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The Rulers,


and the Tenth Jan,

of the people also cast lots, to bring one

the son of Senuah was second over the of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy

city. city, and nine parts to dwell in other

(10) Of the priests : Jedaiah the son of cities. (2) And the people blessed all the

Joiarib, Jachin. (11) Seraiah the son of men, that willingly offered themselves to

Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son dwell at Jerusalem.

of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son (3) Now these are the chief of the pro

of Ahitub, was the ruler of the house of vince that dwelt in Jerusalem : but in

God. (12) And their brethren that did the cities of Judah dwelt every one in

the work of the house were eight hunhis possession in their cities, to wit, Is

dred twenty and two : and Adaiah the rael, the priests, and the Levites, and

son of Jeroham, the son of Pelaliah, the the Nethinims, and the children of Solo- ' as there of son of Amzi, the son of Zechariah, the mon's servants. (4) And at Jerusalem

son of Pashur, the son of Malchiah, dwelt certain of the children of Judah,

(13) and his brethren, chief of the fathers, and of the children of Benjamin.

two hundred forty and two: and AmaOf the children of Judah; Athaiah

shai the son of Azareel, the son of Ahasai, the son of Uzziah, the son of Zechariah,

the son of Meshillemoth, the son of the son of Amariah, the son of Shepha

Immer, (14) and their brethren, mighty tiah, the son of Mahalaleel, of the chil

men of valour, an hundred twenty and dren of Perez; (5) and Maaseiah the son

eight: and their overseer was Zabdiel, of Baruch, the son of Col-hozeh, the son

I the son of one of the great men. of Hazaiah, the son of Adaiah, the son

(15) Also of the Levites : Shemaiah the of Joiarib, the son of Zechariah, the

son of Hashub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Shiloni. (6) All the sons of

son of Hashabiah, the son of Bunni; Perez that dwelt at Jerusalem were four 2 Heb., were over. (16) and Shabbethai and Joza bad, of the hundred three score and eight valiant

chief of the Levites, "had the oversight men,

of the outward business of the house of (7) And these are the sons of Benjamin;

God. (17) And Mattaniah the son of Sallu the son of Meshullam, the son of

Micha, the son of Zabdi, the son of Joed, the son of Pedaiah, the son of Ko

Asaph, was the principal to begin the laiab, the son of Maaseiah, the son of

thanksgiving in prayer: and Bakbukiah Ithiel, the son of Jesaiah. (8) And after

the second among his brethren, and him Gabbai, Sallai, nine hundred twenty

Abda the son of Shammua, the son of and eight. (9) And Joel the son of

Galal, the son of Jeduthun. (18) All the Zichri was their overseer: and Judah

Levites in the holy city were two hun

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The rest of the people.The rulers being already (4—19) The heads in Jerusalem: as compared with in the capital, Nehemiah ordered that one man in ten 1 Chron. ix., by no means complete. Judah and should be chosen by lot to transfer his family.

Benjamin are represented, with priests and Levites and Jerusalem the holy city.-Remembering the

porters. separation ” that had taken place (chap. ix.), and the recent covenant (chap. x.), we see the solemnity of this (4) Perez.-In 1 Chron. ix. the descendants of Perez epithet, now first used, and repeated in verse 18. Then (or Phares) are not given: but the descendants of Zerah, shall Jerusalem be holy, and no strangers shall pass present there, are absent here. This may be a question through her any more (Joel iii. 17). But the New of the right reading of the text. Testament brings another comment on the phrase.

(5) The son of Shiloni.-Better, the Shilonite, or (2) The people blessed all the men that wil. descendants of Shelah, youngest son of Judah. lingly offered themselves.-We are not told that (7) The Benjamites were represented by two families, any compensation was made to them; and these words and

gave the city two prefects (verse 9). seem to indicate that the chosen ones freely submitted, (101 This should be read Jedaiah, Joiarib, Jachin, their patriotism being applauded by all. — Jerusalem three priestly families (1 Chron. ix. 10). was the post of danger, and in any case it was a hard- (11) Seraiah.-The high-priestly family name. Eliaship to leave their country possessions (verse 3). shib was the present occupant.

(3) of the province.-This betrays the hand of (14) Of valour.-Able for the service of God's Nehemiah, who was still a Persian official as well as house: men of ability, therefore. a governor of Judah ; and it shows that here we have

The son of one of the great men.-Rather, son a general heading for the rest of the chapter. Both of Haggedolim. city and country are included in the rest of the verse. (16) Outward business. This is a remarkable

Ísrael.-The two Israelitish tribes were represented, specification of the functions of the Levites, parallel but, like Judah before, this has become a generic with the “ valour” of the priests just before. The

preceding chapter explains the "outward business."


chosen by lot


to dwell in Jerusalem.

( See ch, 3. 36.

2 Or, The torcer.

3 Or, a sure ordin


4 Or, of Geba.

5 Or, to Michmash.

b Ezra 2. I.

6 Or, Melicu, ver.


7 Or, Shebaniah,

Ver. 14.

dred fourscore and four. (19) Moreover 1 Heb.a! the gates. villages thereof, (29) and at En-rimmon, the porters, Akkub, Talmon, and their

and at Zareah, and at Jarmuth, (30) Zabrethren that kept the gates, were an

noah, Adullam, and in their villages, at hundred seventy and two.

Lachish, and the fields thereof, at Aze(20) And the residue of Israel, of the

kah, and in the villages thereof. And priests, and the Levites, were in all the

they dwelt from Beer-sheba unto the cities of Judah, every one in his inherit

valley of Hinnom. ance. (21) . But the Nethinims dwelt in

(31) The children also of Benjamin Ophel: and Ziha and Gispa were over

4 from Geba dwelt bat Michmash, and the Nethiniins.

Aija, and Beth-el, and in their villages, (22) The overseer also of the Levites at

(32) and at Anathoth, Nob, Ananiah, Jerusalem was Uzzi the son of Bani, the

(33) Hazor, Ramah, Gittaim, (34) Hadid, son of Hashabiah, the son of Mattaniah,

Zeboim, Neballat, (35) Lod, and Ono, the the son of Micha. Of the sons of Asaph,

valley of craftsmen. the singers were over the business of the

(36) And of the Levites were divisions house of God. (23) For it was the king's

in Judah, and in Benjamin. commandment concerning them, that sa certain portion should be for the singers,

CHAPTER XII.-(1) Now these are due for every day.

the “priests and the Levites that went (24) And Pethahiah the son of Meshe

up with Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, zabeel, of the children of Zerah the son o vor: s. Mercioth, and Jeshua : Seraiah, Jeremiah, Ezra, of Judah, was at the king's hand in all

(2) Amariah, Malluch, Hattush, (3) 7 Shematters concerning the people.

10 Or, 'Ginnethon, chaniah, Rehum, 'Meremoth, (4) Iddo, (25) And for the villages, wit.. their

10 Ginnetho, Abijah, (5) 11 Miamin, 12 Maafields, some of the children of Judah u or, Miniamin. diah, Bilgah, (6) Shemaiah, and Joiarib, dwelt at Kirjath-arba, and in the vil

Jedaiah, 17) 13 Sallu, Amok, Hilkiah, Jelages thereof, and at Dibon, and in the

daiah. These were the chief of the priests villages thereof, and at Jekabzeel, and

and of their brethren in the days of in the villages thereof, (26) and at Jeshua,

Jeshua. and at Moladah, and at Beth-phelet, 3.0", Sallai, ver. (8) Moreover the Levites : Jeshua, Bin(27) and at Hazar-shual, and at Beer

nui, Kadmiel, Sherebiah, Judah, and sheba, and in the villages thereof, (28) and 14 That is the Mattaniah, which was over 14 the thanksat Ziklag, and at Mekonah, and in the

giving, he and his brethren. (9) Also

8 Or, Harim, ver.


Ver. 16.

Ver. 17.

12 Or, Moadiah,

Ver. 17.

paulms of thanks-

(19) An hundred seventy and two.-In 1 Chron. (25) The children of Judah are now described very ix. the number is 212. The difference between the generally with respect to their distribution. two accounts may partly be explained by the fact Kirjath-arba.-Hebron no longer, the ancient name that in the Chronicles the list is confined to those who being now recovered. came with Zerubbabel, while here addition is made of In the villages thereof.-Literally, the daughters those who came with Ezra. But see the commentary thereof; being a different word from the villages” at on 1 Chron. ix.

the beginning. (20—36) The heads in the country.

(30) From Beer-sheba unto the valley of

Hipnom.-The men of Judah spread from the ex. (21) Ophel.—The Nethinims on the promontory of treme south to the extreme north of Judah, an extent Ophel were either within or without the city, according of some fifty miles. as the one wall or the other was taken. Here they are (31) From Geba.-This verse should read : the child. regarded as outside.

ren also of Benjamin dwelt from Geba to Michmash. (22) The overseer.-Pakid, or visitor.

(36) And of the Levites.-The fewness of the Of the sons of Asaph.-It requires no disturb. Levites in the country warranted their summary notice ance of the original to read the whole of Uzzi's pedi. gree: " the son of Micha, of the sons of Asaph, the

XII. singers in the service of the house of God." Thus with the prayer of verse 17 there is a parallel.

(1—9) The priests and Levites of the First Return. (23) Tho king's commandment.-It seems that (1) Seraiah, Jeremiah, Ezra.-The first is the Artaxerxes had gone beyond the exemption of Ezra vii. family name, represented by Jeshua. Of the two 24, and given them a daily allowance, which it was others we know nothing more than this record gives. the business of Uzzi to see to.

(6) And Joiarib.- The "and" begins the list of (24) of the children of Zerah.-This makes the those who did not seal the covenant. See a like “and” absence of Zerah in the beginning of the chapter very in verse 19. remarkable, and suggests some accidental omission. (7) These were the chief.-Genealogically, but not

At the king's hand.-Pethahiah was the king's according to the courses, which are in none of the lists agent in all the country matters of the province." complete.

in this way.

The Levites.


The Dedication of the Walls.

a 1 Chr. 9. 14, &c.

Bakbukiah and Unni, their brethren, were over against them in the watches.

(10) And Jeshua begat Joiakim, Joiakim also begat Eliashib, and Eliashib begat Joiada, (11) and Joiada begat Jonathan, and Jonathan begat Jaddua.

(12) And in the days of Joiakim were priests, the chief of the fathers : of Seraiah, Meraiah; of Jeremiah, Hananiah; (13) of Ezra, Meshullam ; of Amariah, Jehohanan; (14) of Melicu, Jonathan; of Shebaniah, Joseph; (15) of Harim, Adna; of Meraioth, Helkai ; (16) of Iddo, Zechariah; of Ginnethon, Meshullam ; (17) of Abijah, Zichri ; of Miniamin, of Moadiah, Piltai ; (18) of Bilgah, Shammua; of Shemaiah, Jehonathan; (19) and of Joiarib, Mattenai; of Jedaiah, Uzzi; (20) of Sallai, Kallai; of Amok, Eber; (21) of Hilkiah, Hashabiah ; of Jedaiah, Nethaneel.

(22) The Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Johanan, and Jaddua, were recorded chief of the fathers : also the priests, to the reign of Darius the Persian. (23) The sons of Levi, the chief of the fathers, were written in the book of the a chronicles, even until the days of Johanan the son of Eliashib.

(24) And the chief of the Levites; Hashabiah, Sherebiah, and Jeshua the son of Kadmiel, with their brethren over against them, to praise and to give thanks, according to the commandment of David the man of God, ward over against ward.

(25) Mattaniah, and Bakbukiah, Obadiah, Meshullam, Talmon, Akkub, were porters keeping the ward at the threshholds of the gates. (26) These were in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua, the son of Jozadak, and in the days of Nehemiah the governor, and of Ezra the priest, the scribe.

(27) And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem, to keep the dedication with gladness, both with thanksgivings, and with singing, with cymbals, psalteries, and with harps. (28) And the sons of the singers gathered themselves together, both out of the plain country round about Jerusalem, and from the villages of Netophathi ; (29) also from the house of Gilgal, and out of the fields of Geba and Azmaveth: for the singers had builded them villages round about Jerusalem,

(30) And the priests and the Levites purified themselves, and purified deres series, or, the people, and the gates, and the wall.

(31) Then I brought up the princes of Judah upon the wall, and appointed two great companies of them that gave thanks, whereof one went on the right hand upon the wall toward the dung gate : (32) and after them went Hoshaiah, and half of the princes of Judah, (33) and Azariah, Ezra, and Meshullam, (34) Judah, and Benjamin, and Shemaiah, and Jeremiah, (35) and certain of the priests' sons with


(10, 11) Pedigree of certain high priests, with supple- (27—43) The dedication of the wall. Henceforth ment from a later hand. The six generations stretch Nehemiah speaks in his own person. over 200 years—from B.c. 536 to b.c. 332.

(27) They sought the Levites. The dedication (11) Jonathan.-Should be Johanan (verse 22); and

was to be processional and musical, as well as sacrificial : “Jaddua” is most probably the high priest who con

after the pattern of Solomon's dedication of the Temple. fronted Alexander the Great.

(29) The singers.-As the Nethinim were settled (12—26) List of representatives of Zerubbabel's priests

in Ophel, so the class of Levitical singers were chiefly in the days of Joiakim ; to which is added an account

to be found in villages to the north of the city.

(30) Purified themselves.- Before consecration to of the Levites in his day. Between these there is an interpolation (verses 22, 23).

God there must be purification from defilement. It is

made emphatic that both priests and Levites purified (14) Melicu is the “ Malluch" of verse 2, and Hat- themselves, that is, by offerings and ablutions (comp. 2 tush is omitted. Other anomalies of this kind may be Chron. xxix. 15; Ezra vi. 20): the gates and the wall noticed, of which no account can now be given.

by being sprinkled. (17) Of Miniamin.-Some name has dropped out. (31) The princes.—The chiefs were assembled some

(22, 23) The Levites. Here is an evident interpola- where on the south-west wall, and then divided into two tion. The writer says that the records of the heads companies. of courses was continued down to Jaddua and Darius (32) After them.-These verses show that the clerical Codomannus.

and the lay elements were mingled. (24) And the chief.-The account resumes with the (33) Ezra.- Probably the same as the Azariah preLevites, and gives a list of the extant officers of the

ceding. Temple, many names being the same as in earlier times. (34) Judah and Benjamin.-A singular colloca

(251 At the thresholds.-At the treasuries, or store- tion: the laity of Judah and Benjamin, with priests chambers attached to the several gates of the Temple. before and after.

The Offices of the Priests and Levites NEHEMIAH, XIII.

appointed in the Temple.

2 That is, appointed

ty the lui.

of Judah.

4 Heb., that stood.

al Chron. 25 & 26.

trumpets ; namely, Zechariah the son of 1 Hebu made thed the singers Isang loud, with Jezrahiah Jonathan, the son of Shemaiah, the son

their overseer. (13) Also that day they of Mattaniah, the son of Michaiah, the

offered great sacrifices, and rejoiced : son of Zaccur, the son of Asaph: (36) and

for God had made them rejoice with his brethren, Shemaiah, and Azarael,

great joy: the wives also and the chilMilalai, Gilalai, Maai, Nethaneel, and

dren rejoiced : so that the joy of JeruJudah, Hanani, with the musical in

salem was heard even afar off. struments of David the man of God, and 3 Hebfor the joy

(44) And at that time were some apEzra the scribe before them. (37) And at

pointed over the chambers for the treathe fountain gate, which was over against

sures, for the offerings, for the firstfruits, them, they went up by the stairs of the

and for the tithes, to gather into them city of David, at the going up of the

out of the fields of the cities the portions wall, above the house of David, even unto

of the law for the priests and Levites : the water gate eastward.

3 for Judah rejoiced for the priests and (38) And the other company of them that

for the Levites that waited. (45) And gave thanks went over against them, and

both the singers and the porters kept I after them, and the half of the people

the ward of their God, and the ward of upon the wall, from beyond the tower of " i Chron. 2.1,&c. the purification, “according to the comthe furnaces even unto the broad wall;

mandment of David, and of Solomon his (39)and from above the gate of Ephraim,

son. (46) For in the days of David and and above the old gate, and above the 5 That is, set apart. Asaph of old there were chief of the fish gate, and the tower of Hananeel,

singers, and songs of praise and thanksand the tower of Meah, even unto the

giving unto God. (477 And all Israel in sheep gate: and they stood still in the < Num. 16. 26. the days of Zerubbabel, and in the days prison gate.

of Nehemiah, gave the portions of the (40) So stood the two companies of them

singers and the porters, every day his that gave thanks in the house

thanks in the house of 6 Heh., there was portion : and they sanctified holy things God, and I, and the half of the rulers

unto the Levites; cand the Levites with me: (41) and the priests; Eliakim,

sanctified them unto the children of Maaseiah, Miniamin, Michaiah, Elioenai,

Aaron. Zechariah, and Hananiah, with trumpets; (12) and Maaseiah, and Shemaiah, and

CHAPTER XIII.- (1) On that day Eleazar, and Uzzi, and Jehohanan, and

6 they read in the dbook of Moses in the Malchijah, and Elam, and Ezer. And

And 1 Heb., ears. audience of the people; and therein


d Yum. 22. 5; Deut.

23. 3.

(36) With the musical instruments of David (44—47) Economical arrangements. the man of God. -No part of the service deviated from sacred precedents (comp. verse 27).

(44) For Judah rejoiced.-Not only was the Temple Ezra the scribe before them.-Between the service restored to something like the completeness of singers and the princes came he who was the greatest the Davidical period, the people also everywhere took in dignity, though the second in office.

pleasure in the ministrations of the Temple, and pro(38) The other company.-Comparing the order vided amply for them. Hence the need of men to with chap. iii., the reader will have a clear view of the take charge of the treasuries of the firstfruits and second company. They had the longer route, proceed.

tithes. ing to the left, rounding the north "broad wall," passing (45) Kept the ward. This should be read differently, the sheep-gate, and so meeting the priestly company The priests and Levites kept the ward of their God, and near the prison.gate. The space where they met had the the ward of purification, and the singers and porters, Temple straight in front, the prison-gate on the right, &c. To "keep the ward” is to observe the regular and the water-gate on the left.

times and seasons of sacrifice and thanksgiving. (39) The gate of Ephraim.-Not mentioned in the (46) Of old.-Always there is a reverence shown for process of repairing, as having remained comparatively the old precedents. intact with part of the “ broad wall.”

(47) The Levites.-Between the people and the (40) In the house of God.–They stood first out. | priests came the Levites, who received the tithe and side, but afterwards entered to present their offerings. gave the priests their “tithe of the tithe” (Num. But the main interest of the day was the professional xviii. 26). worship under the open heavens.

XIII. (41) And the priests.-Like the names of the priests and Levites in verse 35, these are personal; not (1—3) Reform as to mixed marriages. to be found in the former lists.

(43) Rejoiced. - This verse is full of joy; but (1) On that day.-Probably the season of the Feast before the rejoicing comes the abundant offering of of Tabernacles, as before. But portions were selected sacrifices.

i to be read.

Nehemiah reforms


various Abuses.

24. 9.

1 Heb.. being sct


2 Heb., the com

3 Heb., at the end of

was found written, that the Ammonite a Num. 22 5; Josh. of the king : (7) and I came to Jerusalem, and the Moabite should not come into

and understood of the evil that Eliashib the congregation of God for ever ; (2) « be

did for Tobiah, in preparing him a cause they met not the children of Israel

chamber in the courts of the house of with bread and with water, but hired

God. (8) And it grieved me sore: thereBalaam against them, that he should

fore I cast forth all the household stuff curse them : howbeit our God turned

of Tobiah out of the chamber. (9) Then the curse into a blessing. (3) Now it

I commanded, and they cleansed the came to pass, when they had heard the mendiment of the chambers : and thither brought I again law, that they separated from Israel all

the vessels of the house of God, with the the mixed multitude.

meat offering and the frankincense. (4) And before this, Eliashib the priest,

(10) And I perceived that the portions 'having the oversight of the chamberofthe days. of the Levites had not been given them: house of our God, was allied unto Tobiah

for the Levites and the singers, that did (5) and he had prepared for him a great

the work, were fled every one to his chamber, where aforetime they laid the soul.carnestly re field. (11) Then contended I with the meat offerings, the frankincense, and the

rulers, and said, Why is the house of vessels, and the tithes of the corn, the

God forsaken? And I gathered them new wine, and the oil, 2 which was com

together, and set them in their place.

5 Heb., standing. manded to be given to the Levites, and

(12) Then brought all Judah the tithe of the singers, and the porters; and the

the corn and the new wine and the oil offerings of the priests. (6) But in all

unto the treasuries. (13) And I made this time was not I at Jerusalem : for in

treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the two and thirtieth year of Artaxerxes

the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of king of Babylon came I unto the king,

the Levites, Pedaiah : and ?next to them and 3after certain days obtained I leave

was Hanan the son of Zaccur, the son of

6 Or, storehouses.

7 Heb., at their


not say


They read in the book of Moses." It was King of Babylon.-Probably it was at Babylon read” in the Pentateuch, and specially Deut. xxiii. that Nehemiah found the court, and therefore he does This is introduced for the sake of the action taken, and

King of Persia.” the history is given in brief, with a striking and charac. After certain days.-The time is left indefinite. teristic parenthesis of Nehemial's own concerning the But the “ two and thirtieth year” shows that he had curse turned into a blessing.

been in Jerusalem twelve years before his return to the Therein was found written.-What to the people king. generally was not known.

(8) It grieved me sore.-The second time we read For ever.- No Ammonite or Ammonite family of Nehemiah's deep emotion: first, because of the utter could have legal standing in the congregation, dissoluteness of which this was a token; and secondly, to their tenth generation;" and this interdict was to because it was a priestly desecration. last “ for ever.” It virtually though not actually (9) Cleansed.-There was a formal purification. It amounted to absolute exclusion.

is a note of minute accuracy that there is no mention (3) The mixed multitude. For the “mixed mul. of tithes being brought back as yet; the next verses titude," or Ereb, which plays so prominent a part in show why. Jewish history, see on Exod. xii. 38. The process here was that of shutting out heathens who were in the habit (10—13) The provision for the Levites. of mingling with the people in the services. In chap. ix. it was, as we saw, the people's separation from the (10) Fled every one to his field. They who perpractices and spirit of the heathen.

formed the work of the Temple were obliged to seek (4—9) The scandal of the high priest.

their sustenance by cultivating the fields apportioned to

them in the Levitical cities (Num. xxxv. 2). (4) Eliashib the priest, having the oversight. (11) Contended I with the rulers.--See their -Probably the high priest of chap. iii. 1, whose office express covenant in chap. x. 39. The rich men had alone would not have given him control over "the taken advantage of Nehemiah's absence to indulge their chamber:” that is, the series of chambers running covetousness. round three walls of the Temple. He was allied unto And I gathered them together.--The Levites Tobiah,” but in what

is not stated.

were summoned back from their fields. Before this.—That is, before the return of Nehe- (13) And I made.-The reform was made effectual miah ; indeed, there is a suspicious absence of Eliashib's by organisation. Eliashib had failed in his duty (verse name throughout the high religious festivities of the 4); and the appointment of treasurers (chap. xii

. 44) is preceding chapters.

now confirmed. One of the treasurers was a layman (5) A great chamber.-The sequel shows that many named Hanan (chap. x. 22); but they were all faithful small chambers had been thrown into one.

men, and are mentioned in connection with the building (6) Was not I at Jerusalem.-Parenthetical ex- of the wall. The majority being priests and Levites, planation of this disorderly state of things.

they distributed to their brethren.” Zadok was pro

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