastern Dis- under Probolingo. The scite of the viltricts, I visited the Teng'gar mountains, lages, as well as the construction of the on which it had been represented to me houses is peculiar, and differs entirely that some remains of the former worship from what is elsewhere observed in Java. of Java were still to be found, and acci- The houses are not shaded by trees, but dent threw me on the shores, of Bali, built on spacious open terraces, rising while attempting to reach Banyuwangi. one above the other, each house occupyThe simplicity of the people who inhabit ing a terrace, and being in length from the Teng'gar mountains, and the fact of thirty to seventy, and even eighty feet. such remains being still in existence in The door is invariably in one corner, at the Jaya, is entitled to record; and I am opposite end of the building to that in aware that whatever information I may which the fire-place is built. The buildbe able to communicate respecting Bali, ing appears to be first constructed with however imperfect, will be accepted, the ordinary roof, but along the front, is TENG'GAR MOUNTAINS. *
an enclosed veranda or gallery of about To the eastward of Surabaia and on the eight feet broad, with a less cinclined range of hills connected with Gunung Da- piche in the roof, formed of bamboos,
and laying partly in the District of which are so, placed as to slide out, either Pasuraun and partly in that of Probolingo, for the admission of air, or to afford a • Sec page 934.-Edit.
channel for the smoke to escape, there
being otherwise no aperture, except a implements of husbandry are placed, persmall opening, of about a foot square, at form the same ceremony. The parties one end of the building, above the fire then submissively bowing to the Dukun, place, and which is built of brick, and so he repeats a prayer commencing with the highly venerated, that it is considered sa- words, " Hong ! Gendogo Bromo ang'gas crilege for any stranger to pollute it by siwong'go nomo siwoho sany yang g'ni the touch. Across the upper part of the siro kang, &c."'* while the bride washes building, rafters are run across, so as to the feet of the bridegroom. This cere- , form a kind of attic story, in which they mony over, the friends and family of deposit their valuables and instruments of the parties make presents : to each of husbandry.
creeses, buffaloes, implements of husbandThe head of the village takes the title ry, &c. in return for which the bride of Petingi, as in the low lands, and he is and bridegroom respectfully present them generally assisted by a Kabayan ; both with betel-leaf, elected by the people from their own vila At the marriage feast which ensues, the lage. There are four priests, who are
Dukun repeats two puja, which will be here termed Dukuns, having charge of the found in the collection. The marriage is sacred records.
not consummated till the fifth day after the These Dukuns, who are in general in
above ceremony-which delay is termed telligent men, have no. tradition of the by the undang mantu. · A similar delay time when they were first established on
is, in some cases, still observed by the these hills; from what country they came Javanese in other parts of the island, or who intrusted them with the sacred under the term undoh mantu. books to the faith contained in which On the death of an inhabitant of Teng’they still adhere. These latter, they gar, the corpse is lowered into the grave, state, were handed down to them by the head been placed to the south (contheir fathers, their office being heredita
trary to the direction observed by the ry, and the sole duty required of them Mahometans), and bamboos and planks being to perform the puja according are placed over, so as to prevent the thereto, aud again to hand them down in
earth from touching it. When the grave safety to their children. They consist of is closed, two posts are planted over the three-compositions written on the Lontar- body, one perpeudicular from the breast, leaf, describing the origin of the world, the other from the lower part of the the attributes of the Deity, and the forms belly. Between these two a hollowed of worship to be observed on different bamboo is inserted in the ground, into occasions. Copies were taken on the which, during seven successive days, spot; and as the language does not essen they daily pour a vessel of pure water, tially differ from the ordinary Javanese, placing beside the bamboo, two dishes I hope at an early period to place the So
also daily replenished with eatables. At ciety in possession of translations. In the expiration of the seventh day, the the mean time some notices of their cus feast of the dead is announced, and the toms, and of the ceremonies performed at relations and friends of the deceased asbirths, marriages, and funerals, may be semble to be present at the ceremony and interesting.
partake of the entertainment, which is When a woman is delivered of her first conducted as follows. child, the Dukun takes a leaf of the An image of leaves, ornamented with Alang. Alang grass, and scraping the skin variegated flowers, made to represent the of the hands of the child and of the mo human form, and of about a cubit high, ther with it, as well as the ground, pro. is prepared and placed in a conspicuous nounces a short benediction.
place, and supported round the body by When a marriage is agreed upon, the the clothes of the deceased. The Dukun bride and bridegroom being brought before then places in front of the garland an inthe Dukun within the house, in the first cense-pot, with burning ashes, and a place, .bow with respect towards the
* These prayers will be found at length in the south-then to the fire-place-then to Transactions of the Society-the word Hong, the earth, and lastly, on looking up to
used by the Javanese at the commencement of the upper story of the house, where the
their invocations to the Deity, is doubtlessly the mystical Om of the Hindus.
vessel containing water, and repeats the cupy, without exception, the most beautwo puja to fire and water ; the former tiful, rich and romantic spots in Java. commencing with “ Hong Gendogo Bro- The thermometer, in their country, is fremo ang'gas siwong'go nomo siwoho," &c. quently as low as 42°.. The summits and and the latter with “ Hong, hong gong'go slopes of the hills are covered with almoho terto roto mojel saking huti,” &c. pine firs, and the vegetation common to a burning dupů (incense) at stated periods European climate generally prevails. during the former, and occasionally Their language does not differ much sprinkling the water over the feast during from the Javanese of the present day, the repetition of the latter.
though more gutturally pronounced : in * The clothes of the deceased are then
a comparison of about a hundred words divided among the relatives and friends; of the vernacular Javanese, two only difand, the garland burned, another puja fered. They do not intermarry nor mix commencing “ Hong ! awigno mastu nomo with the people of the low lands, priding sidam, hong! araning,” &c. is then re themselves on their independence and pupeated, while the remains of the sacred rity in this respect. water is sprinkled over the feast ; after
BALI. which the parties sit down to the enjoy. Passing from this last vestige of the ment of it, invoking a blessing from the Hindu worship now remaining in Java, Almighty on themselves, their houses (for the Bedui, though descendants of the and their lands. Nothing more occurs fugitives of Pajajaran, scarcely merit:nountil the expiration of a thousand days ; tice in this respect,) I proceed to mention when, if the memory of the deceased is some of the leading observations which I beloved and cherished, the ceremony and made in Bali. The notices regarding the feast are repeated : otherwise no further prevalence of Hinduism in Bali, and of the notice is taken.
nature of the government and country, On questioning them regarding the te have hitherto been so scanty, that on nets of their religion, they replied that such interesting ground 'I may be pardonthey believed in a dewa, who was all pow ed for entering into some detail, without erful ; that the term by which the dewa which it is impossible to convey a just was designated, was Bumi Truko Sangy- notion of the subject. ang Devoto Bator ; and that the parti The island of Bali is at present divided culars of their worship were contained in under seven separate authorities, each inthe book called Punglawa, which they dependent of the other; and, of this heppresented to me.
tarchy, the state of Klongkong is acknowOn being questioned regarding the ledged to be the most ancient; its princes adat against adultery, theft and other 'tracing their descent from the princes of crimes, their reply was unanimous and Java, and having once possessed authoready; that crimes of the kind were un rity over the whole island. Among the known to them, and that consequently regalia of this state are reported to be no punishment was fixed either by law or still preserved the creese of Majapahit, custom ; that if a man did wrong the and the celebrated gong named Bentür head of the village chid him for it, the re Kadaton ; and, although the other goproach of which was always sufficient pu vernments do not at the present day adnishment for a man of Teng'gar. This mit of any interference on the part of account of their moral character is fully this state, they still evince a marked resconfirmed by the Regents of the districts pect and courtesy to that family, as the under whose authority they are placed, Asal Rajah Bali, (the stock from which and also by the Residents. They literally they sprung). seem to be almost without crime. They The population is roughly estimated by are universally peaceable; interfere with the number of male inhabitants whose no one; neither quarrel among themselves. teeth have been filed, and whose services It may be superfluous to add, that they are each prince can command, and who unacquainted with the vices of gaming and amount to upward of 200,000. The female opium-smoking!
population is understood rather to exceed The aggregate population amounts to the male; and, as it may be considered about twelve hundred souls. They oc that only the active and able bodied men