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date and character of the two works, it is probably well ; of God, underlying the simple narrative which our to tako the Book of Kings as the standard account, books supply. We must study them if we would aud so far accept the significance of the title of catch the spirit which animates the letter of the his. Napaleitouévwv ("things omitted ”), given in the LXX. toric record itself. to the Chronicles, as to make them a commentary, an illustration, and a supplement of the older work. The Sapiential Books.—But plainer illustration But each has its independent character and value. is gained from books which can be more certainly The Book of Kings has been called the prophetic referred to distinct periods in the history. Thus the record, the Book of Chronicles the priestly record, of golden age of the glory of Solomon is illustrated by con. the time. This would be a misleading antithesis, if it sideration of the various books which may be called was taken to convey the notion of antagonism or even “Sapiential.” The great Book of PROVERBS, both in marked diversity of idea between the books, which any its poetical and guomic portions, tracing itself to him attentive study of both must dissipate. But it is so far as the chief master of wisdom-perhaps much as the true as this—that the Book of Kings, dealing so largely Psalter bears the name of David-is in its representawith the kingdom of Israel, naturally gives special pro- tion of wisdom the key at once to the true nature of minence to the office and work of the older prophets, the culture and glory of his age, and to the tendencies who ministered chiefly to that kingdom; whilo the which, gaining the mastery, brought on its fall. The Book of Chronicles, being almost exclusively the history Song of SOLOMON—now by all the best authorities of Judah, brings out the power of the priesthood and referred unhesitatingly to his age, probably to his hand the royalty of David, which played so great a part- -is full of the passion for beauty, the delight in nature, sometimes in union, sometimes in antagonism-in the the sensibility to pure love, the knowledge of humanity spiritual history of the southern kingdom.

marking both the character of the great king, and the But besides this direct comparison of the two liis. culture of his time; yet is not without the tendency torical records, there is illustration no less valuable to rest on the visible and the sensual, in which was the of the idea and purpose of the Books of Kings to be germ of his voluptuous polygamy. The Book of JOBderived from other Scriptural books not properly his. which, whatever be the date of its original materials. torical, which, indeed, its narrative binds together in is commonly referred to his time-certainly opens the one continuous order of development.

great questions of Natural Religion, concerning man as

man, which belong to an age searching after wisdom The Psalms.-The illustration to be derived from and having contact with the thought and inquiry of the Psalms would be far more instructive, if we were not races outside the covenant. The wonderful Book oë driven to rely mainly on internal evidence as to their ECCLESIASTES, to whatever period it is to be referred. date and occasion, and were not accordingly, in most in its depiction of a sonl’s tragedy shows no little insigli! cases, unable to fix these points with any certainty. into the character of him in whose person it speaks, as But even with this drawback, the illustration is in. wearied ont with the search after happiness in wisdom valuable, as painting to us the inner life of Israel and in pleasure, in contemplation and in action, and during the period of our history; for to this period a coming back at last in despair to the simple command, large portion of the Psalter must certainly be referred. Fear God, and keep His commandments," which was There seems much probability that the first division of the first teaching of childhood. Only when studied in the Psalter (Pss. i.-xli.) took shape in the time of connection with the history can these books be rightly Solomon, for use in the Temple worship. In the later understood; so studied they give, on the other hand, divisions many psalms are, with more or less authority, an infinite life and colour to the bare massive outline ascribed to Asaph, to Heman (and the sons of Korali), drawn in the historical books. and to Ethan, the three chief musicians of David, and probably of Solomon also. Of these subsequent divi. The Prophetic Books. Again, the later history sions it is at least not unlikely that some mark and of the Second Book borrows even greater illustration illustrate the religious revivals of Jehoshaphat, Heze- from the prophetic writings-much as the earlier part kiah, and Josiah. Nor is more particular referenco of the record derives its chief interest from the action altogether wanting. Two psalms (lxxii., cxxvii.) are of the elder prophets of unwritten prophecy from ascribed to Solomon—the one, a picture of the glory Ahijah to Elisha. Thus, the period of national revival and majesty of his kingilom; the other one of the in Israel under Jeroboam II., and the unhappy period Songs of Degrees ”), ascribing to the Lord alone the of decline and fall which succeeded it-so briefly and blessings of earthly prosperity and happiness. Other coldly narrated in our books - live in the pages of psalms, especially among those ascribed to the sons of Amos, the prophet of the day of hollow and licentious Korah, are of a national character--crying to God in prosperity, and HOSEA, the prophet of the well-merited national disaster (Ps. xliv.), thanking Him in the hour doom of judgment. There we discover the evils which of triumph and deliverance (Pss. xlvi.—xlviii., lxxxv.), lurked under a material prosperity and an outward semsinging hymns at the marriage of the king (Ps. xlv.), blance of religion ; there we see how they burst out, or proclaiming the loveliness and gladness of the dwell- rending the very bonds of society, as soon as that prosings of the Lord of Hosts (Ps. Ixxxiv.). One group perity began to wane. So, again, the character of the (Pss. xci.-c.) has been thought by some to belong reckless and cruel greatness of the Assyrian Empire, to the golden age of Hezekiah's glory and Isaiali's shown so terribly in the destruction of Israel and in the prophecy

The “

great Hallel” (Pss. cxiii.-cxviii.), imminent danger of Judah, is marvellously illustrated though found in the divisions of the Psalter be- by Nahum, in his grand patriotic hymn of triumph longing to the era after the Captivity, yet illustrates over the foreseen fall of Nineveh. To the days of the festal worship of the people in the Temple of God: prosperity of Uzziah, who " loved husbandry," belong such psalms as Ps. cxxxvii. mark the sorrows of the (it seems) the utterances of Joel, picturing physical Captivity by " the waters of Babylon.” In all cases, disasters as God's judgment, calling to repentance, the Psalms are the lyric expression of the inner life promising temporal and spiritual blessing, and beginof the chosen people, and of the individual servants ning the series of Apocalyptic visions of the vain

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KINGS.

struggle of the enemies against the people of God. 1 glimpse of the history of Moab under Mesha in the Once more, the great epoch of Hezekiah's religious reign of Jehoram of Ísrael. Most of our knowledge revival is marked by the writings of the prophet of these histories is comparatively now. When it is MICAH, who, indeed, gave the signal for it (see Jer. read through the extraordinary monumental records xxvi. 8), and in whom first Messianic prophecy becomes of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylou—the discovery and clear and definite. The two grand crises of that reign deciphering of which form some of the most wonderful —the danger uuder Ahaz from Syria and Israel, and the i chapters in historical study-it not only brings out invasion of Sennacherib-form two chief themes of the facts, determines dates, confirms or corrects our intersupreme prophecy of ISAIAH, out of which the Messianic

pretations, but it gives us a vivid picture of the very hope rises almost to actual vision. To the interval life and character of the great Empires, which often between Hezekiah and Josiah, when the Chaldean explains the different views taken of them in Scripture, power begins to come into prominence, we may perhaps and always gives force and colour to our conceptions refer the magnificent brevity of the prophecy of ' of the Scripture history itself. The treasure-house is HABAKKUK. Certainly the pathetic interest of the far from being exhausted. Future generations may reign of Josiah is illustrated by the foreboding utter. rival or excel the advance made in this generation and ances of ZEPHANIAH. The bitterness of the captivity the last, and every advance will be of no inconsiderable of Judah-probably the great Captivity—is brought out value to the student of Scripture history. in the denunciation of Edomite triumph and cruelty in The effect of all this study and illustration of the the hour of Judah's disaster by OBADIAH. Nor is it book is to bring out more and more both its historical too much to say that the whole history of the last agony authenticity and its didactic value. The substance of of the kingdom of Judah can be read adequately only the history, and even the text, have but few obscurities, in the historical and prophetical chapters of the great and these are generally elucidated by comparison with Book of JEREMIAH. The Books of Kings supply the the ancient versions. thread of connection, which binds the prophetic books together, enabling us rightly to understand the sub- VII. The Numbers given in the Book. --The stance of each, and the method of prophetic develop- one difficulty in the interpretation of the book lies in ment running through them all. The prophecies, on the numbers, chronological and other, which occur in the other hand, supply constantly the key to the true it. These are now always written in full; but there sense of the history, drawing ont explicitly the lesson is every reason to believe that in the original manu. which it teaches by implication, and giving us a living scripts they were, as usual, indicated by Hebrew letters picture of the ages which it sketches only in outline. --a method of indication which, as is well kuown,

gives the greatest facility to accidental or intentional VI. Illustrations from Profane History. corruption. Thus, in our book, and still more in the To these all-important illustrations must be added, as Chronicles, it is difficult not to suppose that the large subsidiary, the light thrown upou the narrative by the numbers given in the history (as, for example, 1 Kings study of the various heathen records, whether found xx. 29, 30; 2 Chron. xiv. 8, 9, xvii. 12—18, xxv. 5, 6, in the works of ancient historians, or read in the monu- xxvi. 12, &c.) are without authority, due to careless mental history of nations which came in contact with transcription, or to corruption of the original document Israel, discovered and deciphered in modern times. by the exaggeration of Jewish scribes. This kind of illustration, hardly known in the case of the earlier books, begins substantially in the Book of The Chronology.-It is possible that this facility Kings.

of corruption in numbers may bear upon what is the The account of Josephus, with all its acknowledged chief critical difficulty of the book, the determination defects, is of very great value, both as a gloss on the of its chronology. In this book, unlike the earlier hisScriptural account, and an occasional supplement to it. torical books, the calculations of dates are given in the The variations found in the LXX. version, in the way text with great exactness, whether by the hand of the of transposition, addition, and omission, are not, indeed, historian or by that of some later chronologer. of great importance; for the only substantial addition The first remarkable date is that mentioned in 1 in the history of Jeroboam (see Note at the end of Kings vi. 1, fixing the commencement of the Temple in 1 Kings xi.) is obviously legendary. But they are of the 480th

year

after the Exodus, With regard to this considerable interest, and occasionally indicate the date, which has presented much difficulty to chronoloexistence of independent traditions. The authors gers, see Note on the passage. By whomsoever given, quoted by Josephus or early Christian historians (such it deserves very careful consideration in the calcu. as Berosus, Manetho, Ptolemy), the monuments of lation of Biblical chronology. Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon, even the Moabitic stone, Next we have the reign of Solomon given at forty all throw light again and again on the Book of Kings; years (1 Kings xi. 43); against which the statement of and, though not without occasional difficulties and Josephus that he reigned eighty years (Ant. viii. 7. 8) discrepancies of detail, have unquestionably furnished can hardly be held to be of serious moment. the strongest confirmation of its historic truth, and From the time of the disruption, we have, marked have cleared up some obscurities in its brief record. with great precision, first, the duration of the succesThe history, it will be observed, comes in contact sive reigns of the kings of Israel; next, the duration with the history of Tyre in the reigns of Hiram and of the reigns of the kings of Judah ; lastly, stateEthbaal, father of Jezebel; with the history of Egypt ments of the synchronism of accessions in each line in the reign of the Pharaoh father-in-law of Solomon, with certain years in the reigns of the kings of the of Shishak, of “Zerah the Ethiopian,” of Sabaco (the other line. Now, in the present condition of the text, So or Seveh of 2 Kings xvii. 3), of Tirhakah, and of these three lines of calculation present occasional Pharaoh-necho; with the history of Assyria under the discrepancies; and this is especially the case with the “Pul” of 2 Kings xv. 19, Tiglath-pileser, Shalmaneser, synchronistic notices, which are, indeed, believed by Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon; with the history of many to have been added by a later hand, both because Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; even with our one of their rather formal artificiality, and of the evident date and character of the two works, it is probably well of God, underlying the simple narrative which our to take the Book of Kings as the standard account, books supply. We must study them if we wonld aud so far accept the significance of the title of catch the spirit which animates the letter of the his. Tapaleitouévwv (“things omitted ”), given in the LXX. toric record itself. to the Chronicles, as to make them a commentary, an illustration, and a supplement of the older work. The Sapiential Books.-But plainer illustration But each has its independent character aud value. is gained from books which can be more certainly The Book of Kings has been called the prophetic referred to distinct periods in the history. Thus the record, the Book of Chronicles the priestly record, of golden age of the glory of Solomon is illustrated by con. the time. This would be a misleading antithesis, if it sideration of the various books which may be called was taken to convey the notion of antagonism or even Sapiential.” The great Book of Proverbs, both in marked diversity of idea between the books, which any its poetical and gnomic portions, tracing itself to him attentive study of both must dissipate. But it is so far as the chief master of wisdom-perhaps much as the true as this—that the Book of Kings, dealing so largely Psalter bears the name of David-is in its representawith the kingdom of Israel, naturally gives special pro- tion of wisdom the key at once to the true nature of minence to the office and work of the older prophets, the culture and glory of his age, and to the tendencies who ministered chiefly to that kingdom; whilo the which, gaining the mastery, brought on its fall. The Book of Chronicles, being almost exclusively the history Song of SOLOMON—How by all the best authorities of Judah, brings out the power of the priesthood and referred unhesitatingly to his age, probably to his hand the royalty of David, which played so great a part- -is full of the passion for beauty, the delight in nature, sometimes in union, sometimes in antagonism-in the the sensibility to pure love, the knowledge of humanity spiritual history of the southern kingdom.

marking both the character of the great king, and the But besides this direct comparison of the two his- culture of his time; yet is not without the tendency torical records, there is illustration no less valuable to rest on the visible and the sensual, in which was the of the idea and purpose of the Books of Kings to be germ of his voluptuous polygamy. The Book of Jobderived from other Scriptural books not properly his. which, whatever be the date of its original materials, torical, which, indeed, its narrative binds together in is commonly referred to his time-certainly opens the one continuous order of development.

great questions of Natural Religion, concerning man as

man, which belong to an age searching after wisdom The Psalms.– The illustration to be derived from and having contact with the thought and inquiry os the Psalms would be far more instructive, if we were not races outside the covenant. The wonderful Book of driven to rely mainly on internal evidence as to their ECCLESIASTES, to whatever period it is to be referred. date and occasion, and were not accordingly, in most in its depiction of a soul's tragedy shows no little insight cases, unable to fix these points with any certainty. into the character of him in whose person it speaks, as But even with this drawback, the illustration is ii. wearied ont with the search after happiness in wisdom valuable, as painting to us the inner lifo of Israel and in pleasure, in contemplation and in action, and during the period of our history; for to this period a coming back at last in despair to the simple command, large portion of the Psalter must certainly be referred. Fear God, and keep His commandments,” which was There seems much probability that the first division of the first teaching of childhood. Only when studied in the Psalter (Pss. i.xli.) took shape in the time of connection with the history can these books be rightly Solomon, for use in the Temple worship. In the later understood; so studied they give, on the other hand, divisions many psalms are, with more or less authority, an iufinite life and colour to the bare massive outline ascribed to Asaph, to Heman (and the sous of Koral), drawn in the historical books. and to Ethan, the three chief musicians of David, and probably of Solomon also. Of these subsequent divi. The Prophetic Books.-Again, the later history sions it is at least not unlikely that some mark and of the Second Book borrows even greater illustration illustrate the religious revivals of Jehoshaphat, Heze. from the prophetic writings-much as the earlier part kiah, and Josiah. Nor is more particular referenca of the record derives its chief interest from the action altogether wanting. Two psalms (lxxii., cxxvii.) are of the elder prophets of unwritten prophecy from ascribed to Solomon—the one, a picture of the glory Ahijah to Elisha. Thus, the period of national revival and majesty of his kingilom; the other (one of the in Israel under Jeroboam II., and the unhappy period Songs of Degrees”), ascribing to the Lord alone the of decline and fall which succeeded it--so briefly and blessings of earthly prosperity and happiness. Other coldly narrated in our books – live in the pages of psalms, especially among those ascribed to the sons of Amos, the prophet of the day of hollow and licentious Korah, are of a national character-crying to God in prosperity, and HOSEA, the prophet of the well-merited national disaster (Ps. xliv.), thanking Him in the hour doom of judgment. There we discover the evils which of triumph and deliverance (Pss. xlvi.—xlviii., lxxxv.), lurked under a material prosperity and an outward semsinging hymns at the marriage of the king (Ps. xlv.), blance of religion; there we see how they burst out, or proclaiming the loveliness and gladness of the dwell- rending the very bonds of society, as soon as that pros. ings of the Lord of Hosts (Ps. Ixxxiv.). One group perity began to wane. So, again, the character of the (Pss. xci.-c.) has been thought by some to belong reckless and cruel greatness of the Assyrian Empire, to the golden age of Hezekiah's glory and Isaial's shown so terribly in the destruction of Israel and in the prophecy. The “ great Hallel” (Pss. cxiii.-cxviii.), imminent danger of Judah, is marvellously illustrated though found in the divisions of the Psalter be- by Nahum, in his grand patriotic hymn of triumph longing to the era after the Captivity, yet illustrates over the foreseen fall of Nineveh. To the days of the festal worship of the people in the Temple of God: prosperity of Uzziah, who “ loved husbandry,” belong such psalms as Ps. cxxxvii. mark the sorrows of the (it seems) the utterances of Joel, picturing physical Captivity by " the waters of Babylon.” In all cases, disasters as God's judgment, calling to repentance, the Psalms are the lyric expression of the inner life promising temporal and spiritual blessing, and beginof the chosen people, and of the individual servants ning the series of Apocalyptic visions of the vain

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KINGS.

struggle of the enemies against the people of God. glimpse of the history of Moab under Mesha in the Once more, the great epoch of Hezekiah's religious reign of Jehoram of Israel. Most of our knowledge revival is marked by the writings of the prophet of these histories is comparatively new. When it is Micah, who, indeed, gave the signal for it (see Jer. read through the extraordinary monumental records xxvi. 8), and in whom first Messianic prophecy becomes of Egypt, Assyria, and Babylou—the discovery and clear and definite. The two grand crises of that reign deciphering of which form some of the most wonderful —the danger under Ahaz from Syria and Israel, and the chapters in historical study-it not only brings out invasion of Sennacherib-form two chief themes of the facts, determines dates, confirms or corrects our intersupreme prophecy of Isaiah, out of which the Messianic

pretations, but it gives us a vivid picture of the very hope rises almost to actual vision. To the interval life and character of the great Empires, which often between Hezekiah and Josiah, when the Chaldean explains the different views taken of them in Scripture, power begins to come into prominence, we may perhaps and always gives force and colour to our conceptions refer the magnificent brevity of the prophecy of of the Scripture history itself. The treasure-house is HABAKKUK. Certainly the pathetic interest of the far from being exhausted. Future generations may reign of Josiah is illustrated by the foreboding utter. rival or excel the advance made in this generation and ances of ZEPHANIAH. The bitterness of the captivity the last, and every advance will be of no inconsiderable of Judah-probably the great Captivity—is brought out value to the student of Scripture history. in the denunciation of Edomite triumph and cruelty in The effect of all this study and illustration of the the hour of Judah's disaster by OBADIAH. Nor is it book is to bring out more and more both its historical too much to say that the whole history of the last agony authenticity and its didactic value. The substance of of the kingdom of Judah can be read adequately only the history, and even the text, have but few obscurities, in the historical and prophetical chapters of the great and these are generally elucidated by comparison with Book of JEREMIAH. The Books of Kings supply the the ancient versions. thread of connection, which binds the prophetic books together, enabling us rightly to understand the sub- VII. The Numbers given in the Book.The stance of each, and the method of prophetic develop- one difficulty in the interpretation of the book lies in inent running through them all. The prophecies, on the numbers, chronological and other, which occur in the other hand, supply constantly the key to the true it. These are now always written in full; but there sense of the history, drawing ont explicitly the lesson is every reason to believe that in the original manuwhich it teaches by implication, and giving us a living scripts they were, as usual, indicated by Hebrew letters picture of the ages which it sketches only in outline. -a method of indication which, as is well known,

gives the greatest facility to accidental or intentional VI. Illustrations from Profane History. corruption. Thus, in our book, and still more in the To these all-important illustrations must be added, as : Chronicles, it is difficult not to suppose that the large subsidiary, the light thrown upou the narrative by the numbers given in the history (as, for example, 1 Kings study of the various heathen records, whether found xx. 29, 30; 2 Chron. xiv. 8, 9, xvii. 12-18, xxv. 5, 6, in the works of ancient historians, or read in the monu- xxvi. 12, &c.) are without anthority, due to careless mental history of nations which came in contact with transcription, or to corruption of the original document Israel, discovered and deciphered in modern times. by the exaggeration of Jewish scribes. This kind of illustration, hardly known in the case of the earlier books, begins substantially in the Book of The Chronology.-It is possible that this facility Kings.

of corruption in numbers may bear upon what is the The account of Josephus, with all its acknowledged chief critical difficulty of the book, the determination defects, is of very great value, both as a gloss on the of its chronology. In this book, unlike the earlier hisSeriptural account, and an occasional supplement to it. torical books, the calculations of dates are given in the The variations found in the LXX. version, in the way text with great exactness, whether by the hand of the of transposition, addition, and omission, are not, indeed, historian or by that of some later chronologer. of great importance; for the only substantial addition The first remarkable date is that mentioned in 1 in the history of Jeroboam (see Note at the end of Kings vi. 1, fixing the commencement of the Temple in 1 Kings xi.) is obviously legendary. But they are of the 480th year after the Exodus. With regard to this considerable interest, and occasionally indicate the date, which has presented much difficulty to chronoloexistence of independent traditions. The authors gers, see Note on the passage. By whomsoever given, quoted by Josephus or early Christian historians (such it deserves very careful consideration in the calcu. as Berosus, Manetho, Ptolemy), the monuments of lation of Biblical chronology. Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon, even the Moabitic stone, Next we have the reign of Solomon given at forty all throw light again and again on the Book of Kings; years (1 Kings xi. 43); against which the statement of and, though not without occasional difficulties and Josephus that he reigned eighty years (Ant. viii. 7. 8) discrepancies of detail, have unquestionably furnished can hardly be held to be of serious moment. the strongest confirmation of its historic truth, and From the time of the disruption, we have, marked have cleared up some obscurities in its brief record. with great precision, first, the duration of the succesThe history, it will be observed, comes in contact sive reigns of the kings of Israel; next, the duration with the history of Tyre in the reigns of Hiram and of the reigns of the kings of Judah ; lastly, stateEthbaal, father of Jezebel; with the history of Egypt ments of the synchronism of accessions in each line in the reign of the Pharaoh father-in-law of Solomon, with certain years in the reigns of the kings of the of Shishak, of “Zerah the Ethiopian,” of Sabaco (the other line. Now, in the present condition of the text, So or Seveh of 2 Kings xvii. 3), of Tirhakah, and of these three lines of calculation present occasional Pharaoh-necho; with the history of Assyria under the discrepancies; and this is especially the case with the "Pul” of 2 Kings xv. 19, Tiglath-pileser, Shalmaneser, synchronistic notices, which are, indeed, believed by Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon; with the history of many to have been added by a later hand, both because Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; even with our one of their rather formal artificiality, and of the evident

no

confusion which they introduce. Setting these last and chronologers, and in the Egyptian and Assyrian aside, the discrepancies are slight. In any case they

monuments. By such comparison

their general accuracy are not great and may be easily exhibited.

is very remarkably illustrated, although some discreThe whole history (after the reign of Solomon) can be pancies in detail occur. divided into three periods—(a) from the contemporaneous (a) Thus the capture of Samaria is fixed by Ptolemy's accession of Jeroboam and Rehoboam to the contem- Canon in B.c. 721 ; the capture of Jerusalem is deter. poraneous deaths of Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of mined by undoubted authorities in B.c. 586. The interJudah by the hand of Jehu; (b) from the contemporaneous val between these dates corresponds almost exactly with accession of Jehu and Athaliah to the fall of Samaria the time assigned in our text to the sole existence of in the sixth year of Hezekiah; (c) from the sixth year the kingdom of Judah. of Hezekiah to the capture of Jerusalem. Now, (a) (b) Starting from either of these dates, the calcuin the first period there is no difficulty. The united lation in the text, taking the shorter reckoning, would reigns in Israel amount to 98 years, * in Judah to place the accession of Rehoboam at 957 or 959 B.C. 95; and, remembering that the dates are always Now, the Egyptian records fix the accession of Shishak given in round numbers, reckoning, after the Hebrew

at about 983 B.C. His invasion took place in his manner, any part of a year as a year, there is here twentieth year, B.C. 963, and as this coincided with the

real discrepancy, even in the synchronistic fifth year of Rehoboam, this would fix the accession of notices. We may accept the lower calculation, or Rehoboam at B.c. 968—about half-way between the perhaps something even less than this, as the true dates determined by the longer and shorter calculations period. In the second period (b) the discrepancy begins. of the chronology of our book. The united reigns in Israel amount to 143 years, in (c) The invasion of Pharaoh-necho is placed in our Judah to 165; and the synchronistic notices in the history about twenty-three years before the final capture later part of the period are not only disturbed by this of Jerusalem, i.e., about B.C. 609. But the Egyptian discrepancy, but are occasionally self-contradictory.+ Of chronology fixes his reign from 610 to 594, and makes this discrepancy there must be some account to be his expedition against Assyria take place early in his given; for it is too patent to have escaped the notice of reign. the historian himself, or even of a later chronologer. It (d) The accession of Sabaco II. (the So or Seveh of is, of course, possible to refer it to corruption of the 2 Kings xvii. 4) is fixed by the Egyptian records in B.C. text; but of such corruption we have no indication in 723; the Hebrew text notes the intercourse between any variations of the ancient versions. If this be set him and Hoshea about three years before the capture aside, there are but two ways of accounting for it. of Samaria, i.e., 723 or 724. In all these cases there is There may have been (as Archbishop Ussher supposed) a very close coincidence between the two chronologies. periods of interregnum in Israel--one of eleven years (e) The Assyrian chronology agrees less closely. Thus after the death of Jeroboam II., and before the accession our text makes Menahem's reign end about thirty years of Zachariah, the other of about the same period between

before the fall of Samaria, i.e., B.C. 751. The Assyrian Pekah and Hoshea. But of these the former is most records make Tiglath-pileser receive tribute for him unlikely, for the period of anarchy had not yet set in; in 741. In our text the expedition of Sennacherib is the latter, more probable in itself, is apparently incon- fixed to about eight years after the fall of Samaria, sistent with the actual words of the historian (2 Kings i.e., B.c. 713. The Assyrian monuments place it about XV. 30); of neither is there any trace in the history.

B.C. 701; and this later date seems to be confirmed The only other possible supposition is, that in Judah by the Canon of Ptolemy. These discrepancies cannot some kings may, after common Oriental custom, have be removed, except by alteration of our text, unless acceded to power during their fathers' reigns, as co- there be some error in the data of our Assyrian calcula. adjutors or substitutes. It happens that this is specially tions. It will be observed that they are simply in detail. likely during this period in two cases. If, as has () The chronological notices in Josephus, which by been thought by some critics, Amaziah after his defeat their minute accuracy suggest some independent by Joash was kept in captivity till his conqueror's death, sources of information, do not enable us to pronounce deit would be natural that his son should be placed on the cisively between the two reckonings of the text. Thus throne; and, when Uzziah had been smitten with leprosy,

(a) he has placed Josiah's fulfilment of the prophecy we actually know that Jotham acted as king before his against the altar at Bethel 361 years after its utterance, father's death (2 Kings xv. 5). This supposition is,

immediately after the division of the kingdom (Ant. on the whole, most probable. It will not correct the

x. 1. 4).

Now the eighteenth year of Josiah would be confusion of the synchronistic notices, but it will according to the shorter reckoning about 336 years, account for the discrepancy in the collective duration of according to the longer reckoning about 352 years, after the reigns in the two lines. In this case it is perhaps, the division of the kingdom; and the incident recorded therefore, best again to take the lower calculation. In took place not earlier, though it may have been later, the third period (c), amounting to 133 years, Judah than the 18th year. (B) In Ant. x. 8. 4 he remarks exists alone, and no difficulty can arise.

that the kings of David's race reigned on the whole 514 The general result, therefore, is that, taking the shorter years, "during twenty of which” (he adds, oddly enough) calculation, we have, from the division of the kingdom to

Saul reigned, who was not the same tribe.” Allowing the fall of Samaria, a period of 238 years, and from the

forty years for David and eighty according to Josephus same point to the fall of Jerusalem a period of 371

years.

calculation) for Solomon, and (it would seem) twenty for If the longer calculation be taken, twenty-two years

Saul, the period for the division of the kingdom to the must be added to each of these periods.

fall of Jerusalem would be 370 years, which agrees Now, we are able to test these calculations by inde- with the shorter reckoning. (w) The Temple is said pendent chronological data, found in ancient historiaus (Ant. x. 8. 5) to have fallen “in the tenth day of the

sixth month of the 470th year” after its dedication ; • If the civil war of four years (see 1 Kings xvi. 15—23) be- but since this was in the eleventh year of Solomon, or tween Omri and Tibri be not included in the reign of Omri, then the period is 102 years.

(according to Josephus) sixty-nine years before the dis+ See (for example) 2 Kings xv. 27, 30, 32, xvi. 1.

ruption, this would give 401 years for the same period,

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