Page images

The Assyrians Slain.


Hezekiah's Sickness.

B.C. cir. 710,

1 Heb., made him

B.C. 713,

king, and the prophet Isaiah the son B.C. 710. | (23) And many brought gifts unto the of Amoz, prayed and cried to heaven. 1.2 Kings 10. 35, LORD to Jerusalem, and ? presents to (21) a And the LORD sent an angel, which

Hezekiah king of Judah: so that he cut off all the mighty men of valour,

was magnified in the sight of all nations and the leaders and captains in the

from thenceforth. camp of the king of Assyria. So he

(24) • In those days Hezekiah was sick returned with shame of face to his own

to the death, and prayed unto the LORD: land. And when he was come into the choicesprecious and he spake unto him, and he s gave house of his god, they that came forth

him a sign. (25) But Hezekiah rendered of his own bowels 1 slew him there with 2 Kings 20. 1; not again according to the benefit done the sword. (22) Thus the LORD saved

unto him; for his heart was lifted up: Hezekiah and the inhabitants of Jeru

therefore there was wrath upon him, salem from the hand of Sennacherib the miracle jor him, and upon Judah and Jerusalem. (26) Notking of Assyria, and from the hand of

withstanding Hezekiah humbled himself all other, and guided them on every side. * hoc bo, the listing for 4 the pride of his heart, both he and

Isa. 38. 1.

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v. 12.

liverance (2 Kings xix. 16), and to which Isaiah referred (23) Brought.- Were bringing = used to bring. in his prophetic answer (Isa. xxxvii. 23). The prayer Gifts.-An offering (min hah), or tribute. of Hezekiah is given in 2 Kings xix. 15—19; Isa.. Presents to Hezekiah. - Among those who xxxvii. 15—20. The parallel passages do not say that brought such were the envoys of Merodach Baladan, Isaiah also prayed; but 2 Kings xix. 2–4, and Isa. king of Babylon (2 Kings xx. 12). Probably also the xxxvii. 244, report that the king sent a deputation of neighbouring peoples-e.g., the Philistines-relieved nobles to the prophet, requesting his prayers "for the from the pressure of the Assyrian invaders, would thus remnant that were left."

evince their gratitude to the God of Israel. (Comp. Cried to heaven.—Comp. chap. xxx. 27; 1 Sam. chap. xviii. 11.)

so that he was magnified

nations.(21) And the Lord sent an angel.-See 2 Kings Literally, and he was lifted up, to the eyes of all the xix. 35, seq.; Isa. xxxvii. 36, seq. Hitzig thinks that nations. Pss. xlvi.- xlviii. were composed by Isaiah to commemorate this great natural miracle, an hypothesis which

HEZEKIAH's SICKNESS-HIS PRIDE AND WEALTH is borne out by the similarity observable between the

-THE BABYLONIAN EMBASSY-CONCLUSION language and ideas of these psalms and those of

(verses 24—33). Isaiah's prophecies.

(24) In those days Hezekiah was sick.Which cut off . . . valour.-Literally, and he This single verse epitomises 2 Kings xx. 1–11; hid (i.e., caused to disappear, destroyed; the Greek Isa. xxxviii. åpavíceiv; Exod. xxiii. 23) every valiant warrior, and To the death.-Unto dying. leader and captain. (Comp. Ps. Ixxvi. 5, a psalm which He spake unto him.-By the mouth of Isaiah. in the LΧΧ. bears the title ωδή προς τον Ασσύριον.) And he gave him a sign.-The recession of the Kings gives the number of those who perished as

shadow on the dial of Ahaz. Literally, and a sign He 185,000.

gave him; the emphatic word first. With shame of face.-Ps. xliv. 15, “The shame (25) But Hezekiah.-For Hezekiah's pride, see the of my face hath covered me." (Ezra ix. 7.)

account of his reception of the Babylonian embassy (2 And when he was come

with the Kings xx. 12—19; Isa. xxxix.). sword.- And he went into the house of his god, and According to the benefit done unto him.certain of his own offspring there felled him with the In his illness he promised to walk humbly all his days sword. 2 Kings xix. 37 gives the names of the parri. (Isa. xxxviii. 15); but when he had recovered, “ his cides-viz., Adrammelech and Sharezer; and the name heart was lifted up." of the god-viz., Nisroch-which is probably corrupt. Therefore there was wrath upon him.It is added that the assassins “escaped into the land of And wrath fell upon him. The token of this was seen Ararat.” The chronicler as usual suppresses unfamiliar in Isaiah's prophetic rebuke, foretelling that the royal foreign names.

treasures would be carried away to Babylon, and that They that came forth.-Some of the issue some of Hezekiah's sons would be eunuchs in the (yāçî, a verbal noun only found here). (For the whole palace there (2 Kings xx. 16–18; Isa. xxxix. 5—-7). phrase, comp. Gen. xv. 4 ; 2 Sam. vii. 12.)

And upon Judah and Jerusalem. - Which (22) Thus.-And. The whole verse is the chroni. shared in the king's guilty pride and confidence in cler's own comment on the preceding narrative. (Comp. the arm of flesh. (Comp. 1 Chron. xxvii. 24; chap. 2 Kings xviii. 7.)

xix. 10.) The hand of all.-Some MSS. appropriately add (26) Notwithstanding.And. his enemies, an expression which may have fallen out The wrath of the Lord

days of of the text.

Hezekiah.-(Comp. Isa. xxxix. 8.) On hearing And guided them on everyside (round Isaiah's prophecy of coming evil, Hezekiah humbly about).—A somewhat unusual phrase. The conjecture, acquiesced in the will of Jehovah. • Then said "and gave them rest round about (wayyānah lihem Hezekiah unto Isaiah, Good is the word of the Lord for wayyểnahālēm), appears correct. (See chaps. xiv. 6, which thou hast spoken. And he said, There shall xv. 15, xx. 30; 1 Chron. xxii. 18.) So the LXX. and be peace and permanence in my own days” (2 Kings Vulg.

xx. 19).

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Hezekiah's Wealth


and Works

inants of desire.

B.C. 712.

the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that Heba, instru- Hezekiah also stopped the upper waterthe wrath of the Lord came not upon

course of Gihon, and brought it straight them in the days of Hezekiah.

down to the west side of the city of (27) And Hezekiah had exceeding much

David. And Hezekiah prospered in all riches and honour: and he made him

his works. (31) Howbeit in the business self treasuries for silver, and for gold,

of the ambassadors of the princes of and for precious stones, and for spices,

Babylon, who sent unto him to enquire and for shields, and for all manner of

of the wonder that was done in the land, pleasant jewels; (28) storehouses also for

God left him, to try him, that he might the increase of corn, and wine, and oil;

know all that was in his heart. and stalls for all manner of beasts, and

(32) Now the rest of the acts of Hezecotes for flocks. (29) Moreover he provided a king: 90. 12; kiah, and his 3 goodness, behold, they are him cities, and possessions of flocks and

written in the vision of Isaiah the proherds in abundance : for God had given

phet, the son of Amoz, and in the book him substance very much. (30) This same 3 Heb., kindnesses of the kings of Judah and Israel. (33) And

2 Heb., interpret


(27) Had.-Or, got.

(31) Howbeit.-Literally, And thus; that is, and Riches and honour (or, wealth ; kābôd).-Comp. when things were thus prosperous with him. In the 1 Chron. xxix. 28 (David); 2 Chron. i. 12 (Solomon), midst of Hezekiah's prosperity, God left him for a xvii. 5, xviii. 1 (Jehoshaphat).

moment to himself, by way of putting him to the proof. He made himself treasuries.-Comp. 2 Kings The princes of Babylon. — The same vague xx. 13; Isa. xxxix. 2, where silver and gold and spices plural which we have already noticed in chaps. xxviii. are mentioned among the treasures of Hezekiah. 16, xxx. 6, and verse 4, supra. The king who "sent

Shields.-Comp. Solomon's golden, and Rehoboam's letters and a present to Hezekiah, with congratu. brazen, shields. No doubt the term is here used to lations on his recovery from sickness, and overtures suggest arms in general. Kings and Isaiah mention of alliance against the common enemy, Assyria, was ' his armoury.”

Merodach-baladan (Maruduk-abla-iddina, “Merodach All manner of pleasant jewels.-Literally, all gave a son”). (See the account in 2 Kings xx. 12, vessels of desire. (Comp. Nah. ii. 10, “ wealth of every

seq.; Isa. xxxix.) vessel of desire.”) Costly implements and utensils of Who sent unto him to enquire of the all sorts are included.

wonder (Hebrew, the sign, as in verse 24).- This is (28) Storehouses also.-And magazines (chap. not mentioned in the parallel passage of Kings and viii. 4; Exod. i. 11).

Isaiah. But such an inquiry is quite in harmony with Stalls.—'Urāwóth (Syriac, 'arâwotho). (Comp. what we know of the Babylonians from their own úryộth, chap. ix. 25; and 'ăvēróth, cotes," à word monuments. Babylon was the home of the arts of only found here.)

divination and angury, from observation of all kinds All manner of beasts.-Every kind of cattle. of signs and portents in every department of nature.

Cotes for flocks.-Heb., and flocks for folds. Moreover, the sign given to Hezekiah would have a The words appear to have been transposed by some special interest for the astrologers and astronomers copyist. (Comp. LΧΧ., και μάνδρας εις τα ποίμνια, of the Babylonian temple-towers. “and folds for the flocks." So Vulg., " et caulas peco- God left him, to try him, that he might rum.' Syriac omits.)

know all that was in his heart.-—" To try," (29) Moreover he provided him cities.- And the same word as “to tempt” (Isa. vii. 12; Ps. xcv. 9; he made him watch-towers. The word rendered - cities" and often). (ārîm) appears in this connection to mean watch-towers That he might know-i.e., in order to bring out or forts for the protection of the flocks and herds. Isa. i. and make manifest the latent possibilities of Hezekiah's 8 ("a besieged city "); 2 Kings xvii. 9; chap. xxvi. 10. character. The Searcher of hearts knew the issue Had given.-Gave.

beforehand; but we can only conceive of His dealings Substance. – Wealth in kind, especially cattle with man by means of human analogies, such as that (chap. xxxi. 3).

of the chemist, who subjects an imperfectly known (30) This same Hezekiah also stopped.- substance to various combinations of circumstances, And he, Hezekiah, had closed in the upper outlet of by way of ascertaining its nature and affinities. The the waters of Gihon. (See verse 3.).

remark is peculiar to the chronicler. And brought city of David.- And con- (32) Now the rest of the acts. See 2 Kings ducted them underground to the west of the city of

xx. 20, 21. David. (Comp. 2 Kings xx. 20, where also this great And his goodness.His good deeds. So chap. work of Hezekiah is referred to in concluding bis xxxv. 26 (Josiah); Neh. xiii. 14. history : “He made the pool, and the aqueduct, and And in the book of the kings.--Omit and. brought the waters into the city.”) The chronicler gives The “vision of Isaiah” is referred to as a section further details.

of the “ book of the kings of Judah and Israel." (See Brought it straight.-Directed or conducted them Introduction.) Kings 1.c. says,

are they not written (wayyashshërēm; the form in the Hebrew margin is a in the book of the chronicles of the Kings of Judah ?”

(33) And they buried him ... honour at his appears in the text).

death.-Statements peculiar to the chronicler. They And Hezekiah prospered.-Chap. xxxi. 21 ; go to prove an authority besides the canonical books 1 Chron. xxix. 23.

of Kings.


Manasseh Reigns.


His Wickedness.

o Deut. 18. 9.

B.C. 608.

Hezekiah slept with his fathers, and 10r, highest. served them. (4) Also he built altars in they buried him in the chiefest of the

the house of the LORD, whereof the sepulchres of the sons of David : and all

a 2 Kings 21. 1, LORD had said, " In Jerusalem shall my Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem

name be for ever. (5) And he built altars did him honour at his death. And

for all the host of heaven in the two Manasseh his son reigned in his stead.

courts of the house of the Lord. (6) And

he caused his children to pass through CHAPTER XXXIII.-(1) Manasseh

the fire in the valley of the son of was twelve years old when he began to

Hinnom : also he observed times, and reign, and he reigned fifty and five years

used enchantments, and used witchin Jerusalem : (2) but did that which was

craft, and dealt with a familiar spirit, evil in the sight of the LORD, like unto

and with wizards: he wrought much the babominations of the heathen, whom

evil in the sight of the LORD, to prothe Lord had cast out before the children

voke him to anger.

(7) And he set a of Israel. (3) For ? he built again the high

carved image, the idol which he had places which Hezekiah his father had a Reutes 32 m2, made, in the house of God, of which broken down, and he reared up altars 3; ch.6.6, & 7.16. God had said to David and to Solomon for Baalim, and made groves, and wor

his son, In this house, and in Jerusashipped all the host of heaven, and . Ps. 182. 14. lem, which I have chosen before all the

2 Heb., he returned

and built.

C 2 Kings 18. 4.

The chiefest.-Rather, the ascent-ie., the way Also he observed times, and used enchantup to the royal tombs. (Comp. chap. xx. 16.) “The ments.-And he practised augury and divination. sons of David” are the kings of the house of David. Forbidden, Lev. xix. 26. The first words seem strictly Hezekiah may have chosen a favourite spot for his to mean “ observed clouds;” the second, observed burial-place; but, as his successors Manasseh, Amon, serpents." and Josiah likewise, were not laid in the tombs of the And used witchcraft.-And muttered spells or kings, it would appear that the old royal sepulchres charms. This word does not occur in the parallel were full.

place, but all the offences here ascribed to Manasseh Did him honour at his death.-The phrase, are forbidden in Deut. xviii. 10, 11. "did him honour” (asû kābõd ló) occurs here only. And dealt with a familiar spirit, and with (Comp. “give honour to," 1 Sam. vi. 5; Ps. xxix. 1.) wizards.--And appointed a necromancer and a Probably a great burning of spices was made in wizard. Kings has wizards. The source of all these honour of Hezekiah as of Asa. (See chaps. xvi. 14, modes of soothsaying was Babylon. Like the first xxi. 19.)

king of Israel, Manasseh appears to have despaired of

help or counsel from Jehovah. (Comp. Jer. xliv. 17, XXXIII.

18.) The heavy yoke of Assyria again weighed the THE REIGNS OF MANASSEH AND AMON.

nation down, and the great deliverance under Hezekiah

was almost forgotten. “ To all the Palestinian nations (1—20) The history of Manasseh. Duration and the Assyrian crisis had made careless confidence in the character of the reign. Restoration of idolatry (verses help of their national deities a thing impossible. As 1-10). This section is closely parallel with 2 Kings life was embittered by foreign bondage, the darker xxi, 1–10. Verses 1, 2, 5 are word for word the same aspects of heathenism became dominant. The wrath in both.

of the gods seemed more real than their favour; aton

ing ordinances were multiplied, human sacrifices (3) For.–And. (See margin.).

became more frequent, the terror which hung over all Broken down.-Chaps. xxiii. 17, xxxi. 1 ("threw the nations that groaned under the Assyrian yoke down”). Kings has “ destroyed” (ibbad).

found habitual expression in the ordinances of wore Baalim.-The Baalsi.e., the different images of ship; and it was this aspect of heathenism that came Baal. Kings has the singular, both here and in the to the front in Manasseh's imitations of foreign next word, “ groves,' or rather Asheras (Ashérôth ; religion” (Robertson Smith, The Prophets of Israel, Kings, 'Asherah). The latter plural is rhetorical: Ma.

p. 366). nasseh made such things as Asheras. (Comp. also the He wrought much evil.-Literally, he multiuse of the plural in chap. xxxii. 31, and the passages plied doing the evil. He was worse than his evil there referred to.) Kings adds: “ as Ahab king of predecesso Israel made.”

(7) And he set

had made,- And he set (4) Also he built

In Jerusalem.- the carven image of the idol which he had made. Literally as Kings. Manasseh built altars in the “Idol ” (sèmel) explains “ Asherah," the term used in Temple, as Ahaz had done (2 Kings xvi. 10, seq.). Kings. Both “ carven image” and “idol ” (Authorised

Shall my name be for ever.-A heightening Version, figure) occur in Deut. iv. 16. of the phrase in Kings, “I will set my name.

The house of God.- Chronicles has added, of (6) He.-Emphatic. Not in Kings.

God, by way of explanation. The Temple proper is Caused his children

fire.-The plural, meant, as distinct from the courts. as in chap. xxviii. 3, is rhetorical. Kings, “ his son.” Before all.-Out of all.

In the valley of the son of Hinnom.- For ever.-Lefélóm, a form only found here (eqniExplanatory addition by the chronicler.

valent to leôlām).


Manasseh's Sin.


He is carried to Babylon.

B.C. 677

tribes of Israel, will I put my name for fa 2 Sam. 7. 10. of Israel. (10) And the LORD spake to ever : (8) a neither will I any more remove

Manasseh, and to his people: but they the foot of Israel from out of the land

would not hearken. (11) Wherefore the which I have appointed for your fathers;

Lord brought upon them the captains so that they will take heed to do all

of the host of the king of Assyria, that I have commanded them, according

which took Manasseh among the thorns, to the whole law and the statutes and

and bound him with 2 fetters, and carthe ordinances by the hand of Moses. 1 Heh, which were ried him to Babylon. (12) And when he (9) So Manasseh made Judah and the

was in affliction, he besought the LORD inhabitants of Jerusalem to err, and to

his God, and humbled himself greatly do worse than the heathen, whom the

before the God of his fathers, (13) and LORD had destroyed before the children

prayed unto him : and he was intreated

the king's.

? Or, chains.

and my

(8) Remove.-Kings has a less common expression, Assurbanipal has left a list which is identical with that cause to wander."

of Esarhaddon, except that it gives different names for From out of (upon) the land (ground) which the kings of Arvad and Ammon. It thus appears that I have appointed.-Kings, with which the versions Manasseh paid tribute to him as well as to his father. agree, has the certainly original “from the ground Schrader (K.A.T., p. 367, seq.) thinks that Manasseh which I gave.”

was at least suspected of being implicated along with So that.-If only.

the other princes of Phænicia-Palestine in the revolt of And the statutes and the ordinances.-An Assurbanipal's brother Samar-sum-ukin (circ. 618explanatory addition. Kings has, And according to 6-17 B.c.) in which Elam, Gutium, and Meroë also all the Torah that Moses my servant commanded them.” participated; and that he was carried to Babylon, to

By the hand.-By the ministry or instrumentality. clear himself of suspicion, and to give assurances of his The phrase is a characteristic interpretation of what fidelity to the great king. we read in 2 Kings xxi. 8; for it carefully notes that Which took Manasseh among the thorns.the authority of the Lawgiver was not primary but And they took Manasseh prisoner with the hooks derived.

(ba-hóhim). The hooks might be such as the Assyrian (9) So Manasseh

heathen.-Literally, kings were wont to pass through the nostrils and lips And Manasseh led Judah and the inhabitants of of their more distinguished prisoners. Comp. Isa. Jerusalem astray, to do evil more than the nations. xxxvii. 29, “I will put my hook in thy nose, Thenius thinks that the words and Manasseh

bridle in thy lips ;” and comp. Amos iv. 2, “ He will astray, followed in the primary document immediately take you away with hooks, and your posterity with upon and he set the graven image in the house; the fish-hooks.” Comp. also Job xli. 2, “ Canst thou bore intermediate words being an addition by the editor of his jaw with a hook ?”. [The LXX., Vulg., Targ. Kings.

render the word "chains." Syriac confuses the word (10) And the Lord spake to Manasseh.- with chayyim, life,” and renders “ took Manasseh in “By the hand of his servants the prophets.” See his life.") Perhaps, however, the meaning is, and they 2 Kings xxi. 10–15, where the substance of the took Manasseh prisoner at Hohim. There is no reason prophetic message is given; and it is added (verse 16) why Hohim should not be a local name, as well as Coz that Manasseh also shed very much innocent blood, (1 Chron. iv. 8). “till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to the And bound him with fetters.-With the double other.” The reaction against the reforms of Hezekiah chain of bronze, as the Philistines bound Samson ended in a bloody struggle, in which the party of reform (Judg. xvi. 21). So Sennacherib relates: “Suzubu was fiercely suppressed.

king of Babylon, in the battle alive their hands took

him ; in fetters of bronze they put him, and to my MANASSEH'S CAPTIVITY AND REPENTANCE-HIS presence brought him. In the great gate in the midst

RESTORATION AND REFORMS (verses 11–17). of the city of Nineveh I bound him fast.” This hapThis section is peculiar to the Chronicle, and none

pened in 695 B.C., only a few years before the similar has excited more scepticism among, modern critics.

captivity of Manasseh. The progress of cuneiform research, however, has

And carried him.-Caused him to go, or led him proved the perfect possibility of the facts most dis


To Babylon.-Where Assurbanipal was holding puted, viz., the captivity and subsequent restoration of Manasseh.

his court at the time, as he appears to have done after

achieving the overthrow of his brother the rebellious (11) Wherefore.-And.

viceroy, and assuming the title of king of Babylon The captains of the host of the king of himself. Assyria. The generals of Esarhaddon, or rather, (12) When he was in affiction.-See this phrase perhaps, of Assurbanipal. The former, who reigned in chap. xxviii. 22. from 681–668 B.C., has recorded the fact that Ma. He besought.—Literally, stroked the face, a curious nasseh was his vassal. He says: “And I assembled realistic phrase occurring in Exod. xxxii. 11. the kings of the land of Hatti, and the marge of the The God of his fathers.—Whom he had forsaken sea, Baal king of Tyre, Me-na-si-e (or Mi-in-si-e) for the gods of aliens. Some MSS., and the Syriac, Tarking of Ya-u-di (i.e., Judah), Qa-us-gabri, king of gum, and Arabic insert “ Jehovah” before this phrase. Edom,” &c. “Altogether, twenty-two kings of the (13) He was intreated of him.-1 Chron. v. 20. land of Hatti [Syria), the coast of the sea, and the And brought him again to Jerusalem.-The middle of the sea, all of them, I caused to hasten,” &c. Assyrian monarch after a time saw fit to restore




of him, and heard his supplication, and brought him again to Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the LORD he was God.

(14) Now after this he built a wall without the city of David, on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, even to the 10r, The Tower. entering in at the fish gate, and compassed about 1 Ophel, and raised it up a very great height, and put captains of war in all the fenced cities of Judah. (15) And he took away the strange gods, and the idol out of the house of the LORD, and all the altars that he had built in the mount of the house of the LORD, and in Jerusalem, and cast them out of the city. (16) And he repaired the altar of the LORD, and sacrificed thereon peace offerings and thank offerings, and

commanded Judah to serve the LORD God of Israel. (17) Nevertheless the people did sacrifice still in the high places, yet unto the Lord their God only.

(18) Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh, and his prayer unto his God, and the words of the seers that spake to him in the name of the LORD God of Israel, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel. (19) His prayer also, and how God was intreated of him, and all his sins, and his trespass, and the places wherein he built high places, and set up groves and graven images, before he was humbled: behold, they are written among the sayings of 2 the seers. Manasseh slept with his fathers, and they buried him in his own house : and Amon his son reigned in his stead.

2 Or, Hosai.

(20) So


Manasseh to his throne as a vassal king. The case is his altars remained for Josiah to pull down (2 Kings exactly parallel to that of the Egyptian king Nikû xxii, 12). (Necho Ì.), who was bound hand and foot, and sent (16) Repaired.—Heb., built, i.e., rebuilt. Ewald to Nineveh; after which Assurbanipal extended his concludes from this that Manasseh had removed the clemency to his captive, and restored him to his former altar of burnt offering; and from Jer. iii. 16 that he state in his own country. (See Schrader, p. 371.) destroyed the ark of the covenant. (Some Hebrew Then.-And.

MSS., and many editions read prepared instead of That the Lord he was God.-That Jehovah was built ; but the Syriac and Arabic have the latter word, the true God. (Comp. 1 Kings xviii. 39, where the which is doubtless right.) same Hebrew words occur twice over.) (14) Now after this . valley. Rather,

CONCLUSION OF THE REIGN (verses 18—20). And afterwards he built an outer wall to the city of (18) His prayer unto his God.- This prayer may David westward unto Gihon in the ravine. Manasseh or may not have been the basis of the Apocryphal completed the wall begun by Hezekiah (chap. xxxii. 5). Prayer of Manasses, preserved in the LXX. This highly circumstantial account of the public works The words of the seers that spake to him. undertaken by Manasseh after his restoration, is utterly -See Note on verse 10, supr. These "words of the unlike fiction, and almost compels the assumption of a

were incorporated in the great history of the real historical source, no longer extant, from which the kings, which is mentioned at the end of the verse, and whole section has been derived.

which was one of the chronicler's principal authorities. Even to the entering in of the fish gate. - Written. - This word, though wanting in our The fish-gate lay near the north-east corner of the present Hebrew text, is read in some MSS., and in the lower city (Neh. iii. 3). The direction of the outer Syriac, Targum, and Arabic. wall is described first westward, and then eastward. The book.The history, literally, words. 2 Kings

And compassed about Ophel.–And surrounded xxi. 17 refers, as usual, to the “Book of the Chronicles the Ophel (mound); scil., with the wall, which he carried of the Kings of Judah." on from the north-east to the south-east. Uzziah and (19) His prayer also . of him.- And his Jotham had already worked upon these fortifications prayer, and the hearing him. Literally, and the being (chaps. xxvi. 9, xxvii. 3). Manasseh now finished propitious to him (the same verb as in verse 13 and them, “raising them up to a very great height.”

Gen. xxv. 21). Raised it-i.e., the outer wall.

All his sins, and his trespass. — All his sin And put captains of war.—(Comp. chaps. xvii. and his unfaithfulness. 2 Kings xxi. 17 has, “And 2, xxxii. 6.) Literally, captains of an army (sūré his sin that he sinned.” The chronicler, as usual, chayil).

heightens the expression. Of Judah.-Heb., in Judah. Some MSS. and the Groves.-The Ashërim. (See Note on verse 3.) Vulgate read as the Authorised Version.

Among the sayings of the seers. In the (15) Took away the strange gods.-- Comp. history of Hozai. This work was, therefore, the source verses 3-7. For the phrase "strange gods” (ělôhê from which the chronicler derived his additional innēkār), see Gen. xxxv. 2.

formation about the reign of Manasseh. (See Intro. The idol.--That is, the Asherah (verses 3, 7; 2 duction.) The LXX. has “the seers; but the Vulg., Kings xxi. 7, xvii. 16).

“in sermonibus Hozai," and the Syriac, " in the story of In the mount of the house. — The temple Hanan the prophet.” It is pretty clear that Hozai hill. Thenius says: the courts with the altars in them is simply a mutilated form of ha-hózîm, “the seers," (2 Kings xxi. 4, 5).

a term which occurred in verse 17. Cast them out.-Comp. chap. xxix. 16, xxx. 14. (20) In his own house.—2 Kings xxi. 18, “and Manasseh’s reform was hardly complete, for some of he was buried in the garden of his house, in the garden

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