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Huram's Answer.


The Strangers in the Land.

2 Heb., Japho.

house for his kingdom. (13) And now I'll moeding which my lord hath spoken of, let him have sent a cunning man, endued with

send unto his servants :

(16) and we understanding, of Huram my father's,

will cut wood out of Lebanon, las much (14) the son of a woman of the daughters

as thou shalt need : and we will bring of Dan, and his father was a man of

it to thee in flotes by sea to ? Joppa ; Tyre, skilful to work in gold, and in

and thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem. silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in

(17) a And Solomon numbered all 3 the timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine a As ver. 2. strangers that were in the land of Israel, linen, and in crimson; also to grave any

after the numbering wherewith David manner of graving, and to find out

his father had numbered them; and every device which shall be put to him,

they were found an hundred and fifty with thy cunning men, and with the

thousand and three tLousand and six cunning men of my lord David thy

hundred. (18) And he set b threescore father. (15) Now therefore the wheat,

and ten thousand of them to be bearers and the barley, the oil, and the wine, o As it is ver. 2. of burdens, and fourscore thousand to be

3 Heb., the men the


(13) Endued with understanding.–See the writings; 1 Kings v. 8 has the classical phrase, “ all same phrase in 1 Chron. xii. 32.

thy desire.” of Huram my father's.-Rather, Huram my În flotes.-Heb., raph södóth. Another isolated ex. father-i.e., master, preceptor, as in chap. iv. 16, where pression. Rendered "rafts” by the LXX. and Vulgate, Huram is called the “father” of Solomon. (Comp. but omitted by Syriac and Arabic. 1 Kings v. 9 has Gen. xlv. 8; Judg. xvii. 10; xviii. 19. So LXX. and dóběróth, “rafts,” which settles the meaning. Vulgate ; Syriac omits.)

To Joppa.–1 Kings v. 9 has the less definite “unto (14) The son of a woman of the daughters of the place that thou shalt appoint me.” Joppa (modern Dan.-In 1 Kings vii. 14 Hiram is called “son of a Jaffa) was the harbour nearest Jerusalem. widow of the tribe of Naphtali.” Bertheau explains, And thou shalt carry it up to Jerusalem."She was by birth a Danite, married into the tribe of This interprets the curt phrase of 1 Kings v. 9, and Naphtali, became a widow, and as a widow of the tribe thou shalt take (them) away.of Naphtali became the wife of a man of Tyre, by whom A comparison of this and the parallel account of she had a son Huram. Thus two of the tribes of Israel Huram's letter makes it clear (1) that the chronicler has could boast that on the mother's side Huram belonged not written without knowledge of the older text; (2) to them.” But in the Hebrew words “daughters of that neither text has preserved the exact form of the Dan” it is possible to see a corruption of the word original documents. From Josephus (Ant. viii. 2, 8) NAPHTALI.

it would appear that some record of the negotiations Skilful.-This epithet belongs to Huram, not to his between Huram and Solomon was still extant at Tyre Tyrian father.

in his day, if only we might trust his authority. To work in gold.–1 Kings vii. 14 calls Huram

(17, 18) Solomon's levy of Canaanite labourers. (A simply“ a worker in brass,” or bronze.

return to the subject of verse 2.) Purple. The strictly Hebrew form (verse 7).

Fino linen (bûç, byssus).—1 Chron. xv. 27. Neither (17) All the strangers.-The indigenous Canaanite this material of Huram's art, nor stone nor timber was population. (Comp. the use of the term in Gen. xxiii. mentioned in verse 7. Huram is naturally represented 4; Exod. xxii. 21 ; Lev. xvii. 8.) as enhancing the accomplishments of his artist.

After the numbering.–The word sěphâr, reckTo find out every device which shall be put oning,” “census,” occurs here only in the Old Testato him.-Rather, to devise any manner of device that ment. may be given him (to devise); that is, to invent all Wherewith David his father.-The former kinds of artistic objects according to commission. The census of the native Canaanites, which had taken place words are a reminiscence of Exod. xxxi. 4, xxxv. 32, by order of David, is briefly recorded in 1 Chron. xxii. 2. probably interpolated by the chronicler.

(Comp. 2 Sam. xx. 24, "and Adoram was over the levy," With thy cunning men-i.e., to work along from which it appears that the subject population was with them. (Comp. verse. 7.)

liable to forced labour under David ; comp. also 1 Kings My lord David.-A touch of Oriental politeness. iv. 6; v. 14 ; xii. 418.) Huram was independent of David, as of Solomon.

And they were found.—The total of the numbers (15) The wheat, and the barley.-See verse 10. here given is 153,600, which is the sum of the figures Huram accepts Solomon's proposed exchange of assigned in the next verse, viz., 70,000 + 80,000 benefits.

+5,600. His servants.- Huram means himself and his (18) And he set ...-Literally, and he made seventy court. The term is the correlative of " lord.”

thousand of them bearers of burdens, and eighty (16) And we will cut wood.-The we is emphatic, thousand hewers in the mountains. This exactly agrees and we, on our part, the pronoun being expressed in with 1 Kings v. 15. the Hebrew.

And three thousand and six hundred overWood (="timber,” verses 8, 9, 10, 14).—Properly seers.-The same number was given in verse 2. In trees.

1 Kings v. 16 we read of 3,300 officers. In the HeAs much as thou shalt need.- See margin. brow, three (shālósh) and six (shēsh) might easily be “Need” (çörek) occurs here only in the Old Testament. confused; onr reading appears right. The chronicler The word is common in the Targums, and in Rabbinic omits all notice of the levy of 30,000 Israelites, which The Place of the Temple.


The Measure and Ornaments.


1 Or, which 100%

seen of Dacid his father.

B.C. 1012.

hewers in the mountain, and three fa 1 Kings 6.1, &c. (3) Now these are the things wherein thousand and six hundred overseers to

Solomon 3 instructed for the set the people a work.

building of the house of God. The

length by cubits after the first measure CHAPTER III.-(1) Then a Solomon

was threescore cubits, and the breadth began to build the house of the LORD at

twenty cubits. (1) And the porch that Jerusalem in mount Moriah, 'where the Sha 4 raunals i was in the front of the house, the length of LORD appeared unto David his father, in

it was according to the breadth of the the place that David had prepared in the

house, twenty cubits, and the height threshingfloor of 2 Ornan the Jebusite.

was an hundred and twenty: and he (2) And he began to build in the second

overlaid it within with pure gold.

(5) day of the second month, in the fourth

And the greater house he cieled with year of his reign.

fir tree, which he overlaid with fine

Chron. 21. 18.

b 1 Kings 6. 2.

3 Heb., founded.

cl Kings 6.3.

vi. 2).

the parallel passage records (1 Kings v. 13, 14); whether differently. Read simply, “ And he began to build in by an oversight, or from disapproval, we cannot say. the second month," i.e., in Zif (or April-May). See Adding that number to the 70,000 and 80,000 other 1 Kings vi. 1. labourers, we get a grand total of 180,000, which gives (6) DIMENSIONS OF THE TEMPLE ; a company of 50 for each of the 3,600 overseers.

THE PORCH Overseers.--Heb. měnaççěhîm. Only here and in

AND THE HOLY PLACE, OR NAVE (verses 3—7). verse 2 supra, and chap. xxxiv. 13. It is the plural of (3) Now these are the things wherein Soloa participle which occurs only in the titles of the mon was instructed. - Rather, And this is the Psalms (including Hab. iii. 19), while the verb is read foundation (or ground-plan) of Solomon. The plural only in Chronicles and Ezra iii. 8, 9. (See Note on pronoun ēllè, “ these,” is used as a neut. sing. "this ” 1 Chron. xv. 21.)

(comp. 1 Chron. xxiv. 19), and the hophal infinitive To set the people a work-i.e., on work or hûsad, to be founded,” is used substantively, as in a-working. (Comp. "I go a-fishing," John xxi. 3.) Ezra iii. 11. So Vulgate, “ Et haec sunt fundamenta Literally, to make the people work.

quæ jecit Solomon.”

After the first measure.-Rather, in the ancient III.

measure, an explanation not found in the parallel THE BUILDING OF THE TEMPLE AND MAKING OF

passage, 1 Kings vi. 2. The ancient or Mosaic cubit THE SACRED VESSELS (chaps. iii.-v. 1; comp.

was one hand-breadth longer than the cubit of later 1 Kings vi., vii.).

times (Ezek. xl. 5; xliii. 13). The chronicler has

omitted the height, which was thirty cubits (1 Kings (a) Site and date (verses 1, 2). (b) Its dimensions : the porch and the Holy Place, or nave (verses 3—7). (1) And the porch ... twenty cubits.—Heb., (c) The Holy of holies, or chancel, with the cherubim and the porch that was before the length (i.e., that lay and the vail (verses 8-14). (d) The two bronze pillars in front of the oblong main building), before the breadth in the porch (verses 15–17).

of the house, was twenty cubits (i.e., the porch was as (a) SITE AND DATE (verses 1, 2).

long as the house was broad). This curious state.

ment answers to what we read in 1 Kings vi. 3: (1) At Jerusalem in mount Moriah.-Nowhere “And the porch before the hell of the house, twenty else in the Old Testament is the Temple site so cubits was its length, before the breadth of the house." specified. (Comp. "the land of Moriah," the place But the Hebrew is too singular to pass without chalappointed for the sacrifice of Isaac, Gen. xxii. 2.) lenge, and comparison of the versions suggests that we

Where the Lord appeared unto David his ought to read here : “ And the porch which was before father. -So LXX.; rather, who appeared unto David it (Syriac), or before the house (LXX.), its length before his father. Such is the meaning according to the the breadth of the house was twenty cubits.This common use of words. There is clearly an allusion to would involve but slight alteration of the Hebrew text. the etymology of MORIAH, which is assumed to signify (Comp. verse 8.) " appearance of Jah.” (Comp. Gen. xxii. 14.) Translate, And the height was an hundred and twenty. “in the mount of the Appearance of Jah, who appeared This would make the porch four times the height of the unto David his father." The Vulgate reads : “in main building, which was thirty cubits. The AlexanMonte Moria qui demonstratus fuerat David patri

drine MS. of the LXX., and the Arabic version, read ejus ;” but nir’ah never means to be shown or pointed “twenty cubits;” the Syriac omits the whole clause, out. The Syriac, misunderstanding the LXX. (Auwpla), which has no parallel in Kings, and is further sus. renders “in the hill of the Amorites.”

picious as wanting the word “cubits,” usually exIn the place that David had prepared. This pressed after the number (see verse 3). The Hebrew is no doubt correct, as the versions indicate. The may be a corruption of the clause, “and its breadth ten Hebrew has suffered an accidental transposition. cubits." (Comp. 1 Kings vi. 3.)

In the threshingfloor of Ornan.-1 Chron. And he overlaid it within with pure gold.xxi. 28; xxii. 1.

See 1 Kings vi. 21. (2) In the second day of the second month.- (5) The greater house.-Or, the great chamber, i.e., Heb., in the second month in the second. The versions the Holy Place, or nave. (Comp. 1 Chron. xxviii. 11.) omit the repetition, which is probably a scribe's error. He cieled with fir tree.- He covered with planks “On the second day” would be expressed in Hebrew of fir ; or, panelled with fir. To ciel, or rather seel

The Gold.


The Cherubims.

gold, and set thereon palm trees and

the house, twenty cubits, and the breadth chains. (6) And he garnished the

thereof twenty cubits: and he overhouse with precious stones for beauty :

laid it with fine gold, amounting to six and the gold was gold of Parvaim. "(7) 1 Heb., covered. hundred talents. (9) And the weight of He overlaid also the house, the beams,

the nails was fifty shekels of gold. And the posts, and the walls thereof, and the

he overlaid the upper chambers with gold. doors thereof, with gold; and graved 2. or. (as some (10) And in the most holy house he cherubims on the walls. (8) And he

made two cherubims of image work, made the most holy house, the length

and overlaid them with gold. (11) And whereof was according to the breadth of

the wings of the cherubims were twenty

think) of more-
able work.


(from syle or cyll, a canopy: Skeat, Etymol. Dict. s.v.) Six hundred talents.-The weight of gold thus a room, meant in old English to wainscot or panel it. expended on the plating

of the walls of the inner shrine (Comp. 1 Kings vi. 15, 16.)

is not given in Kings. Solomon's whole yearly revenue Which he overlaid with fine gold. — And was 666 talents (1 Kings x. 14). covered it (the chamber) with good gold. The cypress (9) And the weight of the nails was fifty wainscoting was plated with gold.

shekels of gold.-Literally, And a weight for nails And set thereon palm trees and chains.- for shekelsfifty in gold. The LXX. and Vulg. take Brought up on it (i.e., carved upon it) palms and chain- this to mean that the weight of each nail was fifty work (1 Kings vii. 17). (For the palms, see 1 Kings shekels; and this is probably right, for fifty shekels as vi. 29; Ezek. xli. 18.) The chain work must have a total would be a triĦing sum to record along with six consisted of garland-like carvings on the fir panels. hundred talents. The nails were used to fasten the 1 Kings vi. 18 omits mention of it; LXX., “carved on golden plates to the wooden wainscoting of the edifice. it palms and chains”; Syriac, “ figured on it the like- Whatever may be thought of the apparently, inness of palms and lilies”; Vulgate, “graved on it credible quantities of gold and silver stated to palms and as it were chainlets intertwining."

have been amassed by David for the Temple (1 Chron. (6) Garnished.-Overlaid (verse 4) the chamber. xxii. 14 ; xxix. 4, 7), it is clear that no inconsiderable

Precious stones. -See 1 Chron. xxix. 2; and amount of the former metal would be required 1 Kings x. 11, which relates that Hiram's fleet brought for the plating of the chambers as described in this “precious stones” from Ophir for Solomon. But no chapter. And it is well known, from their own mention of this kind of decoration is made in 1 Kings monuments, that the Babylonian sovereigns of a vi. The Vulgate explains the phrase as meaning a later age were in the habit of thus adorning the floor of costly marble.

houses of their gods. Nebuchadnezzar, for instance, Gold of Parvaim.-Perhaps Farwâ, an auriferous who restored the great temple of Borsippa, says: region in S. Arabia. Others connect the word with the · E-zida, the strong house, in the midst thereof I caused Sanskrit pûrva,“ eastern," and seek Parvaim, like Ophir, to make, with silver, gold, alabaster, bronze . . . cedar in India. The name does not recur in the Old Testament. I caused to adorn (or, completed) its sibir. The cedar

(7) He overlaid also the house. And he covered of the roof (?) of the shrines of Nebo with gold I (verse 5) the chamber—that is, the great chamber or caused to clothe.” In another inscription we read : Holy Place. (See 1 Kings vi. 21, 22, 23.)

“The shrine of Nebo, which is amid E-Sagili, its The beams.-Of the roof.

threshold, its bolt, and its babnaku, with gold I caused The posts.-The thresholds (Isa. vi. 4).

to clothe.” And again : “The cedar roof of the oracle And graved cherubims on the walls.-See I caused to clothe with bright silver.” The Assyrian 1 Kings vi. 29, which gives a fuller account of the Esarhaddon, a century earlier, boasts that he built ten mural decorations.

castles in Assyria and Accad, and “ made them shine Cherubims.-Cherubim, or cherubs (Ps. xviii. 10). like day with silver and gold.” Cherubim is the Hebrew plural, for which we have the And he overlaid. And the upper chambers he Chaldee (Aramaic) form “cherubin ” in the Te Deum. covered with gold. The chambers over the Holy of Shakspeare has :

holies are mentioned in 1 Chron. xxviii. 11. The two “The roof of the chamber

statements of this verse are peculiar to the chronicle. With golden cherubins is fretted."

The Syriac and Arabic omit the verse.
Cymbeline, ii. 4.

(10) Two cherubims.–1 Kings vi. 23—28. They Why Reuss calls this sketch of the porch and nave were made of oleaster, plated with gold. confused” is hardly evident.

of image work.-Literally, a work of statuary.

The Hebrew word meaning “statuary” occurs here (c) THE HOLY OF HOLIES, OR CHANCEL, WITH THE

only, and looks suspicious. The Vulg. renders opere CHERUBIM AND THE VAIL (verses 8-14).

statuario; the LXX. "a work of logs”; the Syriac (8) The most holy house.-The chamber of the “a durable work.” With the last three renderings Holy of holies, or chancel, called also the oracle (Děbîr), comp. 1 Kings vi. 23, “wood (or blocks) of oleaster,a 1 Kings vi. 5. (So verse 10.)

specially hard wood. The rendering of the LXX. The length whereof was according to the suggests that the original reading may have been breadth of the house, twenty cubits. Its ma'asėh êçîm, “woodwork." length before the breadth of the house was twenty And overlaid.-Heb., and they overlaid. cubits. (See Note on verse 4.)

(11) And the wings of the cherubims were And the breadth thereof twenty cubits.- twenty cubits long.-Their length was, altogether, 1 Kings vi. 20 adds that the height also was twenty twenty cubits ; so that, being outspread, they reached cubits, so that the chamber formed a perfect cube. from wall to wall of the Holy of holies, which was The Vail and Pillars.


The Altar of Brass.

Matt. 27. 51.

Jer. 32. 21.

cubits long: one wing of the one cherub 10r, toward the (15) Also he made before the house was five cubits, reaching to the wall of

two pillars of thirty and five cubits the house: and the other wing was like

3 high, and the chapiter that was on the wise five cubits, reaching to the wing of

top of each of them was five cubits. the other cherub. (12) And one wing 2 fle)caused to (16) And he made chains, as in the oracle, of the other cherub was five cubits,

and put them on the heads of the reaching to the wall of the house: and ) 1 kings 7. 15: pillars; and made an hundred pomethe other wing was five cubits also,

granates, and put them on the chains. joining to the wing of the other cherub.

(17) And he reared up the pillars before (13) The wings of these cherubims spread

the temple, one on the right hand, and themselves forth twenty cubits; and

the other on the left; and called the name they stood on their feet, and their faces

of that on the right hand * Jachin, were 1 inward.

4 That is, He shall and the name of that on the left 5 Boaz. (14) And he made the avail of blue, and purple, and crimson, and fine linen, and

CHAPTER IV. - (1) Moreover he wrought cherubims thereon.

* That is. In it is made an altar of brass, twenty cubits

3 Heb., long.

c1 Kings 7. 21.


twenty cubits wide. Of this breadth each cherub which is clearly corrupt. But if we read kad-debîr for covered half, or ten cubits, with his wings, which were bad-debîr, an infinitesimal change in Hebrew writing, five cubits apiece in length. Obviously the inner wing we get the sense which our version suggests : And he of each cherub met the inner wing of the other in the made chainwork as in the chancel. It is true that the middle of the wall.

sacred writer has not told us that the walls of the Holy One wing ... other cherub.The wing of the of Holies were so ornamented, but in verse 5 he states one, extending to five cubits, was touching the wall of it of the great hall or holy place, and 1 Kings vi. 29 the chamber, and the other wing-five cubitswas declares that the whole house was adorned with mural touching the wing of the other cherub.

carvings. It was quite natural to write, “and he made (12) Literally, And the wing of the one cherub-five chainwork as in the oracle,” assuming that such decoracubits-was touching the waŭ of the chamber, and the tions really existed in the inner chamber. There seems other wing-five cubitswas cleaving to the wing of therefore to be no need to alter debîr into rābid, the other cherub.

(“collar”) as most commentators have done, although (13) The wings of these cherubims.-Or, These the change is very slight in Hebrew writing. The wings of the cherubim.

LXX. had the present Hebrew text, but, apparently, not Spread themselves forth.-Were outspreading understanding it transliterated the Hebrew words: (participle), 1 Chron. xxviii. 18.

“ He made serserôth in the dabîr.” So Vulg., " as it And they stood.-Were standing. They were ten were chainlets in the oracle.” The Syriac and Arabic cubits high (1 Kings vi. 26).

have “and he made chains of fifty cubits.” Inward. - See margin. Translate, toward the An hundred pomegranates.-So Jer. lii. 23. chamber. The cherubs did not face each other like the (See 1 Kings vii. 20, 42, from which it appears that cherubim on the mercy seat (Exod. xxv. 20).

there were altogether four hundred pomegranates, viz., (14) The vail.— The Pārökheth, or curtain, which an upper and lower row of one hundred each upon the divided the holy place from the holy of holies, is not chainwork of each pillar. So chap. iv. 13.) mentioned in the existing text of 1 Kings vi. 21, which (17) Before the temple.-Vulg., in vestibulo passage, however, speaks of the chains of gold by which templi. So 1 Kings vii. 21 has, “at the porch of the The vail was probably suspended.

temple.” 1 Kings vii. 22 adds, “ and upon the top of Blue, and purple, and crimson, and fine the pillars was lily-work.” linen.-See Notes on chap. ii. 7, 14.

Jachin ... Boaz.-See 1 Kings vii. 21. Wrought.-See Note on “set,” verse 5. Here description of the two brazen pillars,” says Reuss, raised figures in tapestry or broidered work are meant. “much more detailed in 1 Kings vii. 15 ff., has become (See Exod. xxvi. 31, which gives an identical descrip- almost unintelligible, under the pen of the abbreviator.” tion of the vail of the tabernacle.)

This is a strong exaggeration. He also pronounces the

word bad-debîr in verse 16"absolutely unintelligible,” (d) THE Two BRONZE PILLARS IN THE PORCH

and to be accounted “foreign to the text.” How little (verses 15–17). Comp. 1 Kings vii. 15—22.

we agree with this hasty decision will be evident from (15) Before the house.-Before the holy place, in our Note on that verse. the porch. Two pillars of thirty and five cubits high.


. Two pillars thirty and five cubits in length. 1 Kings (a) The principal vessels of the Temple (verses 1-10). vii. 15 says “ eighteen cubits,” so also 2 Kings xxv. 17; (b) Huram's works in brass (verses 11-18). Jer. lii. 21; and no doubt correctly. Of the versions, (c) Catalogue of golden objects, and conclusion the LXX. and Vulg. have "thirty-five;" the Syriac verse 19—chap. v. 1). and Arabic, “eighteen.” The chapiter-i.e., the capital. French, chapitre.

a) THE PRINCIPAL VESSELS OF THE TEMPLE Literally, the ornament. 1 Kings vii. 16 has the

(verses 1-10). crown; 80 2 Chron. iv. 12.

THE BRAZEN ALTAR (verse 1). (16) And he made chains, as in the oracle.- (1) An altar of brass.-The brazen altar, or altar of Heb., And he made chainwork in the oracle, or chancel, burnt offering, made by Solomon, is not noticed in the

“ The The Molten Sea.


The Ten Lavers.

the length thereof, and twenty cubits a 1 Kings 7. 23, &c. three looking toward the north, and the breadth thereof, and ten cubits the

three looking toward the west, and three height thereof.

looking toward the south, and three (2) a Also he made a molten sea of ten

looking toward the east: and the sea cubits from brim to brim, round in onze trimerinis was set above upon them, and all their compass, and five cubits the height

hinder parts were inward. (5) And the thereof; and a line of thirty cubits did

thickness of it was an handbreadth, and compass it round about. (3) * And under

the brim of it like the work of the brim it was the similitude of oxen, which did 0 1 Kings 7. 24. of a cup, 'with flowers of lilies; and compass it round about: ten in a cubit,

it received and held three thousand compassing the sea round about. Two

baths. rows of oxen were cast, when it was

(6) He made also ten lavers, and put cast. (4) It stood upon twelve oxen,

a formerliko a lily five on the right hand, and five on the


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parallel chapters of Kings (1 Kings vi., vii.) which means beyond the resources of ancient art. (Comp. describe the construction of the temple and its vessels the reliefs on the bronze doors of Shalmaneser II. of service, but it is incidentally mentioned in another (859—825 B.c.); 1 Kings vii. 29 actually gives passage of the older work (1 Kings ix. 25), and its an analogous instance.) The word pěqa'im, "wild existence seems to be implied in 1 Kings viii. 22, 64. gourds,” only occurs in one other place of Kings, viz., This altar stood in the inner court of the temple. i Kings vi. 18. (Comp. pagquoth, 2 Kings iv. 39.) It rose from a terraced platform. (Comp. Ezek. xliii. A copyist of Kings might have inadvertently repeated 13—17.) The Hebrew of this verse is such as to the word from the former passage in 1 Kings vii. 24. suggest that it must have existed in the original docu- any case it is sheer dogmatism to assert that “ the ment. The style is the same. (Comp. the construction copyists in the Chronicle) have absurdly changed the of the numerals with the noun, and note the word gourds into oxen (Reuss). The Syriac and Arabic qômāh," height,” now used for the first time by the omit this verse; but the LXX. and Vulg. have it. chronicler.) It would appear, therefore, that the verse (4) It stood. The whole verse coincides verbally has been accidentally omitted from the text of Kings. with 1 Kings vii. 25, with one slight exception: the THE BRAZEN SEA (verses 2-5). (Comp. 1 Kings

common form of the numeral “twelve,shnêm āsār,

is substituted for the rare shnê āsār. vii. 23—26.)

(5) And the thickness

a cup.-Identical (2) Also he made a molten sea.-And he made with 1 Kings vii. 26. the sea (i.e., the great basin) molten-i.e., of cast metal. With flowers of lilies.-See margin. “Lily” here Of ten cubits ... thereof.-Ten in the cubit is shốshannah ; in Kings, shoshān. LXX., “graven

in he cubit was its height. Word for word as in 1 Kings beautiful.” Vulg., " like the lip of a cup, or of an open vii. 23, save that Kings has one different preposition lily.” ('ad, “unto," instead of 'el, to”. Lip.” Comp: And it received and held three thousand * lip of the sea,” Gen. xxii. 17 ; " lip of the Jordan," baths.-Literally, holding (whole) baths : three thou2 Kings ii. 13; a metaphor which is also used in sand would it contain. The bath was the largest of Greek.

Hebrew liquid measures. Perhaps the true reading is, And a line of thirty cubits : .-Line, i.e., “ holding three thousand baths, the last verb being a measuring-line, as in Ezek. xlvii. 3. The Hebrew is gloss borrowed from Kings. So Vulg. Syriac and qāw. In Kings we read a rare form, qāweh. The rest Arabic omit the clause. The LXX. had the present of the clause is the same in both texts.

reading. 1 Kings vii. 26 reads, two thousand baths Did compass.-Would compass, or go round it. would it contain. Most critics assume this to be

(3) And under it was the similitude of oxen. correct. Some scribe may have read 'alāphím, “thou-Literally, And a likeness of oxen (figured oxen) sands," instead of 'alpayim, “ two thonsand," and then under it around surrounding it, ten in the cubit en- have added “three” (shělösheth) under the influence of compassing the sea around : two rows were the oxen,

the last verse.

But it is more likely that the numeral smelted in the smelting of it. In the parallel passage " three” having been inadvertently omitted from the (1 Kings vii. 24) we read : And wild gourds under- text of Kings, the indefinite word “thousands” was neath its lip around surrounding it,. &c., as here; made definite by turning it into the dual “two thoutwo of rows were the gourds, smelted in the smelting sand.” Either mistake would be possible, because in thereof. The Hebrew words for “oxen” and “gourds the unpointed text 'alāphim and 'alpayim are written might easily be confused by a transcriber, and accord- alike. The Syriac has the curious addition," And he ingly it is assumed by most commentators that the text made ten poles, and put five on the right and five on of the chronicler has suffered corruption, and should the left, and bare with them the altar of burnt offer. be restored from that of Kings. But there seems ings.” Similarly the Arabic version.

-unless we suppose that each writer has given an exhaustive description, which is clearly not

THE TEN LAVERS: THEIR USE, AND THAT OF THE the case—why the ornamental rows which ran round

Sea (verse 6). (Comp. 1 Kings vii. 27—39.) the great basin should not have included both features, (6) The chronicler now returns to his abbreviating small figures of oxen, as well as wild gourds. Reuss style, and omits altogether the description of the ten objects on the ground of the diminutive size of the bases, or stands, upon which the lavers were placed, oxen (“ten in a cubit"); but such work was by no and which are described in full and curious detail in

no reason

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