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Battle between Judah

II. KINGS, XIV.

and Israel.

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Jehoash the king of Israel sent to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, Give thy daughter to my son to wife: and there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, and trode down the thistle. (10) Thou hast indeed smitten Edom, and thine heart hath lifted thee up: glory of this, and tarry lat home: for why shouldest thou meddle to thy hurt, that thou shouldest fall, even thou, and Judah with thee? (11) But Amaziah would not hear. Therefore Jehoash king of Israel went up; and he and Amaziah king of Judah looked one another in the face at Beth-shemesh, which belongeth to Judah. (12) And Judah ?was put to the worse

B.O. cir. 625.

before Israel; and they fled every man to their tents. (13) And Jehoash king of Israel took Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Jehoash the son of Ahaziah, at Beth-shemesh, and came to Jerusalem, and brake down the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim unto the corner gate, four hundred cubits. (14) And he took all the gold and silver, and all the vessels that were found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house, and hostages, and returned to Samaria.

(15) Now the rest of the acts of Jehoash which he did, and his might, and how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel?

2 Heb., was emit.

ten.

Give thy daughter to my son to wife.- dent, which is further indicated in the original by the Perhaps hinting at Amaziah's demand for the surrender order of the words: “And Amaziah king of Judah of Israel (the “ daughter” of Jehoash) to Judah (the ... did Jehoash king of Israel take . “son” of Amaziah).

Came.-So the Hebrew margin. The Hebrew text And there passed by a wild beast that has, brought him (way'bi’o; a rare form). So Chronicles was in Lebanon.-Rather, and the wild beasts that and the Vulg., but not the other versions. Jehoash were in Lebanon passed over it. So LXX. and Vulg. brought Amaziah a prisoner to his own capital. It is obvious to compare with this brief but most Brake down the wall.-Or, made a breach in the pithy parable that of Jotham (Judges ix. 8—15). The wall. No resistance appears to have been offered. contrast between the northern and southern kingdoms Josephus relates that Amaziah was induced by menaces in point of military strength and resources, and the of death to order the gates to be thrown open to the disdainful tolerance with which the former regarded enemy; a needless assumption, considering that the the latter, could hardly have found more forcible ex- army had been routed and the king was a captive. pression.

He adds, that Jehoash rode in his chariot through the (10) Thou hast indeed smitten-i.e., thou hast breach in the walls, leading Amaziah as a prisoner. thoroughly worsted; gained a brilliant victory over From the gate.-So Chronicles and the Syriac, Edom. (The “indeed” qualifies "smitten.”)

Vulg., and Arabic here. The Hebrew text has, at the Hath lifted.-Rather, lifteth.

gate, which is due to the common confusion of the Glory of this, and tarry at home.-Liter- letters b and m (be, “ in;” min, “from”). The followally, be honoured, and abide in thine own house, i.e., be ing "unto" shows that "from" is right. content with the glory thou hast achieved. Rest on Of Ephraim.-This gate lay on the north side of thy laurels, and do not risk them by further enter- the city, and was also called the “ Gate of Benjamin. prises which may not turn out so favourably. So the It answers to the modern Damascus gate. Vulg. Thenius explains : "Show thy might at home,” The corner gate.-This gate was at the north-west referring to the LXX. (Comp. 2 Sam. vi. 20).

corner of the wall at the point where it trended southFor why shouldest thou meddle to thine wards. hurt ?-Rather, and why shouldst thou challenge or Four hundred cubits.-That is, about 222 yards. provoke (literally, attack, Deut. ii. 5) disaster ?

The insolence of a victorious enemy is sufficient to ac(11) Looked one another in the face-i.e., en- count for this conduct of Jehoash. It was also a countered one another; joined battle.

forcible way of convincing Amaziah that even his Beth-shemesh. The modern Ain-shems, north of strongest city was not proof against the prowess of which is a great plain now called Wady-es-Surár, in Ephraim. Thenins thinks that Jehoash wanted to which the encounter probably happened. Jehoash pro- make room for the triumphal entry of his troops. posed to attack Jerusalem from the west, as Hazael also (11) That were found.-This expression seems to had intended (chap. xii. 17).

hint that there was not much treasure to carry off. (12) To their tents.-Hebrew text, to his tent; so (Comp. chap. xiii. 18.) the LXX. and Syriac. Hebrew margin, to his tents; so Hostages.-Literally, the sons of sureties. Having Vulg., and Targum, and Chronicles. The meaning is humbled the pride of Amaziah, Jehoash left him in that the enemy disbanded, as usually after a great de- possession of his throne, taking hostages for his future feat. (Comp. chap. viii. 21.)

good behaviour. Similar acts of clemency are recorded (13) Amaziah king of Judah, the son of Je- of themselves by the Assyrian kings of the dynasty of hoash the son of Ahaziah.-Comp. verse 8. The- Sargon. nius thinks the formal specification of Amaziah's de. (15, 16) Now the rest ...-Comp. chap. xiii. 12, scent indicates that this narrative was derived from 13, where the reign of Jehoash is already summed up, "the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel." though not altogether in the same phraseology. The At all events, it emphasises the importance of the inci. I compiler probably found verses 15, 16, in their present Murder of Amaziah.

II. KINGS, XIV.

Jeroboam the Son of Joash.

B.C. 825.

(16) And Jehoash slept with his fathers, a 2 Chron. 25. 27. • Azariah, which was sixteen years old, and was buried in Samaria with the

and made him king instead of his father kings of Israel; and Jeroboam his son

Amaziah. (22) He built Elath, and rereigned in his stead.

stored it to Judah, after that the king (17) And Amaziah the son of Joash

slept with his fathers. king of Judah lived after the death of

(23) In the fifteenth year of Amaziah Jehoash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel

the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam fifteen years. (18) And the rest of the

the son of Joash king of Israel began to acts of Amaziah, are they not written

reign in Samaria, and reigned forty and in the book of the chronicles of the 62 Chrome Brahe one years. (24) And he did that which

is called Uzziah. kings of Judah ? (19) Now «they made a

was evil in the sight of the LORD : he conspiracy against him in Jerusalem :

departed not from all the sins of Jeroand he fled to Lachish; but they sent

boam the son of Nebat, who made Israel after him to Lachish, and slew him

to sin. (25) He restored the coast of there. (20) And they brought him on

Israel from the entering of Hamath horses : and he was buried at Jerusalem

unto the sea of the plain, according to with his fathers in the city of David.

the word of the LORD God of Israel, (21) And all the people of Judah took

which he spake by the hand of his ser

B.C. 810.

B.C. cir. 825.

position in the document from which he derived the thinks the soldiery gave Azariah the name of Uzziah. entire section, verses 8–17; a document which was not At all events, the king may have taken a new name on the same as that upon which chap. xiii. depends, as his accession, though which of the two it was we cannot appears from the differences of language in the two say. _(Comp. chap. xxiv. 17.) Sennacherib on investpassages.

ing Esarhaddon with sovereignty named him AsshurThe two verses are almost necessary here as a suit. ebil-mukin-pal. able introduction of the statement of verse 17, that (22) He built Elath.–The pronoun is emphatic; Amaziah survived Jehoash by fifteen years.

he, in contrast with his father. “Built," either rebuilt or (17) Fifteen years. He came to the throne in the fortified. The verse is in close connection with the presecond year of Jehoash, who reigned sixteen years ceding narrative. Amaziah perhaps had not vigorously (chap. xiii. 10), and reigned twenty-nine years (verse 2). prosecuted the conquest of Edom, having been greatly The different data are thus self-consistent. Jehoash weakened by his defeat in the struggle with Jehoash. appears to have died very soon after his victory-per- He may even have suffered some further losses at the haps in the following year.

hands of the Edomites; and this, as Thenius supposes (19) Now ... but.-And ... and.

may

have led to the conspiracy which brought about his They made a conspiracy.-The fact that no death and the accession of his son. The warlike youth individual conspirators are mentioned appears to indi. Uzziah took the field at once, and pushed his victorious cate that Amnaziah’s death was the result of a general arms to the southern extremity of Edom, the port of disaffection; and this inference is strengthened by the Elath (chap. ix. 26), and thus restored the state of things other details of the record. Thenius supposes that he which had existed under Solomon and Jehoshaphat. had incensed the army in particular by some special After that the king slept-i.e., immediately after act. Probably his foolish and ill-fated enterprise against the murder of Amaziah. Thenius explains the verse Israel had something to do with it.

with most success, but this clause is still somewhat Lachish.-Now Um Lâkis. Of old it was a strong surprising. fortress. (Comp. 2 Chron. xi. 9; chap. xviii. 14, xix. 8.) Amaziah's flight thither seems to indicate either

THE REIGN OF JEROBOAM II. IN SAMARIA a popular rising in Jerusalem, or a military revolt.

(verses 23—29). They sent after him to Lachish.–This, too, (23) Reigned forty and one years.--According may point to a military outbreak.

to the statement of this verse, Jeroboam reigned four(20) They brought him on horses. – Rather, teen years concurrently with Amaziah, who reigned they carried him upon the horsesi.e., perhaps in the altogether twenty-nine years (verse 2); and thirtyroyal chariot wherein he had fed from Jerusalem. Or, seven years concurrently with Azariah (chap. xv. 8), so perhaps, the corpse was literally carried on horseback that hò reigned altogether not forty-one but fifty-one by the regicides.

years. (The discrepancy originated in a confusion of The orderly method of proceeding, the burial of the the Hebrew letters *), fifty-one, with xo, forty-one.) king in the royal sepulchres, and the elevation of Aza- (25) He restored.-Rather, He it was who restored riah, seem to prove that the murder of Amaziah was the border, i.e., he wrested out of the hands of the not an act of private blood-revenge.

Syrians the territory they had taken from Israel. (21) All the people of Judah.-Thenius explains, From the entering of Hamath-i.e., from the all the men of war, as in chap. xiii. 7.

point where the territory of Hamath began. This was Took. The expression seems to imply that Azariah the originally determined boundary of Israel on the was not the eldest son. As Amaziah was fifty-nine north (comp. Num. xiii. 21, xxxiv. 8; Josh. xiii. 5), and years old at his death he probably had sons older than the prophet Ezekiel specifies it as the future limit sixteen. Azariah was therefore chosen as a popular, or (Ezek. xlvii. 16, xlviii. 1). Israel's territory first reached perhaps military, favourite.

this limit under Solomon, who conquered a portion of Azariah.-See Note on 2 Chron. xxvi. 1. Thenius the Hamathite domains (2 Chron. viii. 3, 4).

Works of Jeroboam.

II. KINGS, XV.

His Death.

B.C. 822.

B.C. 784.

vant «Jonah, the son of Amittai, the

to Judah, for Israel, are they not written prophet, which was of Gath - hepher.

in the book of the chronicles of the (26) For the LORD saw the affliction of

kings of Israel? (29) And Jeroboam slept Israel, that it was very bitter: for there

with his fathers, even with the kings of was not any shut up, nor any left, nor

Israel; and Zachariah his son reigned any helper for Israel. (27) And the LORD

in his stead. said not that he would blot out the name of Israel from under heaven: but

CHAPTER XV.-(1) In the twenty he saved them by the hand of Jeroboam

and seventh year of Jeroboam king of the son of Joash.

Israel began Azariah son of Amaziah (28) Now the rest of the acts of Jero

king of Judah to reign. (2) Sixteen years boam, and all that he did, and his might,

old was he when he began to reign, and how he warred, and how he recovered e Mateo Jonate: 40, he reigned two and fifty years in JeruDamascus, and Hamath, which belonged

salem. And his mother's name was

B.C. cir. 810.

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The sea of the plain-i.e., the Dead Sea (Num. math," the sense being, “ Judæan Damascus and iii. 17, iv. 49; Josh. iii. 16). The whole length of the Hamath.” (Comp. the Note on chap. xv. 1.) Dead Sea is included (comp. Amos vi. 14, where vir. For Israel.-Heb., in Israel. The sense is obscure; tually the same limits are specified), and the country but the particle “in” appears to refer to the re-incorbeyond Jordan. (Comp. Note on 1 Chron. v. 17.) poration of the Damascene and Hamathite districts

Jonah, the son of Amittai, the prophet.--- with Israel. Ewald would cancel “which belonged to Comp. Jonah i. 1. Ewald remarks that the activity of Judah," and read “to Israel” (so the Syriac and this prophet must have occupied a very large field, as Arabic. But the LXX., Vulg., and Targum support tradition connects him with Nineveh. Hitzig and the existing text.). Others explain : He restored DamasKnobel recognise the prophecy referred to here in cus and Hamath to Judah (i.e., to the theocratic people) Isa. xv., xvi. There is no difficulty in the supposition through Israel (i.e., the northern kingdom, to which the that Isaiah has "adopted and ratified the work of an recovered districts were actually annexed). No explanaearlier prophet,” as Jeremiah has so often done. (See tion, however, is really satisfactory. It may be that by Cheyne's Isaiah, vol. i., p. 93.) But it is easier to an oversight the Judæan editor wrote “ to Judah,” inprove that these chapters are not Isaiah's, than that stead of “ to Israel," and that some scribe added a marthey belong to Jonah.

ginal note" in Israel,” which afterwards crept into the Gath-hepher.-Josh. xix. 13. The present Meshed, text. It is curious to find certain districts of Hamath Not far north of Nazareth.

leagued with Azariah, king of Judah, against Tiglath (26) Affliction.-Better, oppression.

Pileser. (See Note on chap. xv. 1.) Bitter.-So the LXX., Syriac, and Vulg. Better, (29) Even with the kings of Israel.-Probably stubborn, and so, inveterate, unyielding, enduring. some words have fallen out, and the original text was, (Comp. Deut. xxi. 18—20.) Targum,“ hard ;” Arabic, ' and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel.” strong” or “violent.”

(Comp. verse 16.) The Syriac and Arabic have," and For there was ... left.-Comp. Note on 1 was buried.” Kings xiv. 10. (271 Said not.-By any prophet.

XV. Blot out the name. –The figure is taken from

(1–7) THE REIGN OF AZARIAH (Uzziah), KING plotting out writing, (Comp. Num. y. 23.), The Hebrews used inks that soon faded, and could easily be

OF JUDAH. (Comp. 2 Chron. xxvi.) wiped off the parchment. (Hence the partial oblitera- (1) In the twenty and seventh year of Jetion of words and letters which is one of the causes of roboam.-An error of transcription for the fifteenth textual corruption.)

year (10, 15; 17, 27). The error is clear from chap. (28) How he recovered Damascus, and Ha- xiv. 2, 17, 23. Amaziah reigned twenty-nine years math.—Jeroboam II. was probably contemporary with (chap. xiv. 2), fourteen concurrently with Joash, and Rammân-nirâri, king of Assyria (B.C. 812—783). This fifteen with Jeroboam. It was, therefore, in the fifteenth king has recorded his exaction of tribute from Tyre of Jeroboam that Uzziah succeeded his father. and Sidon, “the land of Omri” (i.e., Israel), Edom, Azariah.- An Azriyâhu (Az-ri-ya-a-u), king of and Philistia ; and a siege of Damascus, followed by Judah, is mentioned in two fragmentary inscriptions of the submission of Mari', its king, and the spoiling of Tiglath Pileser II. (B.C. 745—727). The most imporhis palace. The prostration of his enemy thus accounts tant statement runs: “xix. districts of the city of Hafor the permanent success of Jeroboam, who was him- math (Hammatti) with the cities of their circuit, on the self a vassal of Assyria.

coast of the sea of the setting of the sun (i.e., the MediHe recovered.-This verb was rendered “he re. terranean), which in their transgression had revolted to stored” in verse 25, and that is the meaning here. Azariah, to the border of Assyria I restored, my pre

Damascus and Hamath.-Not the entire states fects my governors over them I appointed." The so named, which were powerful independent communi. Eponym list records a three years' campaign of Tiglath ties, but portions of their territory, which had belonged Pileser against the Syrian state of Arpad in B.c. 742– to Israel in the days of Solomon. (See Note on 2 740. Schrader supposes that Azariah and Hamath Chron. viii. 3, 4.)

were concerned in this campaign. (This conflicts with Which belonged to Judah.—This is really an the ordinary chronology, which fixes 758 B.C. as the year epithet restrictive of the phrase, “Damascus and Ha- of Azariah's death.)

Azariah Smitten with Leprosy.

II. KINGS, XV.

The Reign of Zachariah.

B.C. cir. 772.

B.C. cir. 765.

Jecholiah of Jerusalem. (3) And he did a ch. 10.30. in Samaria six months. (9) And he did that which was right in the sight of the

that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, according to all that his father

LORD, as his fathers had done: he deAmaziah had done; (4) save that the

parted not from the sins of Jeroboam high places were not removed: the

the son of Nebat, who made Israel to people sacrificed and burnt incense still

sin. (10) And Shallum the son of Jabesh on the high places.

conspired against him, and smote him (5) And the LORD smote the king, so

before the people, and slew him, and that he was a leper unto the day of his

reigned in his stead. death, and dwelt in a several house.

(11) And the rest of the acts of ZachaAnd Jotham the king's son was over the

riah, behold, they are written in the house, judging the people of the land.

book of the chronicles of the kings of (6) And the rest of the acts of Azariah,

Israel. (12) This was a the word of the and all that he did, are they not written 1 pcb, a mon:h of Lord which he spake unto Jehu, saying, in the book of the chronicles of the

Thy sons shall sit on the throne of kings of Judah? (7) So Azariah slept

Israel unto the fourth generation. And with his fathers; and they buried hiin

so it came to pass. with his fathers in the city of David :

(13) Shallum the son of Jabesh began and Jotham his son reigned in his stead.

to reign in the nine and thirtieth year (8) In the thirty and eighth year of

of Uzziah king of Judah; and he Azariah king of Judah did Zachariah

reigned la full month in Samaria. the son of Jeroboam reign over Israel

(14) For Menahem the son of Gadi went

6 Matt. 1.9, called

Ozias.

days.

B.C. cir. 758.

B.C. cir. 172

B.C. cir. 733

(3) And he did that which was right.-This of the capital, his fondness for husbandry and cattlestatement is repeated word for word in Chronicles. Its breeding, and his success in all these directions, as well exact meaning" here, as in other instances, is that as his intrusion into the Sanctuary to offer incense at Azariah supported the legitimate worship, and lent his the golden altar. (See 2 Chron. xxv. and the Notes countenance to no foreign cultus. When the chroni- there.) cler adds that he “sought God in the days of the pro.

(8—16) THE REIGNS OF ZACHARIAH AND phet) Zachariah," and that “as long as he songht

SHALLUM IN SAMARIA. Jehovah, God made him to prosper,” he does not contradict the preceding general estimate of the king's (8) In the thirty and eighth year of Azariah, religious policy, but simply gives additional information -This agrees with the assumption that Jeroboam respecting his life and fortunes.

reigned fifty-one years (chap. xiv. 23). (5) And the Lord smote the king.–The chroni- (9) As his fathers-i.e., the dynasty of Jehu, of cler relates the reason-viz., because of his usurpation which he was the last member. Like all his predeces. of priestly functions in the sanctuary. This happened sors, he upheld the illicit worship established by Jerotowards the end of the reign. Jotham, the regent, was

boam I. only twenty-five when Azarial died (verse 33).

(10) Son of Jabesh.-Not man of Jabesh Gilead, as Smote.-Or, struck. So we speak of a paralytic Hitzig explains. The father's name is always given in stroke, and the word plague literally means stroke. the case of usurpers.

In a several house.-Rather, in the sickhouse (or, Before the people.-Rather, before people-i.e., hospital)-i.e., a royal residence outside of Jerusalem in public. So all the versions except the Lxx. The (Lev. xiii. 46; chap. vii. 3) set apart for such cases. open assassination of the king is noted, in contrast with Strictly, in the house of freedom; because lepers were the secrecy with which former conspiracies had been conemancipated from all social relations and duties. Ge. certed. It is a symptom of the rapidly-increasing corsenius explains the word from an Arabic root said to ruption of morals, which allowed people to look on with mean prostration, weakness; but Lane gives for that indifference while the king was being murdered. (The term the special meaning smallness (or, narrowness) of LXX puts the Hebrew words into Greek letters thus : the eye; weakness of sight. See his Arabic Lexicon, Keßradu. The word qöbol—“ before"-is Aramaic rather Bk. I., Pt. II., p. 772.

than Hebrew, and only occurs here. Ewald acutely Over the house.-Not apparently as prefect of the conjectured that Qõbolām —“ before people” — was palace (comp: 1 Kings iv. 6, xviii

. 3), ! it as dwelling really the proper name of another usurper, comparing in the palace instead of his father.

Zech. xi. 8, " the third king during that month;” but in Judging the people of the land.-As his father's that case the narrative is hardly coherent or complete. representative. (Comp. 1 Sam. viii. 6, 20; 1 Kings iii. 9.) Grätz suggests the correction "in Ibleam.”

This passage is strong evidence against the assump- (12) This was the word of the Lord.—Thenius tion of joint sovereignties of princes with their fathers, considers this remark as added by the Judæan editor so often made by way of escaping chronological diffi- to the short abstract of Zachariah's reign. culties in Hebrew history. Jotham is not co-regent (13) A full month.-Literally, as margin. Thenius but viceroy of Azariah until the latter dies.

says Shallum cannot have reigned a full month, as (6) The rest of the acts of Azariah. Such as Zech. xi. 8 obviously refers to the three kings Zachahis wars with the Philistines and Arabs, his improve. riah, Shallum, and Menahem ments in the organisation of the army and the defences (14) For.-And.

Reign of Shallum

II. KINGS, XV.

and of Menahem.

B.C. 772.

up from Tirzah, and came to Samaria, and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead.

(15) And the rest of the acts of Shallum, and his conspiracy which he made, behold, they are written in the book of a 1 Chron. 5. X the chronicles of the kings of Israel.

(16) Then Menahem smote Tiphsah, and all that were therein, and the coasts thereof from Tirzah : because they opened not to him, therefore he smote

it; and all the women therein that were
with child he ripped up.
(17) In the nine and thirtieth

year

of Azariah king of Judah began Menahem the son of Gadi to reign over Israel, and reigned ten years in Samaria. (18) And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord: he departed not all his days from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. (19) And «Pul the king of Assyria came against the land : and Menahem gave Pul a

B.C. 771.

Menahem. - Tiglath Pileser II. records in his the verse repeats (comp. 1 Kings xv. 26, 34, xvi. 26, annals that in his eighth regnal year (i.e., B.C. 738) xxii. 53; 2 Kings iii. 1, x. 31, &c.), and almost cer. he took tribute of “ Raçunnu (Rezin) the Damascene, tainly belong to the next verse. and Menihimmè Samerinâ'a”-i.e., Menahem the Sama- From the sins.-Heb., from upon the sins, which ritan.

is peculiar. The reading of the LXX., "from all the Gadi.-Or, a Gadite.

sins," appears right. Went up from Tirzah.-Menahem was Zacha- (19) And.-As it stands, the verse begins abruptly. riah's general, who at the time was quartered with the But the reading of the LXX. restores the connection : troops at Tirzah, near Samaria (1 Kings xiv. 17). On " In his days Pul the king of Assyria,” &c. (Comp. the news of the murder of Zachariah, Menahem marched verse 29.) to the capital. The month of Shallum's reign was pro

Pul.-This name has been read in the cuneiform bably taken up with preparations for hostilities on both (Pu-u-lu, i.e., Pûlu, an officer of Sargon's). For the sides. A battle at Samaria decided matters (Josephus). identity of Pul, king of Assyria, with Tiglath Pileser Perhaps, however, Menahem simply entered Samaria II., see Note on 1 Chron. v. 26, and Schrader's Die Keil. with a part of his forces.

inschr. und das Alt. Test., pp. 227–240 (2nd edit., (16) Then.-After slaying Shallum, and seizing the 1883). Prof. Schrader gives the following as the resupreme power.

sult of his elaborate and most interesting discussion : Tiphsah.-The name means ford, and elsewhere (1) Menahem of Israel and Azariah of Judah were condenotes the well-known Thapsacus on the Euphrates (1 temporaries, according to the Bible as well as the InscripKings iv. 24). Here, however, an Israelite city in the tions. (2) According to the Bible, both these rulers were neighbourhood of Tirzah is obviously intended. The contemporary with an Assyrian king Pul; according to course of events was apparently this: after slaying the Inscriptions, with Tiglath Pileser. (3) Berosus Shallum, Menahem returned to Tirzah, and set ont calls Pul a Chaldean ; Tiglath Pileser calls himself king thence at the head of his entire army to bring the rest of Chaldea. (4) Pul-Porus became in 731 B.c. king of of the country to acknowledge him as king. Tiphsah Babylon; Tiglath Pileser in 731 B.C. received the homage resisting his claims, he made an example of it which of the Babylonian king Merodach-Baladan, as he also proved efficient to terrorise other towns into submis. reduced other Babylonian princes in this year, amongst sion. [Thenius would read Tappuah for Tiphsah by a

them Chinzēros of Amukkan. (5) Poros appears in the slight change in one Hebrew letter. This agrees very canon of Ptolemy as king of Babylon ; Tiglath Pileser well with the local indications of the text (comp. Josh. names himself “king of Babylon.” (6) Chinzēros became xvii. 7, 8), though, of course, there may have been an king of Babylon in 731 B.C. according to the canon, and, in otherwise unknown Tiphsah near Tirzah.]

fact, along with (or, under) a king of the name of Poros; The coasts thereof.-Literally, her borders (or, the hypothesis that the vanquished king of Amukkan of territories). (Comp. Josh. xvii. 8.)

the same name was entrusted by Tiglath Pileser with the From Tirzah-i.e., starting from Tirzah. This vassal-kingship of Babylon is suggested at once by the shows that the districts of Tirzah and Tiphsah (or,

coincidence of the chronological data. (7) In the year Tappuah) were conterminous.

727—726 B.C. a change of government took place in AssyBecause they opened not to him.-Literally, ria in consequence of the death of Tiglath Pileser, and for one opened not; an impersonal construction. The in Babylonia in consequence of the death of Porus. (8) meaning is : the gates were closed against him. The No king appears in the Assyrian lists by a name like to him is added by all the versions except the Targum. Pul, which is anomalous as a royal designation; we can

And all the women.-Comp. chap. viii. 21 ; Hosea only identify Pul with some other name in the lists, xiii. 16; Amos i. 13.

and, on historical grounds, with Tiglath Pileser only.

(9) Pul and Poros are forms of the same name (comp. (17—22) THE REIGN OF MENAHEM. His TRIBUTE

Babiru for Babilu in Persian inscriptions). (10) From To PUL, KING OF ASSYRIA.

all this, the conclusion is inevitable that Pul and Porus, (17) Reigned ten years. And some months over. Pul and Tiglath Pileser, are one and the same person. (Comp. verse 23.)

Came against the land.-Rather, came upon the (18) He did that which was evil.-Ewald says land (Isa. x. 28; Judges xviii. 27). The meaning here that at the outset Menahem appeared to be guided by is, occupied it. better principles, referring to Zech, xi. 4-8.

A thousand talents of silver.-About £375,000. All his days.-In the Hebrew these words occur That his hand might be with him. — Pul at the end of the verse. They are not found (Tiglath Pileser) came at the invitation of Menahem to in any other instance of the common formula which establish the latter in the sovereignty against other

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