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Original of the Genealogies.

I. CHRONICLES, IX.

Dwellers in Jerusalern.

CHAPTER IX.-(1) So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they were written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah, who were carried away to Babylon for their transgression.

(2) Now the first inhabitants that dwelt in their possessions in their cities were, the Israelites, the priests, Levites, and the Nethinims.

(3) And in a Jerusalem dwelt of the children of Judah, and of the children

of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim, and Manasseh ; (4) Uthai the son of Ammihud, the son of Omri, the son of Imri, the son of Bani, of the children of Pharez the son of Judah. (5) And of the Shilonites: Asaiah the firstborn, and his sons. (6) And of the sons of Zerah ; Jeuel, and their brethren, six hundred and ninety. (7) And of the sons of Benjamin; Sallu the son of Meshullam, the son of Hodaviah, the son of Hasenuah, (8) and Ibneiah the son

a Xeh. II. 1.

of names, however, is as possible and as likely in the post-exilic times to the age of the tribal patriarchs. We present series as elsewhere; and it is obvious that one may therefore conclude that the compiler has chosen to or two additional members would carry the list past select different names in each case from a longer list, the exile (B.C. 588). There are reasons for believing which comprised both series. that the posterity of Ulam really represent a family

(5) And of the Shilonites. Shilonite means of the period of the Return. Their number is favour- “man of Shiloh,” the ancient capital of Ephraim; able to the supposition. Comp. Ezr. ii. 18, 21, 23, whereas verses 46 have to do with Judah. The three 27, 30 for families of about the same dimensions, sons of Judah, after whom three great sub-tribal divi. which returned with Zerubbabel. Further, the refer- sions were named, were Pharez, Shelah, and Zarah ence in verse 8—10 to a sojourn of certain Benjamite (Gen. xxxviii.). The clan of Shelah was called the houses in Moab may be connected with the mention in Shelanite (Num. xxvi. 20), and that is doubtless the Ezra ii. 6, viii. 4; Neh. ii. 11, and elsewhere, of the correct reading here (see chaps. ii. 3, iv. 21), supported sons of the Pasha of Moab(Pahath Mo'ab. This as it is by the LXX. (Endwvi) and the Targum. word pahath used to be reckoned among the indica- Asaiah ("* Jah hath wrought ") is essentially the tions of the late origin of the Chronicle. Now, however, same as “Maaseiah” (“ Work of Jah ") in Neh. xi. 5, it is known to be an ancient Semitic term. Comp. the where six progenitors are enumerated. Assyrian pihatu). Ono and Lod (verse 12) may be The firstborn.—That is, the leading clan. compared with Ezra ii. 33, and the singular names His sons.-The members of the clan. Elam (verse 24) and Azmaveth (verse 36), with the (6) Of the sons of Zerah.- The Zarhites are “sons of Elam” (Ezra ii. 7), and “the sons of Azma- omitted in the parallel passage of Nehemiah, where we veth,” or “Beth-azmaveth” (Ezra ii. 24; Neh. vii. 28). read, instead of the present statement, that “all the sons The name Bocheru (in verse 38) has been classed

of Perez that dwelt at Jerusalem were four hundred with Gashmu (Neh. vi. 6), but the latter is an Arab, threescore and eight valiant men.” The common source and there is seemingly no MS. authority for Bocheru. of both the narratives must have contained information Ishmael (verse 38) reminds us of “Ishmael son of about the Zarhites, as well as their brother clansmen, Nethaniah, of the seed royal” (2 Kings xxv. 25), who the Parzites and Shelanites. We see from the verse survived the fall of Jerusalem.

before us that the Zarhites were more numerous in

Jerusalem than the Parzites. The chronicler has again IX.

exercised his own discretion in the choice and rejection (3) And in Jerusalem dwelt (some) of the of details. children of Judah, and (some) of the children of Benjamin.-This sentence is word for word the clearly hints that Jeuel is a Zarhite father-house or same with Neh. xi. 4a. The next clause," and some of clan. The passage of Nehemiah just cited shows that the children of Ephraim, and Manasseh,” is not found in six hundred and ninety is the total of the Zarhites only. Nehemiah, and nothing further is said in the present The number of the Parzites and Shelanites is not here chapter concerning these two tribes. But so far from specified. proving the clause to be a figment of the chronicler's, (7) And of the sons of Benjamin.-The parallel This fact only indicates that he has chosen to use the passage (Neh. xi. 7) starts with “Sallu the son of Meordinary freedom of a compiler in transcribing from shullam,” but continues, " the son of Joed, the son of the fuller document which supplied him with materials Pedaiah,” and carries the ancestry four generations here and in Neh. xi. His source dealt with the neigh- further back. bouring townships as well as Jerusalem; the latter is The son of Hodaviah, the son of Hasenuah. the sole subject of the chronicler's extracts here. -Perhaps we should read “and Hodaviah," instead of

(4) Uthai the son of Ammihud, the son of " son of Hodaviah.”. (See Note on verses 9, 10.) The Omri, the son of Imri, the son of Bani.-Neh. name Hodaviah, which occurred chap. v. 24, is a pecu. xi. 4 traces this line thus : * Athaiah son of Uzziah, son liar Aramaizing form of Hoduyah (“Thank the Lord”). of Zechariah, son of Amariah, son of Shephatiah, son of Perhaps here the true reading is wihudah," and Mahalaleel, of the children of Perez.” Uthai is equi- Judah.” Comp. Neh. xi. 9, “Judah the son of Senuah” valent to Athaiah, and Imri to Amariah, by a common (Heb. ha-Senual). contraction. The other intermediate names in the two (8) Three other Benjamite houses. series do not coincide; but this does not prove that Ibneiah is much the same name as Ibnijah” at Uthai and Athaiah are different clans. Many more than the end of the verse. Both mean Jah buildeth,” i.e., five or six members would obviously be required to maketh offspring.(Comp. Assyrian Ea-Ibni, “Ea constitute a complete genealogical stem, reaching from made,” i.e., a son.)

petely and their

brethren.- The plural pronoun

7'he Dwellers

I. CHRONICLES, IX.

in Jerusalem.

of Jeroham, and Elah the son of Uzzi, the son of Michri, and Meshullam the son of Shephathiah, the son of Reuel, the son of Ibnijah; (9)and their brethren, according to their generations, nine hundred and fifty and six. All these men were chief of the father's in the house of their fathers.

(10) And of the priests; Jedaiah, and Jehoiarib, and Jaclin, (11) and Azariah

the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshul.
lam, the son of Zadok, the son of Me-
raioth, the son of Ahitub, the ruler of
the house of God; (12) and Adaiah the
son of Jeroham, the son of Pashur, the
son of Malchijah, and Maasiai the son
of Adiel, the son of Jahzerah, the son of
Meshullam, the son of Meshillemith, the
son of Immer; (13) and their brethren,
heads of the house of their fathers, a

27).

Son of Jeroham.-The sons of Jeroham dwelt in perhaps Meraioth has been omitted in chap. vi. 12. In-
Jerusalem before the exile as well as after it (chap. viii. stead of Azariah, the parallel in Neh. xi. 11 has Seraiah,

the rest of the verse being verbatim the same as here. Michri should perhaps be Zichri. (Comp. chap. viii. A list of priests who went up with Zerubbabel and 19, 23, and 27.)

Joshua begins with Seraiah (Neh, xii.1), and in Neh. x. 2 Verses 7–9 correspond to Neh. xi. 7–9; but after Seraiah and Azariah are priests who sealed the covetracing the ascending line of Sallu son of Meshullam nant with Nehemiah the Tirshatha, about seventy years (verse 7) through six degrees, the latter account con- later. Neh. xii, 12 shows that Seraiah was the name of tinues (Neh. xi. 8): “And after him Gabbai, Sallai, nine a priestly clan. Perhaps the name Seraiah should be hundred twenty and eight.” This apparently is quite read in the present passage before, or instead of, Azariah. a different statement from that of our verse 8. Gabbai, (Comp. chap. vi. 13, 14.) If, however, the name is Sallai, however (note the absence of a conjunction), may official, not personal, like the names in the preceding be corrupt. Gabbai perhaps conceals Bani or Ibni, a verse, this supposition is hardly necessary, Either contracted form of Ihneiah; and Sallai might have Azariah or Seraiah might equally represent the priestly originated out of Shallum or Meshullam, under the house intended. influence of the preceding Sallu (verse 7). Neh. xi. 9 (12) And Adaiah the son of Jeroham.- Neb. continues, “ And Joel son of Zikri was their overseer,

xi. 12 ruus:

And their brethren, doers of the work of and Judah son of Hasenuah was over the second part the house, 822 ; and Adaiah son of Jeroham, son of of the city.” “Joel son of Zikri” may be our “ Elah Pelaliah, son of Amzi, son of Zechariah, son of Pashur, son of Uzzi son of Michri” (verse 8); for Joel (“: Jah son of Malchijah.” Thus the line of Adaiah as given is El”) may be compared with Elah, which is perhaps there exactly corresponds with the present passage, a disguise of Elijah ("Elis Jah;" only yod, the smallest save that it inserts three names here wanting between Hebrew letter, is wanting). “ Judah son of Hase- Jeroham and Pashur : another illustration of the freenuah,” may be the equivalent of “Hodaviah son of dom of the compiler in dealing with these lists. Hasenuah.' If these combinations be accepted, the Malchijah was the fifth of the twenty-four priestly list here is brought into strict harmony with its parallel classes. -five Benjamite clans being named in each, viz., Sallu, Maasiai the son of Adiel ... son of Immer. Hodaviah (Judah), Ibneiah (Bani), Joel (Elah), and --Immer was the sixteenth course of the priests. The Meshullam.

parallel (Neh. xi. 13) reads : And his brethren, heads And their brethren, according to their of clans, 242; and Amashsai son of Azareel, son of generations.-The members of the five Benjamite Ahzai, son of Meshillemoth, son of Immer, and their clans amounted to nine hundred and fifty-six, according brethren, mighty men of valour, 128; and their overseer to their family registers. Neh. xi. 8 gives a total of was Zabdiel son of Haggedolim.” Amashsai and Maasiai nine hundred and twenty-eight. If the numbers are are variants of the same name, and perhaps both bad both genuine, our text may refer to a date a little sub. spellings of Amasai (chaps. vi. 35, xii. 18). Adiel may sequent to the time intended in Nehemiah.

well be a mistake for Azareel. Jahzerah and Ahzai are All these men.- :- Translate, all these men evidently two forms of one name, Ahzai,—Ahaziah being chiefs of their respective clans. This appears to be the perhaps more correct. Meshullam in our line is either subscription to verses 49. It states that the proper an additional link, or a copyist's anticipation of part of names are representatives of clans, and, so to speak, the following name. The line in Nehemiah is therefore collective personalities.

originally identical with the present. Verses 10-12 (10—13) The priests resident in Jerusalem. (Comp.

show that at the date of the present register three Neh. xi. 10–14.)

entire courses of the priests, and two clans representing

two other courses, as well as the ruler or president of (10) And of the priests; Jedaiah, and Jehoia- the Temple, dwelt in Jerusalem. rib, and Jachin.-These three names do not desig- (13) And their brethren, heads of the house nate persons, but three of the priestly courses, or classes, of their fathers. We can hardly suppose so many instituted by David according to chap. xxiv, of which as 1,760 priestly clans dwelling in the holy city. Either Jehoiarib was the first, Jedaiah the second, and Jachin the phrase “heads of their father-houses” belongs to the twenty-first. Neh. xi. 10 has “Jehoiarib son of the last verse, and has been accidentally brought into Jedaiah," a mistake of the scribe. (Comp. verse 7 and its present position; or in this instance it means simply Note; cf. also Ezra ii. 36; Neh. xii. 6.)

“ heads of single families;” or “ their brethren, heads of (11) And Azariah the son of Hilkiah, the son their (respective) clans,” refers to other father-houses of Meshullam.--See chap. vi. 12, 13. The names not mentioned by name, and the number 1,760 refers to coincide so far as Zadok; but either Meraioth and all the guilds and clans of verses 10–13, and should be Ahitub have been transposed (see chap. vi. 7), or separated from the preceding phrase by a semicolon.

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were

The Dwellers

I. CHRONICLES, IX

in Jerusalem.

B.C. 1201, &e.

thousand and seven hundred and three

the Netophathites. (17) And the porters score; Ivery able men for the work of

were, Shallum, and Akkub, and Talmon, the service of the house of God.

and Ahiman, and their brethren: Shal(14) And of the Levites ; Shemaiah the

lum was the chief; (18) who hit erto son of Hasshub, the son of Azrikam, the

waited in the king's gate eastward : they son of Hashabiah, of the sons of Merari ;

were porters in the companies of the (15) and Bakbakkar, Heresh, and Galal, 1 Heh., mighty men children of Levi. (19) And Shallum the and Mattaniah the son of Micah, the son

son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaplı, the son of Zichri, the son of Asaph ; (16) and

of Korah, and his brethren, of the house Obadiah the son of Shemaiah, the son

of his father, the Korahites, were over of Galal, the son of Jeduthun, and Be

the work of the service, keepers of the rechiah the son of Asa, the son of

gates of the tabernacle : and their Elkanah, that dwelt in the villages of 2 Hcb., thresholds. fathers, being over the host of the LORD,

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This last explanation is probably right. The total son of Jeshua son of Jozadak, and of Nehemiah and Ezra. number given in Neh. xi. 1014 for the priests is 1,192. It is clear that the names of the porters likewise repre(See Note on verse 9.)

sent families or guilds, which had hereditary charge of Very able men.--See Margin, and chap. vii. 9. the Temple gates. In fact, all the Levitical functions

For the work.-"For” is wanting in the Hebrew. appear to have descended in the same families from Perhaps “ doers of” (Neh. xi. 13) has fallen out.

father to son, like the various civil offices in the Roman (14-17) The Levites resident in Jerusalem (Neh, xi.

empire ; and tradition ascribed the entire arrangement 15–19).

to David, the second founder of the national worship.

At this point the correspondence with Neh. xi. ceases. (14) Word for word the same with Neh. I.c., save that Shallum was the chief.-This really belongs to here Shemaiah is ultimately deduced from the clan of verse 18, and introduces a description of the duties of the Merarites, whereas there one more ancostor (Bunni) the Levites, which extends over verses 18–34. Transfollows Hashabiah, and the phrase of the sons of late, Shallum is the chief even unto this day in the Merari ” is omitted.

king's gate, on the east side. Shallum (* recompense”) (15, 16) The chronicler here omits the verse Neh. xi. 16, is called “ Shelemiah ” (chap. xxvi. 14), which, again, is a after which follows, “ And Mattaniah son of Micha son curtailment of Meshelemiah(* Jah recompenseth"),chap. of Zabdi son of Asaph, the leader of praise, who used to xxvi. 1; verse 21 infra. The fact that Shallum-Meshe. give thanks after the prayer; and Bakbukiah the second lemiah-is spoken of as warder in David's day as well as among his brethren, and Abda son of Shammua, son of in the post-exilic age, proves that a guild or clan, not Galal, son of Jeduthun.”

an individual, is in question. The eastern gate was the Bakbakkar and Bakbukiah are clearly variants of post of honour (Ezek. xlvi. 1,2), and the royal entry. the same name, the latter being probably right.

The old name of the King's Gate would naturally be Heresh, and Galal are omitted in Neh. xi. retained in the restored Temple.

Zichri here is doubtless “ Zabdi ” there : a confusion (18) They were porters in the companies of of similar letters, k, b, r, d.

the children of Levi.-Rather, They are warders Obadiah the son of Shemaiah is the same as for the camps of the sons of Levi. (Comp. Num. iii. Abda son of Shammua."

23 et seq., where it is prescribed that the Levites Berechiah the son of Asa, the son of encamp on the four sides of the tabernacle.) The Elkanah.-Unmentioned in Neh. xi. As the name primitive terminology is used in order to convey the Elkanah appears in the pedigree of Heman (chap. vi. idea that the Levitical wardership of the Temple went 34), it is supposed that Berechiah represents the back historically to that of the Mosaic sanctuary. Hemanite guild, which is otherwise conspicuous here by (19) And Shallum the son of Kore, the son its omission. Perhaps“ son of Heman ” has dropped out of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah.-Comp. chap. of the text, as there are two names between Mattaniah xxvi. 1, which makes “ Meshelemiah son of Kore, of the and Asaph, Obadiah and Jeduthun. It thus appears sons of Asaph” a guild of warders under David. that verses 15, 16 are concerned with the Levitical Ebiasaph-“The Father (i.e., God) gathered,” is a choirs ; comp. verse 33.

fuller form of Asaph, He gathered.” Villages of the Netophathites.-Netophah was And his brethren, of the house of his father. near Bethlehem (Neh. vii. 26; chap. ii. 54).

-That is, the Koralites, as is immediately explained : (17) And the porters were, Shallum, and his kinsmen belonging to his father-house or clan. Akkub, and Talmon, and Ahiman.- Comp. The work of the service (of Shallum),—That is, Neh. xi. 18, 19, which sums up thus : “All the Levites of the guild so called, is defined as that of " wardens in the holy city were two hundred fourscore and four. of the thresholds of the tent,” that is, of the Temple, Moreover the porters, Akkub, Talmon, and their which had taken the place of the old Tent of Meeting. brethren that kept the gates, were an hundred seventy And their fathers, being over the host of and two." Shallum does not appear.

the Lord, were keepers of the entry.-" Their Abiman may have originated out of the following: fathers are the ancestors of the Korahite clan of

Their brethren.- Heb., aheihem. Comp. also Shallum.
Neh. xii. 25, 26, where we are told that (Mattaniah and The host of the Lord.-Or, rather, the encamp.
Bakbukiah, Obadiah and) Meshullam (i.e., Shallum), ment of Jehovah, means the tabernacle,or Tent of Tryst,
Talmon, and Akkub were porters keeping ward at the which had only one entrance, over which, according to
storehouses of the Temple gates, in the times of Joiakim this passage—the Pentateuch is silent—the house of

The Dwellers

I. CHRONICLES, IX.

in Jerusalem.

2 Or. trust.

were keepers of the entry. (20) And 1 Heb., founded. the house of the tabernacle, by wards. Phinehas the son of Eleazar was the

(21) In four quarters were the porters, toruler over them in time past, and the

ward the east, west, north, and south. LORD was with him. (21) And Zechariah

(25) And their brethren, which were in the son of Meshelemiah was porter of

their villages, were to come after seven the door of the tabernacle of the con

days from time to time with them. gregation.

(26) For these Levites, the four chief (22) All these which were chosen to be

porters, were in their 3 set office, and porters in the gates were two hundred

were over the chambers and treasuries and twelve. These were reckoned by

of the house of God. (27) And they their genealogy in their villages, whom

lodged round about the house of God, David and Samuel the seer 1did ordain

because the charge was upon them, in their set office. (23) So they and

and the opening thereof every morning their children had the oversight of the

pertained to them. (28) And certain of gates of the house of the Lord, namely, - or, Storehouses. them had the charge of the ministering

3 Or, trust.

Shallum stood guard. 2 Chron. xxxi. 2 applies the to the sovereigns of his day, the statement of the text same archaic nomenclature to the Temple in Heze- may be held true in spirit, if not in the letter. kiah's reign, speaking of the gates of the camps of (23) Namely, the house of the tabernacle.Iahweh."

For the Temple was not built in David's day. (20) And Phinehas the son of Eleazar was the By wards.-For Watches. ruler over them in time past.-Or, of yore. (24) In four quarters were the porters.Phinehas may have held this office of president (nagid, • To the four winds used the warders to stand ” (to be), verse 11) of the warders before he became high priest, viz., on the four sides of the tent of meeting, and from just as Eleazar had held a similar position during the the age of Solomon on the four sides of the square lifetime of Aaron (Num. iii. 32). Nothing is said of it enclosure of the Temple. elsewhere.

(25) And their brethren, which were in their And the Lord was with him.-Rather, The villages. The families of the Temple warders, like Lord be with him! a pious ejaculation, such as the those of the singers, lived on their farms in the villages Jews of later times were wont to use in speaking of a round Jerusalem, and came up for their duties in departed worthy; and of interest to us as indicating a weekly rotation (verse 16; Neh. xii. 29). belief in continued existence after death. (Comp. chap. After seven days.- Every seventh day; that is, xxii. 11, 16.)

on the Sabbath, when each class entered on its (21) And.-Omit. The verse returns abruptly from duties. the Mosaic to the Davidic age.

(26) For these Levites, the four chief porters, Zechariah the son of Meshelemiah had were in their set office.--The Heb. says, or seems charge of the north gate under David (chap. xxvi. to say, "For in fixed position (or trust) were they, 12).

viz., the four heroes of the warders.” (See verse 17, Was porter of the door of the tabernacle of which apparently names four chief “porters."). The the congregation.-Was a doorkeeper of the tent of temporary chiefs of the warder guilds abode in the meeting. The verse seems to refer the functions of Temple; the mass of their members was settled in Zechariah to Mosaic antiquity; but comp. Note on verse the neighbouring villages, and occupied with pastoral 19. The relation of this company to those mentioned in pursuits. verse 17 is indeterminate.

And were over the chambers and treasuries (22) All these which were chosen to be of the house of God.-This statement belongs to porters in the gates (Heb., thresholds) were two the following verse. The preceding account of the hundred and twelve.-This seems to assign the porters or warders seems to terminate with the words, number of warders at the epoch of which the chronicler, “For in fixed position are they, the four stalwart or, rather, his source, is writing. Neh. xi. 19 makes the warders; they are the Levites; " that is, the Levites total of the porters one hundred and seventy-two. Ac. par excellence. And they were over the cells and over cording to Ezra ii. 42, one hundred and thirty-nine the treasuries of the house of God (viz., the warders); returned with Zerubbabel. Under David, the number and they used to pass the night (verse 27) in the places of warders was ninety-three (chap. xxvi. 8–11).

round the house of God, for upon them was the ward, These were reckoned by their genealogy in and they were over the opening (key) every morningtheir villages.-Rather, these-in their villages was a brief recapitulation of the main duty of the Levitical their registration.

warders. Some have proposed to alter the text of These.—That is, their ancestors. Guilds and cor- verse 266, and to read, “ And some of the Levites were porations do not die.

over the cells,” &c., thus constituting a new paragraph, Whom David and Samuel the

although verse 27 obviously recurs to the warders. ordain in their set office.-These David and Probably the paragraph mark should be transferred to Samuel had ordained in their office of trust, or, in verse 28. From this point to verse 34 we have a review permanence. No mention is made elsewhere of of the other special charges of the Levites. Samuel's part in arranging the Levitical service. He (28) The care of the sacred vessels of gold and silver. died before David's accession (1 Sam. xxv. 1). Tradi. These were counted when brought out of the storetion doubtless associated him with David in the work of rooms, and when replaced, to make sure that none was religious reform, and from what is known of his relation purloined. (Comp. Ezra viii. 20 et seq.)

seer did

The Charge of

I. CHRONICLES, IX.

certain Levites.

carry them ord
by tale.

& Ex. 30. 23

3 Or, trust.

vessels, that they should bring them in 1 Hechos, bring them ing in the chambers were free: for 6 they and out by tale. (29) Some of them also

were employed in that work day and were appointed to oversee the vessels,

night. (34) These chief fathers of the and all the instruments of the sanc- 2 Or, vessels. Levites were chief throughout their tuary, and the fine flour, and the wine,

generations; these dwelt at Jerusalem. and the oil, and the frankincense, and

(35) And in Gibeon dwelt the father of the spices. (30) And some of the sons of the

Gibeon, Jehiel, whose wife's name was priests madea the ointment of the spices.

5 Maachah: (36) and his firstborn son (31) And Mattithiah, one of the Levites, 4 Or, on flat plates. Abdon, then Zur, and Kish, and Baal, who was the firstborn of Shallum the

and Ner, and Nadab, (37) and Gedor, and Korahite, had the 3set office over the

Ahio, and Zechariah, and Mikloth. things that were made * in the pans.

(38) And Mikloth begat Shimeam. And (32) And other of their brethren, of the

they also dwelt with their brethren at sons of the Kohathites, were over the

Jerusalem, over against their brethren. 5 shewbread, to prepare it every sabbath.

(39) ° And Ner begat Kish; and Kish (33) And these are the singers, chief of

begat Saul; and Saul begat Jonathan, the fathers of the Levites, who remain- fc ch. 8. 33. and Malchi-shua, and Abinadab, and

or, sluces.

5 Heb., bread of

ordering.

6 Heb., upon them.

b ch. 8. 29.

Tale.—“Reckoning,” “number :”—

(33, 34) A general subscription, or concluding state. " And every shepherd tells his tale

ment, with reference to the preceding account of the Under the hawthorn in the dale."

Levites (verses 14—32). Literally, for by number they used to bring them in (33) Refers to the singers treated of in verses 14–16: (to the sanctuary), and by number they used to take And these (above mentioned) are the minstrels, heads them out.

of Levitical families; in the Temple cells (they lived), (29) Care of the ordinary vessels; that is, all those exempt from all other charge; for day and night they which were used in the daily service of the sanctuary

were over them in the work. The Hebrew is harsh, (“ vessels instruments : " the same Hebrew term, and perhaps corrupt, but the meaning seems to be kélim, vasa, oreún); as also supervision of the stores clear. It is hardly meant that the service of song in of flour, wine, oil, incense, and spicery, which were the Temple was uninterrupted (comp. Rev. iv. 8), but adjuncts of meat offerings and libations, and the holy only that the choristers were under obligation to perungnents (Exod. xxv. 6).

petually recurring service. (30) A parenthetic remark. The Levites had charge

They were employed in that work.-Rather, of the stores of spicery, but only the priests might law. They were over them in the work. They—that is, the fully prepare the holy ointment and oil wherewith the leaders for the time being-lived, like the chief sacred tent, the ark, the table, &c., were anointed warders, in the Temple cells, presiding continually over (Exod. xxx. 23—29).

the guilds of singers. (31) The narrative returns to the functions of the (34) These chief generations.--Literally, Levites. “ And Mattithiah, one of the Levites (he

These are the heads of the Levitical houses, according was the firstborn of Shallum the Korahite), was (or is)

to their birth-rolls, heads. (Comp. chap. viii. 28 for in fixed charge over the making of the pancakes."

the meaning.) Mattithiah .. firstborn of Shallum the These dwelt in Jerusalem.-A final remark Korabite.-The son of Shallum, or Meshelemiah, is concerning all the Levites of verses 14—32. The called Zechariah (chap. xxvi. 2). If Zechariah was the proper names are regarded as chiefs, under whom their chief branch of Shallum in the days of David, Matti- numerous clansmen are subsumed. thiah may have been so in the time of the chronicler or of his authority here.

(35—44) A duplicate of chap. viii. 29–38. The geneHad the set office.-In other words, the duty of

alogy of Saul seems to be repeated, according to the baking the sacred cakes for the meat offerings was

chronicler's habit (comp. chap. vi. 4 et seq. with chap. hereditary in this branch of the family of Shallum.

vi. 50 et seq.; chap. vii. 6 et seq. with chap. viii. 1 Things that were made in the pans-i.e.,

et seq.), as a transition or introduction to something

else, viz., the account of that king's final ruin in chap. x. "pancakes.” The Hebrew term (hăbittim) occurs here

The present list is identical with the former, so far as only, but its meaning is fixed by the related word

it extends (chap. viii. 39–48 is wanting here), but is, " baking-pan” (Ezek. iv. 3; mahåbath). (32) " Some of the sons of the Kohathites, some of

on the whole, in better preservation, supplying, as we

have seen, several omissions in the other copy. Only their brethren.” The Korahites, to which house Shal.

the name of Ahaz has fallen out (verse 41). The corre. lum and Mattithiah belonged, were a subdivision of the

spondence of the two lists appears to be too exact to great clan of Kohath. The shew bread.--See Lev. xxiv. 549. Here it

justify an assumption of different original sources; but is called “ Bread of the Pile;” another name was

the chronicler may have found the repetition already “ Bread of the Presence."

existing in the principal document from which he drew

his materials. To prepare it every sabbath.-The Levites had to get it ready for the priests to lay it fresh on the (36) Zur.-"Rock,” a Divine title. (Comp. Pedahzur, golden table, after removing the old bread, every “ the Rock hath ransomed;" Zurishaddai, “the Rock is Sabbath.

the Lofty One ; ” if we may connect the difficult

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