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The Stock of Jonathan.


Saul's overthrow.

bi Sam. 31. 1, 2

Esh-baal. (10) And the son of Jonathan a ch. 8. 35. CHAPTER X. — (1) Now bthe Philiswas Merib-baal : and Merib-baal begat

tines fought against Israel; and the Micah. (41) And the sons of Micah were,

men of Israel fled from before the PhilisPithon, and Melech, and Tahrea," and

tines, and fell down Islain in mount Ahaz. (12) And Ahaz begat Jaral; and

Gilboa. (2) And the Philistines followed Jarah begat Alemeth, and Azmaveth, 1 Or, wounded. hard after Saul, and after his sons; and and Zimri; and Zimri begat Moza;

the Philistines slew Jonathan, and (43) and Moza begat Binea ; and Rep

-Abinadab, and Malchi-shua, the sons haiah his son, Eleasah his son, Azel his

of Saul. (3) And the battle went (44) And Azel had six sons, whose

sore against Saul, and the Sarchers hit names are these, Azrikam, Bocheru, and

shooters him, and he

was wounded of the Ishmael, and Sheariah, and Obadiah,

archers. () Then said Saul to his and Hanan : these were the sons of

armourbearer, Draw thy sword, and Azel.

1 H«b., found him. thrust me through therewith ; lest

? Or, Ishui, 1 Sam.

14. 19.


3 IIb.

with borcs.

Shaddai with the Assyrian term sadu, “mountain.” The men of Israel.-Heb., man—a collective ex.
But it seems better to explain it from the root shādāh, pression, which gives a more vivid image of the rout.
“to pour out,” which is found in Aramaic and Arabic; They fled as one man, or in a body. Samuel has the
so that Shaddai would signify“ giver of rain.” (Comp. plural.
Joel ii. 23.)

Fell down slain in mount Gilboa.-The Jebel

Baal has been compounded with Nadab, to form a Fakua rises out

of the pain of Jezreed to a Height of

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single name, Baal-nadab, Baal is prince.” (Comp. one thousand seven hundred feet. The defeated army Baal-gad, “ Baal is Gad; Baal-hanan, “Baal is of Saul fell back upon this mountain, which had been bounteous,” chap. i. 49.) In that case Ner is out of their first position (1 Sam. xxviii. 4), but were pursued place.

thither. Slain ” is right, as in verse 8. (13) Rephaiah appears in the contracted form (2) The Philistines followed hard after Saul. Rapha in chap. viii.

- Literally, clave to Saul, that is, hotly pursued him. (44) With the omission of the sons of Eshek and (Comp. 1 Kings 22, 31.) The destruction of the king Ulam here, comp. the similar abridgment of the list and his sons would make their triumph complete. in chap. vi. 4—15, when repeated in the same chap. at The sons of Saul.-Omit the. Eshbaal, Saul's verses 50–53. This suggests that the present omission fourth son, was not in the battle (2 Sam. ii. 8. Comp. is not due to inadvertence, but either to the design of chap. viii. 33). Like Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, the chronicler or to a like omission in his source. Saul may have witnessed the death of his sons (2 Kings

xxv. 7). Jonathan, at least, would not be far from him Chaps. x.-xxix.—The history of King David, who in the last struggle. · In their deaths they were not made Jerusalem the political and religious centre of divided.” Israel, organised the Levitical ministry in its perma- (3) The battle went sore against Saul.-Liternent shape, and amassed great stores of wealth and ally, was heavy upon (Samuel, “unto") him, like a material for the Temple, which his son and successor burden weighing him to the earth. was to build.

And the archers hit him.-Literally, And they that

shoot with the bow came upon him; and he shuddered X.

(Sam., “ greatly ) before the shooters. He shuddered A BRIEF NARRATIVE OF THE OVERTHROW AND or trembled ” (Deut. ii. 25). The verb is properly to

DEATH OF Saul, BY WAY OF PRELUDE TO THE writhe, travail (Isa. xxiii. 4). Saul's deadly terror was

natural. He believed himself forsaken of God, and Verses 1–12 are parallel to 1 Sam. xxxi. 1–13.

stood now, after a lost battle, beset by murderous foes,

wliom he could not reach. There was no chance of a The general coincidence of the two texts is so exact as

fair hand to hand encounter, The Heb. word for to preclude the supposition of independence. We know that the chronicler has drawn much in his earlier

"archers” is the same in both places in Sam. (môrîm); chapters from the Pentateuch; and as he must have

here a rarer form (yôrím, 2 Chron. xxxv. 23) fills the been acquainted with the Books of Samuel, it is à priori

second place. The Philistines were from Egypt, and likely that he made a similar use of them. At the

the bow was a favourite Egyptian arm. The hieroglyph same time, a number of small variations--on an average,

for “soldier” (menfat) is man with bow and three at least in each verse—some of which can neither

quiver. be referred to the freaks or mistakes of copyists nor

(4) And Saul said.-So Abimelech (Judges ix. 54).

Lest these uncircumcised come. - Sam. adds to the supposed caprice of the compiler, may be taken to indicate the use of an additional source, or perhaps

" and thrust me through.” An inadvertent repetition of a text of Samuel differing in some respects from

there, or omission here, is possible. Or, we might say, that which we possess. (See Introduction.)

Saul preferred death by a friendly stroke to the thrusts

of insulting foemen. (1) Now the Philistines fought against And abuse me.-The Hebrew means, strictly, “to Israel. - For a similarly abrupt beginning, comp. Isa. make a toy of,”

sport with.”

"How I have made a ii. 1. The battle was foughs in the plain of Jezreel, or toy of Egypt” (Exod. x. 2); and is used (Jer. xxxvii. 19) Esdraelon, the scene of so many of the struggles of of insulting a fallen foe, as here. ancient history. (Comp. Hosea ii. 10: “I will break Took a sword.-Literally, the sword — i.e., his the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.”)

sword. 262

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Death of Saul.


The Philistine's Triumph.

these uncircumcised come and labuse me.

But his armourbearer would not ; for he was sore afraid. So Saul took a sword, and fell upon it. (5) And when his armourbearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell likewise on the sword, and died. (6) So Saul died, and his three sons, and all his house died together. (7) And when all the men of Israel that were in the valley saw that they fled, and that Saul and his sons were dead, then they forsook their cities, and fled : and the Philistines came and dwelt in them.

(8) And it came to pass on the morrow,

when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his sons fallen in mount Gilboa. (9) And when they had stripped him, they took his head, and his armour, and sent into the land of the Philistines round about, to carry tidings unto their idols, and to the people. (10) And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.

(11) And when all Jabesh-gilead heard all that the Philistines had done to Saul, (12) they arose, all the valiant men, and took away the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, and brought them to

1 Or, mock me.

(5) He fell likewise on the sword. Sam., neither see nor hear beyond their own temples. (Comp. “ his sword,” i.e., the sword of the armour-bearer. 1 Kings xx. 23, 28; Ps. xciv. 9.)

And died.-Samuel adds “ with him," which seems (10) In the house of their gods.-Or god, as to be omitted here for brevity, which may be the reason LXX. Samuel, "house of Ashtaroth,” which the of other similar omissions. Loyalty to his chief, and chronicler or his source paraphrases, perhaps from a perhaps dread of the foe, were the armour-bearer's repugnance to mentioning the idol's name. Ashtoreth motives.

had a great temple at Ascalon, as · Heavenly Aphro(6) And all his house died together.-Instead dite” (Herod., Hist. i. 108). The “Queen of Heaven of this Samuel reads " and his armour-bearer; also all (Jer. vii. 18) was worshipped by the Semitic races his men on that day together.” The LXX. adds “on generally. Under the name of Ishtar, she was a chief that day” here, while in Samuel it omits “ all his meu," goddess of the Assyrians, and had famous temples at thus minimising the differences of text. It is mere Nineveh and Arbela. The Sabaans worshipped pedantry to press the phrases "all his men,” “all his her as Athtùr ; and the name Ashtûr is coupled with house." The strength of these expressions indicates Chemosh on the Moabite Stone. the completeness of the overthrow.

Fastened his head in the temple of Dagon.The chronicler was fully aware that some of Saul's Literally, and his skull (gulgoleth-comp. Golgotha, house were not engaged in this battle (chap. ix. 35). Matt. xxvii. 33) they fastened in the house of Dagon. And in any case, the chief warriors of his household, Instead of this, we read in Samuel, " and his corpse and immediate followers, died with the king.

they fastened to the wall of Beth-shan.” It is hardly (7) That were in the valley:-Rather, the plain, likely that the one reading is a corruption of the other. in which the main battle was fought—that of Jezreel. The chronicler has omitted the statement about Saul's Samuel has “that were on the other side of the plain, corpse, which is not mentioned in verse 9, and supplied and on the other side of the Jordan.” The curt phrase one respecting his head, which has been already spoken “who (dwelt) in the plain,” may be compared with of in that verse. He found the fact in his additional chap. ix. 2. The people of the surrounding districts source, if the clause in question has not dropt out of are meant; who, when they “saw that they” (viz., the text of Samuel. Saul's army,

“the men of Israel,” Samuel) • fled," or The Accadians worshipped Dagon, as we learn from had been routed, deserted “their (Samuel, 'the,' the cuneiform inscriptions : comp. the name Ismiperhaps a transposition of letters) cities” which were Dagan (Dagon hears). then occupied by the Philistines.

(12) All the valiant men.-- Literally, every man Dwelt in them.-The pronoun here is masculine, of valour. Samuel adds, "and marched all the night.” in Samuel, feminine, which is correct.

Took away.- Carried of. Samuel has“ took," (8) His sons.-Samuel, “his three sons." Other. (ceperunt). wise the two verses are word for word the same.

The body.-A common Aramaic word, gûfäh, only (9) And when they had stripped him.-Better, read here in the Old Testament, for which Samuel and they stripped him, and carried of his head, &c. has the pure Hebrew synonym g'wiyah. Samuel adds, Samuel," and they cut off his head, and stripped his " from the wall of Beth-shan." armour off.”. With the phrase “ carried off his head,” And brought them. — Samuel, “and came to comp. Gen. xl. 19, “ Pharaoh will lift thy head from Jabesh, and burnt them there.” To burn a corpse was off thee,” where the same Hebrew verb is used (yissä). a further degradation of executed criminals (Josh. vii.

And sent (Saul's head and armour) to carry 25; Lev. xx. 14, xxi. 9), and as the Jews did not tidings unto their idols.-The verb bassēr is used ordinarily practise cremation, it is supposed that the of good and bad tidings, especially of the former, as in phrase "burnt them,” in 1 Sam. xxxi. means “made a 2 Sam. xviii. 19, 20.

burning for them” of costly spices, as was done at the Unto their idols.-Samuel, “ house of their idols.” funerals of kings (Jer. xxxiv. 5; 2 Chron. xvi. 14, But the LXX. reading there is the same as here, tois xxi. 19). But perhaps the bodies were burnt in this eidámous. The expression of Samuel looks original, though exceptional case because they had been mutilated by the it may have been copied by mistake from verse 10. enemy. Note the strictly local conception of deities implied in Buried their bones.-Samuel, “took and buried.” this act of the Philistines; as if their idols could

The phrase

their bones,” contrasted with their Saul's Sin.


A Gathering of Israel.

B.C. 1048.

1 Heb., trans


& 1 Sam. 15. 33.

Jabesh, and buried their bones under

CHAPTER XI.-(1) Then call Israel the oak in Jabesh, and fasted seven

gathered themselves to David unto Hedays.

bron, saying, Behold, we are thy bone (13) So Saul died for his transgression

and thy flesh. (2) And moreover 3in which he committed against the LORD,

time past, even when Saul was king, A even against the word of the LORD, 0 1 Sam. 28. 7. thou wast he that leddest out and which he kept not, and also for asking 2 Heb., Isai. broughtest in Israel: and the Lord thy counsel of one that had a familiar spirit,

God said unto thee, Thou shalt feed oto enquire of it ; (14) and enquired not

my people Israel, and thou shalt be of the LORD: therefore he slew him, and " :Heb; bethae von ruler over my people Israel. (3) Thereturned the kingdom unto David the son

fore came all the elders of Israel to the of 2 Jesse.

king to Hebron; and David made a

c Sam. 5. I.

third day.

4 Or, rule.

“corpses,” certainly seems to imply that the latter had Turned the kingdom unto David.-By means been burnt.

of the warriors of Israel (chap. xii. 23). This sentence The oak.-Heb., terebinth, or turpentine tree. shows that chap. x. is transitional to the history of Samuel, “tamarisk.” The difference points to another David as king source used by Chronicles.

XI. And fasted seven days.- In token of mourning. (Comp. the friends of Job, Job ii. 11–13; and Ezekiel The chapter contains (1) the election of David in among the exiles at Tel-abib, Ezek. iii. 15.) For the Hebron, and his conquest of Jerusalem (verses 1–9); behaviour of the men of Jabesh, comp. 1 Sam. xi. (2) a list of David's chief warriors, with short notices

of their famous deeds (verses 10–47). (13, 14) A concluding reflection from the mind of the

(1--9) Parallel to 2 Sam. v. 1–10. chronicler himself. He sums up his extract concerning the ruin of Saul by assigning the moral ground of it, (1) Then all Israel gathered themselves.viz., Saul's “unfaithfulness whereby he showed himself Literally, and. “Then” is too definite a mark of time. unfaithful to Jehovah.” The same charge was made The chronicler passes over the subsequent history of against the Transjordan tribes in chap. v. 25, and the house of Saul, and its decline under the feeble Ishagainst the people of Judah in chap. ix. I.

bosheth, who reigned at Mahanaim as a puppet-king in

the hands of Abner his powerful kinsman and general (13) Even against the word of the Lord.–Saul's (2 Sam. ii.-iv.). unfaithfulness was twofold: (1) he did not observe All Israel.-This proves that the allusion is not to the prophetic word of Jehovah (comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 13, David's election by Judah (2 Sam. ii. 4). xv. 11); and (2) he consulted a necromancer, to the Hebron, the burial-place of the patriarchs, was neglect of consulting Jehovah (1 Sam. xxviii.).

the capital of Judah, the tribe of David. And also for asking counsel.- And also by Thy bone and thy flesh.- A proverb first of consulting the necromancer in order to get a response. physical, then of moral unity (Gen, ii. 23; Judges ix. * Turn ye not to the necromancers (Lev. xix. 31). 2). It was not as if David were some valiant foreigner, (See also Isa. viii. 19.) Saul broke the general law of like certain of his own heroes. Moreover, the affection his people, as well as special commands addressed to and sympathy of the tribes were with him, whose life himself. No allusion is made to his cruel slaughter of of struggle and success had marked him out as their the priests (1 Sam. xxii. 18), nor to his implacable divinely chosen leader. hatred of David.

(2) In time past.-Yesterday, or three days since. (14) And enquired not of the Lord.–Saul had, A

very indefinite phrase, used in Gen. xxxi. 2 of a time in fact, enquired of Jehovah before resorting to the witch fourteen years since, and 2 Kings xiii. 5 of more than of En-dor,“ but the Lord answered him not, neither by forty years ago. the dreams, nor by the Urim, nor by the prophets Leddest out.-To battle. (1 Sam. xxviii. 6).' We shall not be reading a meaning Broughtest in.-Of the homeward march. David of our own into the text if we say that Saul's natural had thus already discharged kingly functions. (Comp. impatience (1 Sam. xiii. 13) on this occasion betrayed 1 Sam. viii. 20, xviii. 6, 13, 27; 2 Sam. iii. 18.) him again ; he at once despaired of help from his God, The Lord thy God said unto thee.-1 Sam. instead of seeking it with self-humiliation and peni- xvi. 13. tence. His character is consistently drawn throughout Thou shalt feed my people.-Literally, shepherd the history. The sin that ruined the first king was es- or tend them. The same term is used of the Lord Him. sentially that which led to the final ruin of the nation, self (Isa. xl. 11; Ps. lxxx. 1). The king then is God's viz., unfaithfulness to the covenant-God.

The same

representative, and as such his right is really Divine word characterises both. (Comp. verse 13 with chaps. (Rom. xiii. 1). The cuneiform documents reveal the v. 25, ix. 1.)

interesting fact that the term “ shepherd,” as applied to Therefore he slew him.-God acts through the sovereigns, is as old as the pre-Semitic stage of Babyloinstrumentality of His creatures. In this case He em- nian civilisation (the second millennium B.C.). ployed the Philistines, and the suicidal hand of Saul (3) Therefore came all the elders of Israel.himself; just as He employed the Assyrian conquerors The assembly of elders, the Senate of Israel, make a of a later age to be the scourge of guilty peoples contract with David concerning his prerogative and the (Isa. x. 5—15), and raised up Cyrus to be His servant, rights of his people, thus formally determining “ the who should fulfil all His pleasure (Isa. xliv. 28, xlv. manner of the kingdom.” (Comp. 1 Sam. viii. 9 seq., 1-13).

x. 25.) Representative institutions appear to have been David Anointed.


Joab made Chief.

b 2 Sam. 5. 6.

2 Heb., head.

covenant with them in Hebron before 1 Heh., by the hand (6) And David said, Whosoever smiteth the LORD; and they anointed David

the Jebusites first shall be chief and king over Israel, according to the word a 1 Sam. 16. 13 captain. So Joab the son of Zeruiah of the LORD l by Samuel.

went first up, and was chief.

(7) And (4) And David and all Israel \went to

David dwelt in the castle; therefore Jerusalem, which is Jebus; where the

they called 3 it the city of David. (8) And Jebusites were, the inhabitants of the 3 That is, Zion, 2 he built the city round about, even from land. (5) And the inhabitants of Jebus

Millo round about: and Joab 4 repaired said to David, Thou shalt not come 1 Heb. revived. the rest of the city. (9) So David waxed hither. Nevertheless David took the 5 Hebe, went in greater and greater: for the LORD of castle of Zion, which is the city of David. and in hosts was with him.

Sam. 5. 1.


the role in the best period of Israel's national existence. Chief and captain. - Literally, shall become a The elders or hereditary heads of the tribal subdivisions head and a captain. met in council to discuss and settle matters of national Joab the son of Zeruiah is not mentioned at concern. (Comp. chap. xii. 23.)

all in the parallel passage. Joab already appears as Before the Lord. In the presence of the high David's general, while Ishbosheth is yet reigning at priest, and perhaps before the ark; comp. Exod. xxi. 6; Mahanaim (2 Sam. ii. 13, iii. 23). Perhaps the phrase i Sam. ii. 25, where the priestly judge is called God, here used means head and governor of Jerusalem. as representing the authority of the Divine judge (Comp. verse 8.) (Exod. xxii. 28).

Went up.-Scaled the rampart, “and became a According to the word of the Lord by head.” Samuel.-A reflection added by the chronicler, and (7) Castle.--Stronghold, fastness. (Comp. 2 Sam. based upon the facts related in 1 Sam. xv. 28, xvi. v. 7.) In verse 5 the form is méçûdāh, here it is the 1-13.

rare masculine form, moçad : comp. Ar. maçâd, cacu(4—9) THE CAPTURE OF ZION BY JOAB'S VALOUR,

men montis.

They called it.-Samuel (Hebrew),

one called

it;” both in a general sense. The accession of the new king is followed by a war. City.-Comp. Greek, polis = acropolis. like enterprise, according to the precedent of Saul (8) And he built the city round about.(1 Sam. xi.). This agrees with the reason assigned for Literally, and he built (or rebuilt or fortified) the city the election of a king (1 Sam. viii. 20), as well as with all round, from the Millo even unto the (complete) what we know of Assyrian custom, and is a mark of round. The Millo was probably a tower or citadel, like historic truth.

the Arx Antonia of later times. According to the

chronicler David started from that point, and brought (4) And David ... land.-Samuel is briefer : his line of defences round to it again. Samuel has "And the king and his men went to Jerusalem, to the simply, “ And David built around, from the Millo, and Jebusite, the inhabitant of the land.” The chronicler inward.” This seems to mean that he carried his adds the explanatory “that is Jebus,” because of the buildings from the fortress towards the interior of the after-mention of the Jebusite. He then further modifies city. Both statements may, of course, be true. the form of the original statement, continuing "and there (9) This verse corresponds word for word with (lived) the Jebusite (collect.), the inhabitants," &c. Samuel, only omitting God” after “ Lord.” Lite

Jerusalem means city of Salem; Assyrian, Ursa. rally, and David walked on, a walking and growing limme. But in Hebrew the name has been so modified great-a common Hebrew metaphor of gradual and as to suggest" vision of peace.” In Greek the name progressive increase or decrease. (Comp. Gen. viii. 5, became Hierosolyma, " Sacred Solyma.”

and the use of the term andante, walking,” in Inhabitants of the land.-A standing name of music.) the native Canaanites, and equivalent to indigenæ, or Lord of hosts was with him.-The Lord of Αυτόχθονες.

Hosts is doubtless a contracted form of the fuller (5) Thou shalt not come hither. - A jeer. expression, Lord God of Hosts, as it appears in Samuel. (Comp. 2 Sam. v. 6.) “And one spake unto David, The Lord (or God) of Hosts is a title derived from saying, Thou shalt not come in hither. The blind and the God's supremacy over the host of heaven, i.e., the lame will have kept thee out!” The Jebusites trusted stars, worshipped as deities by the races environing in the strength of their fortress. Even the weakest Israel, insomuch that the very word for God in the old defence would be sufficient to repel David's assault. Babylonian is represented by a star (*); and in the

(6) Whosoever smiteth the Jebusites first. - later Assyrian character star was represented by the The account diverges more and more from the parallel symbol for God thrice repeated. Assur, the supreme passage. 2 Sam. v. 8, reads, “ And David said in that deity of the Assyrian Pantheon, is called in the inscripday, Whosoever smiteth the Jebusite, let him hurl down tions “ king of the legions of heaven and earth,” or the wate all (Ps. xlii. 7), both the lame and the blind, “ of the great gods.”. Similar titles were given to the the hated of David's soul! Therefore they say, Blind Babylonian Nebo and Merodach. The Hebrew phrase and lame must not enter the house” (i.e., the Temple). is therefore, in one sense, equivalent to a concise asserSuch is the simplest rendering of an obscure, but evi- tion of the statement, “ Jehovah your God is God of dently original record. The chronicler appears to have gods, and Lord of lords” (Deut. x. 17: comp. also Ps. followed another and clearer account, which made Joab xcv. 3, xcvii. 7). That the hosts in question are the play at the storm of Jebus the part of Othniel at that stars appears from Ps. xxxiii. 6; Isa. xl. 26; Judges of Kirjath-sepher (Judges i. 12, 13).

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V. 20.



Mighty Men.

(10) aThese also are the chief of the fa 2 Sam. 23. 8. he lifted up his spear against three mighty men whom David had, who

hundred slain by him at one time. Istrengthened themselves with him in 1 ora ho bel strongly (12) And after him was Eleazar the son his kingdom, and with all Israel, to

of Dodo, the Ahohite, who was one of make him king, according to the word mom of Hach the three mighties. (13) He was with of the LORD concerning Israel. (11) And

David at 3 Pas-dammim, and there the this is the number of the mighty men

Philistines were gathered together to whom David had ; Jashobeam, an

battle, where was a parcel of ground full Hachmonite, the chief of the captains : mim, i Siltu. 17.1. of barley ; and the people fled from

B.C, 1047.

3 ,

Very anciently the stars were conceived of as the • Captains” (“ knights,” or members of the royal army of heaven, marshalled in orderly array. (Comp. staff,”) is the reading of Samuel and the Hebrew Isa. xl. 26, xxiv. 21, xiv. 12, 13.) The Lord of the hosts margin here. The corps of the Thirty may also have of heaven is à fortiori Lord of all earthly hosts; hence been called the Knights; but the two Hebrew words the fitness of the phrase in passages like the present. might easily be confused (sh‘lóshim, shalishim). It is Lastly, we may observe that it is a grand idea of re- possible that the original reading was “head of the vealed religion that He who guides the stars in their Three(sholóshah), as verses 11–14 describe an exploit courses guides also the destinies of individual men, of three champions. elevating one and abasing another, according to the He lifted up his spear.-Literally, he it was eternal principles of goodness and truth (Isa. lvii. 15). who brandished his lance over three hundred slain (10-44) A list of the warriors who helped David to

in a single encounter. Samuel says eight hundred, but

the text there is otherwise very faulty: Yet as verse win and maintain his kingdom. This catalogue answers to that of 2 Sam. xxiii. 8–39, which, however, breaks

20 records that the lesser hero, Abishai, slew three off with Uriah the Hittite; whereas our text communi.

hundred, the greater number may be correct here. cates sixteen additional names. This fact proves that

(Comp. the like exploit of Shamgar (Judges iii. 31),

and the feats ascribed to Rameses II. and to the heroes the chronicler had either a fuller source, or a different

of the Iliad.) recension of Samuel. The numerous variant spellings

A well-armed champion might cut down

whole companies of ordinary fighting-men. are in general mistakes of transcription.

(12) Eleazar the son of Dodo.-For Dodo the (10) These also are the chief of the mighty LXX. has Dodai; so chap. xxvii. 4, and the Hebrew men.---Rather, And these were the heads of the war. text of Samuel; but Syriac and Vulgate “ his uncle,” riors (i.e., the chief warriors, other warriors of lower a translation of dodo. rank being enumerated in chap. xii.) who showed them- The Ahohite-i.e., of the clan Ahoalı; perhaps the selves strong in his support (with him, Dan. X. 21; Benjamite house of this name (chap. viii. 4). Ps. xii. 4), in the matter of his kingdom, in common Who was one of the three mighties.

-" He with all Israel, in order to make him king (and main- was among the three heroes," i.e., one of the first or tain him as such : comp. their exploits, noticed below). leading trio of warriors, whose names were Jashobeam This description of the heroes is not given in Samuel, (Eshbaal), Eleazar, and Shammah (2 Sam. xxiii. 11). the connection there being different.

(13) He was with David at Pas-dammim.-Or According to the word of the Lord con- Ephes-dammim, between Shochoh and Azekah in the cerning Israel.-Comp. Note on verse 3. David Mountains of Judah, where David encountered Goliath. was made king (1) for his own sake. It was work for The name does not now appear in 2 Sam. xxiii. 5, being which he was best fitted, and a reward of his faithful. probably concealed under the word rendered when

(2) For Israel's sake: “So he led them with a they defied.” faithful and true heart” (Ps. Ixxviii. 70—72).

And there the Philistines were gathered (11) And this is the number of the mighty together to battle.-After these words several lines men.-The heading of the catalogue in Samuel is have been lost, as may be seen by comparison of 2 Sam. merely, “ These are the names of the warriors whom xxiii. 9, 10. The text may be restored thus: “ He was David had.” The chronicler resumes, after the paren. with David at Pas-dammim, and there the Philistines thetic explanation of the last verse, with “ These, the had gathered to the battle ; and the men of Israel went number of the warriors.” The word “ number” (mis- up (perhaps, up the mountain side, in retreat). And par) seems to refer to the fact that the corps was he stood his ground, and smote the Philistines until originally known as the Thirty (comp. verse 12). In his hand was benumbed, and clave to the sword. And chap. xii. 23, the plural (misperê) is used.

Iahweh wrought a great victory on that day. And Jashobeam, an Hachmonite.-Literally, Jasho- the people began returning (from flight) behind him, beam, son of a Hakmonite; but ben may be spurious, only to spoil (the slain). And after him (was) Shammah as in chap. ix. 7, and Neh. xi. 10. The Hebrew of ben Agê, an Hararite. And the Philistines gathered 2 Sam. xxiii. 8 has yoshеbbashshebeth Tahkmoni, together unto Lehi (Judges xv. 9). And there there which has been supposed to be a corruption of Ishbo- was a parcel, etc.,” verse 13. The cause of this serious sheth ha-hakmoni (“ Ishbosheth the Hachmonite "). If omission was erhaps the double occurrence of the this guess be right, the Jashobeam of our text may be phrase "the Philistines gathered together.” The eye a disguise of Eshbaal. This seems to be borne out by of some copyist wandered from one to the other. What the readings of the Vatican LXX. here and at chap. was originally told of Eleazar the second hero, was xxvii. 2: ’legeBað- and ’lobods. The Alex. MS., how- that his prowess turned the flight at Pas-dammim into ever, reads 'loßadu and 'lobodu, that is, Jashobeam. a victory.

The chief of the captains.-The Hebrew text Where was a parcel of ground full of has “ head of the Thirty,”and so the LXX. and Syriac. barley.—The scene of the exploit of the third hero,


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