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Death of Ahaz.


Hoshea Imprisoned.

1 Heb., rendered.

2 Or, tritute.

ment of stones. (18) And the covert for the sabbath that they had built in the house, and the king's entry without, turned he from the house of the LORD for the king of Assyria.

(19) Now the rest of the acts of Ahaz which he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah ? (20) And Ahaz slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David : and Hezekiah his son reigned in his stead.

Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in
Samaria over Israel nine


(2) And he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, but not as the kings of Israel that were before him. (3) Against him came up_Shalmaneser king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his servant, and I gave him ? presents. (1) And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea : for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year: therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison.

B.C. 26.

B.C. 725.

B.C. 73.

CHAPTER XVII.-(1) In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began


The brasen oxen.-These were ultimately carried Olam states that Hoshea did not replace the calf of off by the Babylonians (Jer. lii. 20).

Bethel, which, it assumes, had been carried off by the A pavement of stones-i.e., a pedestal or founda- Assyrians in accordance with the prophecy of Hosea tion of stonework: ét Báow 110 ivnu (LXX.).

(Hosea x. 5). We may remember that the last sove(18) The covert for the sabbath. - A very reigns of falling monarchies have not always been obscure expression. The best interpretation is "the the worst of their line-e.g., Charles I. or Louis XVI. covered hall (or stand) set apart for the use of the (3) Against him came up Shalmaneser king king and his attendants when he visited the Temple on of Assyria.-Shalmaneser IV. (Shalmánu-ushshir, holy days” (reading, with the Hebrew margin, músak, Shalman be gracious !"), the successor of Tiglath which is attested by the Vulg., musach, and the Syriac Pileser II., and predecessor of Sargon, reigned 727–722 “ house of the sabbath ”). The thing is not mentioned B.C. No annals of his reign have come down to us in the anywhere else.

cuneiform inscriptions, but a fragment of the Eponym. In the house-i.e., in the sacred precincts, prob. list notes foreign expeditions for the three successive ably in the inner forecourt.

years 725-723 B.C. This agrees with what Menander The king's entry without.The outer entry of states (Josephus, Ant. ix. 14, 2), according to whom the king, i.e., the gate by which the king entered the Shalmaneser made an expedition against Tyre (and no inner court (Ezek. xlvi. 1, 2).

doubt Israel, as the ally of Tyre), which lasted five Turned he from the house of the Lord.- years—i.e., was continued beyond Shalmaneser's reign Or, he altered in the house of the Lord, i.e., stripped into that of Sargon. Nothing is known of the death of them of their ornamental work.

Shalmaneser. For.-Or, from fear of ...-But comp. Gen. vi. 32, (+) Conspiracy-i.e., as is presently explained, a “through them.” Ahaz durst not appear before Tiglath conspiracy with the king of Egypt against his suzerain. without a present. It is possible also that he antici- Shalmaneser regarded Hoshea, and probably the king pated a visit from the great king.

of Egypt also, as his “servant” (verse 3). (Comp. (19) Which he did.–Some MSS., and the LXX., chap. xii. 20 and Jer. xi. 9.) Thenius wishes to read Syriac, and Arabic have the usual formula, “and all falsehood,” after the LXX., 'adikiav (comp. Deut. xix. which he did."

18; Micah 'vi. 12), a change involving transposition of XVII.

two Heb. letters (shèqer for qesher); but the change is THE REIGN OF HOSHEA, THE LAST KING OF needless.

SAMARIA. THE FALL OF SAMARIA. CAPTIVITY So.-The Hebrew letters should be pointed differOF ISRAEL, AND RE-PEOPLING OF THE LAND ently, so as to be pronounced Siwè, or Sewē, as this BY FOREIGNERS.

name corresponds to the Assyrian Shab'i, and the (1) In the twelfth year of Ahaz.-If Pekah Egyptian Shabaka, the Greek Sabaco, the first king of reigned thirty years (see Note on chap. xv. 27), and the XXVth, or Ethiopian dynasty, whom Sargon deAhaz succeeded in Pekah's seventeenth year (chap. xvi. feated at Raphia in 720 B.C. Sargon calls him 1), Ahaz must have reigned thirteen years concurrently "prince," or "ruler” (shiltân), rather than “king” of with Pekah. Hoshea, therefore, succeeded Pekah in Egypt; and it appears that at this time Lower Egypt the fourteenth year of Ahaz.

was divided among a number of petty principalities, Began Hoshea.-See the inscription of Tiglath whose recognition of any central authority was very Pileser, quoted at chap. xv. 30, according to which, uncertain-a fact which rendered an Egyptian alliance Hoshea (Ă-u-si-ha) only mounted the throne as a vassal of little value to Israel. (See Isa. xix., xx.) of Assyria. On the news of the death of Tiglath, he Brought.-Rather, offered. The word elsewhere is probably refused further tribute.

always used of sacrifice. (2) But not as the kings of Israel that were As he had done.-Omit. The Hebrew phrase before him.-The preceding phrase is used of all the (according to a year, in a year), which is not found northern kings but Shallum, who only reigned a mouth, elsewhere, denotes the regular payment of yearly dues. and had no time for the display of his religious policy. This Hoshea failed to discharge. We can hardly assume that Hoshea abandoned the Therefore shut him up.-Comp. Jer. xxxiii. calf-worship of Bethel, but he may have discounte- 1, xxxvi. 5, xxxii. 2, 3. This statement seems to imply nanced the cultus of the Baals and Asheras. The Seder that Shalmaneser took Hoshea prisoner before the siege

Israel carried away


Captive by Shalmaneser.

B.C. 123.

(5) Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years. (6) "In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried a ch. 18. 10. Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. (7) For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods, (8) and 0 Deut. 4. 19. walked in the statutes of the heathen, whom the LORD cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings

of Israel, which they had made. (9) And
the children of Israel did secretly those
things that were not right against the
LORD their God, and they built them
high places in all their cities, from the
tower of the watchmen to the fenced
city. (10) And they set them up limages
and groves in every high hill, and under
every green tree: (11) and there they
burnt incense in all the high places, as
did the heathen whom the LORD carried
away before them; and wrought wicked
things to provoke the LORD to anger:
(12) for they served idols, whereof the
LORD had said unto them, Ye shall not
do this thing.

(13) Yet the LORD testified against

1 Heb., statues.

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of Samaria : a supposition which finds support in the Had feared other gods.-Such as the Baals and fact that Sargon, who ended the siege, makes no men. Asheras of Canaan, which symbolised the productivo tion of the capture or death of the Israelite king. powers of Nature, and, further, the heavenly bodies.

(5) Then (and) the king of Assyria came up Comp. Amos v. 25, 26; Ezek. viii. 14, 16.) .. and besieged it three years.-Sargon states (8) Statutes of the heathen and of the that he took Samaria (Samerina) in his first year. kings of Israel. - The national guilt was twofold. Shalmaneser therefore had besieged the city some two It comprised : (1) idolatry in the strict sense-i.e., years before his death.

worship of other gods than Jehovah ; (2) a heathenish The brief narrative before us does not discriminate mode of worshipping Jehovah Himself-namely, under between the respective shares of the two Assyrian sove- the form of a bullock, as Jeroboam I. had ordained. reigns in the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel, but it The term “statutes” means religious rules or ordiis noticeable that it does not say that Shalmaneser“ be, nances. (Comp. Exod. xii. 14, "statutes ; ” Lev. XX. sieged Samaria three years, and “took Samaria." 23, “ manners; 1 Kings iii. 3, " ordinance.") (Comp. chap. xviii. 11.)

Which they had made-i.e., the statutes which (6) In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of the kings of Israel had made. (Comp. verse 19 b.) Assyria took Samaria.-Comp. Hosea x. 5 seq.; (9) Did secretly.-The literal sense is covered. In Micah i. 6; Isa. xxviii. 144. In the great inscription this connection'it is natural to remember that Heb. verbs published by Botta, Sargon says: “The city of Sama- of covering and hiding are often used in the sense of ria I assaulted, I took; 27,280 men dwelling in the dealing perfidiously or deceitfully. (Comp. ma‘al, 1 midst thereof I carried off ; 50 chariots among them I Chron. x 13, with meil, “mantle;" and bāgad,“ to set apart (for myself), and the rest of their wealth I let deal treacherously,”. Hosea v. 7, with bèged, gar(my soldiers) take; my prefect over them I appointed, ment.”) The form in the text (the pihel of 'hāphă) is and the tribute of the former king upon them I laid.” only found here.

Placed them.-Literally, made them dwell. LXX., They built them high places. First, the instiκατώκησεν. .

tution of unlawful places of worship. In Halah.-This place appears to be identical with From the tower of the watchmen to the Halahhu, a name occurring in an Assyrian geographi. fenced city.-The towers are such as are mentioned cal list between Arrabha (Arrapachitis) and Ratsappa in 2 Chron. xxvi. 10. Here, and in chap. xviii, 8, these (Rezeph). It probably lay in Mesopotamia, like solitary buildings, tenanted by a few herdsmen, aro Kezeph and Gozan. (See Note on 1 Chron. v. 26.) contrasted with the embattled cities which protected

In Habor by the river of Gozan.-Rather, on multitudes. Wherever men were, whether in small or Habor the river of Gozan.

large numbers, these high places were established. The cities of the Medes.- The LXX. seems to (10) Images and groves.-Pillars and Asherashave read “ mountains of the Medes." (Comp. Notes i.e., sacred trunks. on 1 Chron. v. 26, where “Hara and the river of The second degree of guilt: the setting up of idolaGozan” is probably the result of an inadvertent trans- trons symbols. position of “The river of Gozan and Hara.")

(11) Wrought wicked things.-Not merely idola

trous rites, but also the hideous immoralities which con. (7—23) REFLECTIONS OF THE LAST EDITOR ON

stituted a recognised part of the nature - worships of THE MORAL CAUSES OF THE CATASTROPHE.

Canaan. (7) For so it was.-Literally, and it came to pass. (12) For they served idols.-Rather, and they

Sinned against the Lord ... Egypt. – The served the dunglings; a term of contempt used in 1 claim of Jehovah to Israel's exclusive fealty was from Kings xv. 19; Deut. xxix. 16, where see Note. the outset based upon the fact that He had emancipated (13) Yet the Lord testified against Israel. them from the Egyptian bondage-a fact which is sig- Rather, And Jehovah adjured Israel ...

The verb nificantly asserted as the preamble to Jehovah's laws. means here, gave solemn warning, or charge. In verse (See Exod. xx. 2 ; and comp. Hosea xi. 1, xii. 9.) 15 it is repeated, with a cognate noun as object; “His



of Israel.


Israel, and against Judah, 1 by all the

heathen that were round about them, prophets, and by all the seers, saying,

concerning whom the LORD had charged a Turn ye from your evil ways, and keep

them, that they should not do like my commandments and my statutes, 1 Heb, by the hand

them. (16) And they left all the comaccording to all the law which I com

mandments of the Lord their God, and manded your fathers, and which I sent

d made them molten images, even two to you by my servants the prophets.

calves, and made a grove, and wor(14) Notwithstanding they would not hear,

shipped all the host of heaven, and but hardened their necks, like to the

served Baal. (17) And they caused their neck of their fathers, that did not be

sons and their daughters to pass lieve in the LORD their God. (15) And

through the fire, and used divination they rejected his statutes, and his cove

and enchantments, and sold themselves nant that he made with their fathers, Kincse; 1 to do evil in the sight of the LORD, to and his testimonies which he testified

provoke him to anger. against them; and they followed vanity,

(18) Therefore the LORD was very angry and became vain, and went after the

with Israel, and removed them out of

a Jer. 18. 11 & 25. 5,

& 35. 15.

Kings 12. .

testimonies which he testified against them;” or, way Baal and Ashera stand side by side in Judges vi. his charges (i.e., precepts) which he had given them. 28, 2 Kings xxiii. 4; and in 1 Kings xviii. 19 the 450

By all the prophets, and by all the seers. prophets of the Baal and the 400 of the Ashera. Further, The Hebrew text is, by the hand of all his prophets- in 2 Chron, xv. 16, xxiv. 18, the LXX. render Ashera namely, every seer. One or two MSS. and the Targum by Astarte; and in other passages Aquila, Symmachus, have prophet, instead of his prophets. The Syriac and the Peshito do the same thing.” He then refers to 1 has" by the hand of all his servants the prophets, and Kings xiv. 23 and Isa. xvii. 8, xxvii. 9, and continues : all the seers.” The Vulg. and Arabic also have both "according to these and many other passages, Ashera nouns plural. Seers were such persons as, without be- was used as the designation of the commonest material longing to the prophetic order, came forward in times representation of the goddess. It consisted of a block of emergency upon a sudden Divine impulse. Thenius of wood, of considerable size (Judges vi. 26), and rethinks Israel and Judah are mentioned together becanse sembling a tree, as is shown by the expressions used in the reference is to the time before the partition of the connection with it, such as ‘setting up,' planting,' and kingdom; more probably, because both apostatised, and 'cutting down' (2 Kings xvii. 10; Deut. xvi. 21; prophets were sent to both.

Judges vi. 28; 2 Kings xviii. 4, &c.). In Isa. xxvii. 9 And which I sent-i.e., the law which I sent. the LXX. actually renders 'tree;' and so the Peshito But—as according to later Jewish ideas, the prophets

in Deut. vi. 21, Micah v. 13. Hence, we must not did not bring the Law, but only interpreted it-it seems think of pillars like the Greek Hermae, but of a real better to understand with the Vulg. ("et sicut misi”) trunk planted in the ground, rootless, but not branch"and according to all that I sent to you (i.e., enjoined less ; for which purpose pines and evergreens were upon you) by my servants the prophets.”

preferred. The tree signifies, according to an ancient (14) Notwithstanding ... hear.-Rather, and and widespread conception, nature, or the world, which they hearkened not.

in this case stands as goddess at the side of the BaalNecks.-Heb., neck. (Comp. Deut. x. 16; Jer. xvii. —the lord of the world. (Comp. the Norse tree, 23; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 13.)

Yggdrasil, and the Assyrian sacred tree.) Hence, the Like to the neck.-LXX. and Syriac, more than Ashera was set up by the altar of Baal (Judges vi. 28). the neck. One letter different in the Hebrew.

(Comp. Deut. xvi. 21.)” Schlottmann adds that Did not believe in the Lord their God. The Movers is wrong in making Astarte and Ashera two reference is not to intellectual but to moral unbelief, different goddesses, the former being "the stern, cruel evincing itself as disobedience. Vulg., " qui volerunt virgin,” the latter, " the goddess who excites to pleaobediren.” They did not render the obedience of faith. sure; and he justly observes that, as in the case of (Comp. the use of 'ateiden in the Greek Testament.) Baal, the same deity may be conceived under contrary

(15) And they followed vanity, and became aspects (Riehm's Handwörterbuch Bibl. Alterthums, vain.-The same expression occurs in Jer. ii. 5. The pp. 111-114). For the Hebrew conception of Astarte word “vanity” (hèbel) has the article. It denotes see Jer. vii. 18, xliv. 17 seq. Kuenen, Rel. of Isr. i. 88 strictly breath ; and then that which is as transient as seq., agrees with Movers, but hardly proves

his a breath. (Comp. Job vii. 16.) Here the idols and their worship are intended. The cognate verb, “be. Worshipped all the host of heaven.-Chap. came vain," means “ dealt (or, 'talked;' Job xxvii, 12) xxi. 3 ; comp. xxiii. 4. foolishly.” The LXX. has 'quataiconcav. (Comp. (17) And they caused. fire.-The cultus of Rom, i. 21.)

Moloch (chap. xvi. 3). (16) Molten images.-1 Kings xii. 28. Literally, Used divination and enchantments.-Dent. a casting.

xviii. 10; Num. xxiii. 23. “Divinationibus inserviebant A grove.-An Asherah (1 Kings xiv 23, xvi. 33). et auguriis ” (Vulg.). Schlottmann writes: That Ashera was only another Sold themselves. Idolatry is regarded as a serviname for the same supreme goddess (i.e., Ashtoreth) is tude. (Comp. 1 Kings xxi. 20, 25.) at once shown by the parallelism of .Baal and Ashta. (18) Removed them out of his sight. — By roth' (Judges ii. 13) with “Baal and Asherim' (the banishing them from his land (verse 23) — an expresplural of Ashera) in Judges iii. 7. In quite the same sion founded upon the old local conceptions of deity.


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Sins of Judah.


Samaria Re-peopled.

his sight: there was none left but the tribe of Judah only. (19) Also Judah kept not the commandments of the LORD their God, but walked in the statutes of Israel which they made. (20) And the LORD rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers, until he had cast them out of his sight. (21) For he rent Israel from the house of David; and they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king: and Jeroboam drave Israel from following the LORD, and made them sin a great sin. (22) For the

children of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which he did; they departed not from them; (23) until the LORD removed Israel out of his sight, as he had said by all his servants the prophets. So was Israel carried away out of their own land to Assyria unto this day.

(24) And the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel : and they possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof,

B.C. cir. 678.

The tribe-i.e., the kingdom. (Comp. 1 Kings xi. high places of the northern kingdom he slew their 36.)

priests, whereas the priests of Judæan sanctuaries were (19) Also Judah kept not .-Judah was no provided for at Jerusalem. It is plain from this that real or permanent exception to tho sins and punish- he regarded the worship of the northern sanctuaries as ment of Israel; she imitated the apostasy of her sister- purely heathenish (comp. 2 Kings xxiii. 20 with verse 5), kingdom, and was visited with a similar penalty. and it was only in much later times that the mixed

The statutes of Israel which they made.- population of Samaria became possessed of the PentaSee Note on verse 8 supra, and comp. Micah vi. 16, teuch, and set up a worship on Mount Gerizim, in imi“the statutes of Omri.' According to chap. viii. 27 tation of the ritual of the second Temple. We have and xvi. 3, Ahaziah and Ahaz especially favoured the no reason to think that the captive Ephraimites were idolatry practised in the northern kingdom. The more able to retain their distinctive character than their example of her more powerful neighbour exercised a brethren who remained in Palestine. The problem of fatally powerful spell upon Judah.

the lost tribes, which has so much attraction for some (20) And the Lord rejected all the seed of speculators, is a purely fanciful one. The people whom Israel.-Thenius prefers the reading of the LXX.

Hosea and Amos describe were not fitted to maintain "and rejected the Lord (as in the last clause of verse themselves apart from the heathen among

whom 19), and the Lord, was angry with all the seed of Israel,” they dwelt. Scattered among strange nations, they ac&c. It thus becomes plain that the writer goes back cepted the service of strange gods (Deut. xxviii. 64), to verse 18, after the parenthesis relating to Judah. and, losing their distinctive religion, lost also their dis“ Israel” is used in the narrow sense in those verses.

tinctive existence." (Robertson Smith.) Into the hand of spoilers — e.g., the Syrians

(24—33) RE-PEOPLING OF THE LAND WITH ALIENS, (chap. x. 32;) and the Assyrians (chap. xv. 19, 29,

THEIR WORSHIP DESCRIBED. xvii. 3. The writer probably remembered Judg. ii. 14.

(21) For he rent ...-The verse assigns the fons (24) The king of Assyria. — Sargon (Sargîna), et origo mali; it makes the secession of the Ten who actually records that in his first year (721 B.c.) he Tribes from the house of David the ultimate cause of settled a body of conquered Babylonians in the land of their ruin. The “ for,” therefore, refers to what has Hatti or Syria. In another passage he speaks of locajust been said in verses 18–20.

ting certain Arab tribes, including those of Thamûd He rent Israel. - The Hebrew as it stands and Ephah, in the land of Beth-Omri; and in a third can only mean Israel rent. The want of an object passage of his annals he says that he “ removed the after the transitive verb favours the suggestion of rest” of these Arab tribes, "and caused them to dwell Thenius that the niphal should be restored : Israel rent in the city of Samerina” (Samaria). This notice behimself away (comp. the Vulg., ** scissus est ”). (If longs to Sargon's seventh year (715 B.c.). Kuthah and Israel were the object, 'eth should be expressed.) Sepharvaim were also towns in Babylonia. The former

Drave.- Hebrew text, put far away (Amos ii. 3). is called Kutiè in the cuneiform inscriptions. It had a Hebrew margin, misled (2 Chron. xxi. 11); the Targum temple of Nergal and Laz, the ruins of which have and Syriac “caused to stray.” The argument obvi. been discovered at Tell-Ibrâhîm, north-east of Babylon. ously is this—separation from Judah led to the calf." | Sepharvaim, in the cuneiform Sipar and Sippar, means worship, and that to idolatry pure and simple.

“the two Sipars;” in allusion, probably, to the fact (22) The children of Israel walked . that the town was divided between the two deities, Israel obstinately persisted in the sin of Jeroboam, in Samas (the sun), and Anunitum, and bore the names spite of all warning.

of Sippar sa Samas (“Sippara of the Sun”), and (23) By all his servants the prophets.-Comp. Sippar sa Anunitum (" Sippara of Anunit ”). Rassam Hosea i. 6; ix. 16; Amos iii. 11, 12, v. 27; Isa. xxviii. discovered ruins of Eparra, the great sun-temple, at 144.

Abu Habba, south-west of Bagdad, on the east bank of So was Israel carried away.-That the land the Euphrates. was not entirely depopulated appears from such passages Ava (Heb., ‘Avvā) may be the same as Ivah (Heb. as 2 Chron. xxx. 1, xxxiv. 9. But henceforth the dis- Iwwah) (chap. xviii. 31, xix. 13). tinctive character of the nation was lost; such Hebrews Hamath. --Sargon has recorded his reduction, in as remained in their old land became mixed with their 720 B.C., of Itu-bi-'di (or Yau-bi-'di) king of Hamath, heathen neighbours. When Josiah destroyed the ancient and also his settling of colonists in Hamathite territory.

The Aliens


and their Worship.

(25) And so it was at the beginning of
their dwelling there, that they feared
not the LORD: therefore the LORD sent
lions among them, which slew some of
them. (26) Wherefore they spake to the
king of Assyria, saying, The nations
which thou hast removed, and placed in
the cities of Samaria, know not the
manner of the God of the land : there-
fore he hath sent lions among them,
and, behold, they slay them, because a Zeph. 1.5
they know not the manner of the God of
the land. (27) Then the king of Assyria
commanded, saying, Carry thither one
of the priests whom ye brought from
thence; and let them go and dwell there,
and let him teach them the manner of
the God of the land. (28) Then one of
the priests whom they had carried away
from Samaria came and dwelt in Beth-

el, and taught them how they should fear the LORD.

(29) Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their cities wherein they dwelt. (30) And the men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth, and the men of Cuth made Nergal, and the men of Hamath made Ashima, (31) and the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burnt their children in fire to Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim.

(32) So they feared the Lord, and made unto themselves of the lowest of them priests of the high places, which sacrificed for them in the houses of the high places. (33) a They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the

It is, therefore, quite likely that he had, as usual, Dwelt.-Were dwelling. deported the conquered Hamathites, and, in fact, settled (30) Succoth-benoth. – The Hebrew spelling of some of them in Samaria, as this verse relates.

this name has probably suffered in transmission. The Placed them.-Heb., made them dwell, the very Babylonian goddess Žirbânit or Zarpanitum ("seedphrase used by Sargon himself in describing these ar- maker") the consort of Merodach, appears to be meant. rangements (usesib). At a later period Esarhaddon Nergal.-The name of the god represented by the reinforced these colonists (Ezra iv. 2).

colossal lions which guarded the doorways of Assyrian (25) The Lord sent (the) lions. In the interval palaces. These colossi were called nirgali ; and a between the Assyrian depopulation and the re-peopling syllabary informs us that Nergal was the god of of the land, the lions indigenous to the country Kutha. had multiplied naturally enough. Their ravages were Ashima.-Nothing is known of this idol. Schrader understood by the colonists as a token of the wrath of (in Riehm) pronounces against identification with the the local deity on acc nt of their neglect of his wor- Phænician Esmún. Lane's lexicon gives an Arabic ship. The sacred writer endorses this interpretation word, 'usāmatu, or 'al-usâmatu, “the lion,” which of the incident, probably remembering Lev. xxvi. 22. may be cognate with Ashima. (Comp. Exod. xxiii. 29; Ezek. xiv. 15.)

(31) Nibhaz and Tartak are unknown, but the forms Which slew.-The form of the verb implies a state have an Assyrio-Babylonian cast. (Comp. Nimrod, of things which lasted some time. Literally, and they | Nergal with the former, and Ishtar, Namtar, Merowere killing among them.

dach, Shadrach, with the latter.) Before Nibhaz the (26) They spake. — Rather, men spake, i.e., the LXX. have another name, Abaazar, or Eblazer (? 'abal prefects of the province.

Assúr “the Son of Assur'). The manner of the God.-The word mishpāt, Adrammelech.-Comp. chap. xix. 37. Identified "judgment, ,” « decision,” here means “ appointed wor- by Schrader with the Assyrian Adar-malik, "Adar is ship,” or

“ cultus.” In the Koran the word din, prince” (? Adrum). " judgment,” is used in a similar way, as equivalent to Anammelech—i.e., Anum-malik, "Anu is prince.” "religion,” especially the religion of Islam.

Adar and Anu are well-known Assyrian gods. (27) Carry.-Cause to go.

(32) They feared.They were fearing. (See Note Let them go and dwell.-To be corrected after on verse 25, 28, supra.) the Syriac and Vulg.: let him go and dwell.

Of the lowest of them.-Rather, of all orders, Yo brought.-Ye carried away.

or promiscuously. (Comp. 1 Kings xii. 31.) This is (28) And taught.-And was teaching, implying a another indication that it was Jeroboam's mode of wor. permanent work.

ship which was now restored. In Bethel.-Because he was a priest of the calf. Which sacrificed.-Heb., and they used to do. worship

The verb do is used in the sense of sacra facere, just Fear the Lord.-Not in the modern ethical but in like the Greek ποιείν, έρδειν, ρέζειν. the ancient ceremonial sense.

Priests of the high places. — Rather, bāmāh. (29) Howbeit.-And. The colonists did not fear priests (omit the). Bamah-priests are opposed to the Jehovah in a monotheistic sense; they simply added priests of Jehovah's Temple. his cultus to that of their ancestral deities.

(33) They feared . gods. — Literally, Jehovah The houses of the high places.-The temples were they fearing, and their own gods were they serv. or chapels which constituted the sanctuaries of the ing. The verse recapitulates 28–32. different cities in the Samaritan territory.

Whom they carried away from thence. The Samaritans- i.e., the people of northern Rather, whence they had been carried away. LiteIsrael. (Comp. Samaria in verse 24.)

rally, whence men carried them away. The meaning

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