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The Guard at the Temple.
II. KINGS, XI.
guard: so shall ye keep the watch of 95 from break- in on the sabbath, with them that should the house, that it be not broken down.
go out on the sabbath, and came to (7) And two 28 parts of all you that go
Jehoiada the priest. (10) And to the forth on the sabbath, even they shall
captains over hundreds did the priest keep the watch of the house of the LORD
give king David's spears and shields, about the king. (8) And ye shall com- 2 Or, companies. that were in the temple of the LORD. pass the king round about, every man
(11) And the guard stood, every man with with his weapons in his hand : and
his weapons in his hand, round about he that cometh within the ranges, let
the king, from the right corner of the him be slain: and be ye with the king
temple to the left corner of the temple, as he goeth out and as he cometh in.
along by the altar and the temple. (9) And the captains over the hundreds
(12) And he brought forth the king's son, did according to all things that Jehoiada
and put the crown upon him, and gave the priest commanded : and they took
him the testimony; and they made him every man his men that were to come 1 Heb., shoulder. king, and anointed him; and they
3 Heb., hands.
Medinat-Abû and Karnak. Jesod” is another name The ranges. - Rather, the ranks-scil., the two for the same side-door, or, as is far more likely, a lines of the guard formed for the protection of the textual corruption of “Sur.”
king. If any one attempted to force his way through And a third part at the gate behind the the ranks in order to attack the king he was to be slain. guard.-Literally, and the third at the gate be. Be ye with the king ... cometh in.-When hind the Couriers. In verse 19 “the gate of the he leaves the Temple, and when he enters the palace. Couriers” is mentioned, apparently as the principal entrance to the palace enclosure. That gate and this
(9, 10) The preparations for carrying out the above one are probably the same. It is here called “the gate
arrangements. behind the Couriers” because a guard was usually (9) The captains over the hundreds-.e., the stationed in front of it. Perhaps the word “ behind centurions of the royal guard (verse 4). So in verse 10. has originated in a mere echo of the word “ gate Commanded.- Had commanded. ('ahar, sha'ar), and should be omitted as an error of (10) King David's spears and shields. — The transcription.
Hebrew has spear, but Chronicles has the plural, which So shall ye keep the watch of the house.
* Shields" should perhaps be arms. Thus shall ye—the three divisions of the guards, enter. (Comp. 2 Sam. viii. 7; 2 Chron. xxiii. 9.)
The arms ing on duty on the Sabbath-guard the entrances and which David had laid up in the Temple as spoils of war exits of the royal palace.
were now to be used, appropriately enough, for the reThat it be not broken down.-The Hebrew is storation of David's heir the thron Possibly, as only the one word massah, which occurs nowhere else. Bähr suggests, the guards who came off duty at the It appears to mean “ repulse,” “warding off,” and is palace had left their weapons there. probably a marginal gloss on "watch” (mishmèreth), (11) The guard.-Literally, the Couriers; not thereexplaining its nature-viz., that the guards were to fore the Levites. keep back
any one who tried to enter the palace build- Corner.-Rather, side. ings. Gesenius paraphrases, “ ad depellendum popu- Along by.-At. lum" (zum Abwehren). Thenius suggests the reading And the temple. — And at the Temple. The " and repel”! scil., “all comers” (ûn'svah for massāh). guard formed in two lines, extending from the south He should have written wenāsôah.
wall to the north wall of the court, one line standing at
the altar of burnt offering, which was near the entrance, (7,8) The whole body of guards relieved on the Sab- the other at the sanctuary itself. The words “round bath are to guard the Temple and the young prince. about the king” are anticipative.
(12) And he brought forth the king's son.(7) And two parts of all you sabbath.- When the two lines were formed, cutting off the interior Rather, and the two branches among you, all that go of the Temple from the court, Jehoiada led forth the out on the Sabbath. The two “branches”
young prince into the protected space between them; two fundamental divisions-viz., Carians (or execu- perhaps from a side chamber, or perhaps from the tioners) and Couriers. The troops relieved on the Sab. sanctuary itself. bath were not to be posted in three companies at three And gave him the testimony.-The Hebrew different points, like those who came on duty in their has simply and the testimony. Kimchi explains this place; but they were to form in two ranks--Carians to mean a royal robe; other rabbis think of a phylacon one side and Couriers on the other--for the pur- tery on the coronet. (See Deut. vi. 8.) Thenius says, pose of guarding the Temple, and especially the king's the Law-i.e., a book in which were written Mosaic person.
ordinances, and which was held in a symbolic manner About.-Literally, in the direction of — i.e., with over the king's head after he had been crowned. (See regard to, over. “The house of the Lord” is obviously Note on 2 Chron. xxiii. 11.) contrasted with “ the king's house” (verse 5).
Anointed him. The chronicler says it was (8) Ye shall compass the king round about. “Jehoiada and his sons” who did it. It is difficult to - They were to form two lines, between which the see what objection can fairly be taken to this explanaking might walk safely from the Temple to the tory addition, unless we are to suppose that, although palace.
the high priest was present, the soldiers of the guard
II. KINGS, XI.
clapped their hands, and said, 'God save
of the host, and sail unto them, Have the king. (13) And when Athaliah heard
her forth without the ranges : and him the noise of the guard and of the people,
that followeth her kill with the sword. she came to the people into the temple
For the priest had said, Let her not be of the Lord. (11) And when she looked,
slain in the house of the LORD. (16) And behold, the king stood by a pillar, as
they laid hands on her; and she went the manner was, and the princes and 1 Heb. Let the king by the way by the which the horses the trumpeters by the king, and all the
came into the king's house: and there people of the land rejoiced, and blew
was she slain. with trumpets : and Athaliah rent her
(17) And Jehoiada made a covenant clothes, and cried, Treason, Treason.
between the Lord and the king and the (15) But Jehoiada the priest commanded
people, that they should be the Lord's the captains of the hundreds, the officers
people; between the king also and the
poured the sacred oil on the king's head. Yet Thenius The sacred trumpets or clarions blown on solemn occaadduces it as an instance of the “petty spirit of the sions by the priests are intended. (Comp. chap. xii. 14; chronist,” accusing Lim of inserting the words “for fear Num. X. 2; 1 Chron. xv. 24.) This is an indication anybody should think of an anointing by unconsecrated that the priests and Levites were present as the hands." Surely such criticism as this is itself both chronicle so conspicuously represents, and as, indeed, “petty” and “wilful.” The words probably stood in was to be expected on an occasion when the high priest the chronicler's principal source.
took the lead, and when the scene of action was the God save the king.-Literally, Vivat rex. (1 Temple. The acting classes of priests and Levitical Kings i. 25.)
musicians, warders, and priestly attendants must cer. (13) Of the guard and of the people.-This is tainly have participated in the proceedings. correct. The and has fallen out of the Hebrew text. All the people of the land.--Secrecy was no
The guard.-The Aramaic form of the plural, rare longer necessary, as Thenius supposes, when once the in prose, occurs here. (Comp. 1 Kings xi. 33.) In 2 centurions of the guard had heartily taken up with Chron. xxiii. 11 the words are transposed. This gives
the plot. a different sense-viz., “ of the people running to
Rejoiced ... blew.-Rejoicing ... blowing. gether," to which is added, “and acclaiming the king." Treason.-Literally, Conspiracy. The chronicler may have found this in the work ho (15) The captains of the hundreds, the officers followed, but the text before us seems preferable, as of the host.-The centurions of the royal guard are the word “runners" (Couriers) throughout the account called “the officers of the host” (comp. Num. xxxi. 14) means the royal guard.
to signify that it was they who gave effect to the high The people.--See Note on verse 14.
priest’s orders by communicating them to their troops. She came ... into the temple.-Evidently, Have her forth without the ranges.-Rather, therefore, the palace was hard by the Temple. (See Cause her to go out between the ranks-i.e., escort her Note on verse 16.)
out of the sacred precincts with a guard on both (14) And when she looked.-Having entered the sides. court, the whole scene met her astonished gaze.
Him that followeth her-i.e., whoever shows any The king stood by a pillar.-Rather, the king sympathy with her, or attempts to take her part. There was standing on the stand. (Comp. chap. xxiii. 3.) might have been some of her partisans in the large The stand (Vulg., “ tribunal ”) was apparently a dais gathering in the Temple court. reserved for the king only, which stood before the great For the priest had said.-This is a parenthetic altar, at the entrance to the inner court (2 Chron. xxiii. statement accounting for the order just given; and 13, vi. 13). Thenius maintains that the king stood on “had said ” may mean “ thought.” the top of the flight of steps leading into the sanctuary. (16) They laid hands on her.-So the LXX. and Why, then, does not the text express this meaning more Vulg. The Hebrew phrase means: and they made exactly ? (Comp. chap. ix. 13.)
room for her on both sides—i.e., the crowd fell back, As the manner was-i.e., according to the custom and a lane was formed for her exit (so the Targum on such occasions.
and Rashi). The princes.—The chiefs of the people, not tho She went ... king's house. She entered the centurions of the royal guard, who have their full desig- palace by way of the entry of the horses. Athalialı was nation throughout the chapter. (See verses 4, 9, 10, 15, conducted to the royal stables which adjoined the 19.) The present account has nowhere stated that the palace, and there put to death. nobles were present in the Temple; but this sudden (17) A covenant.-Rather, the covenant. The high mention of them, as if they had been present through- priest solemnly renewed the original compact between out the proceedings, is in striking harmony with the Jehovah and the king and people-a compact which had chronicler's express assertion that, after their conference been violated by the Baal-worship of recent reigns. with Jehoiada, the centurions of the guard assembled That they should be the Lord's people.the Levites and the heads of the clans in the Temple Comp. Deut. iv. 20; Exod. xix. 5, 6. (2 Chron. xxiii. 3). (The LXX. and Vulg. render Between the king also and the people.• singers,” because they read shūrim,“ singers," instead For the protection of their mutual rights and preroga. of sarim, “princes.")
tives. (Comp. 1 Sam. x. 25.) The king was bound to The trumpeters.--Literally, the trumpets; as we govern according to the law of Jehovah," the testi. speak of “the violins,” meaning the players on them. mony” which had been put upon him (verse 12). The Worship
II. KINGS, XII.
of God Restored.
of the kings. (20) And all the people of the land rejoiced, and the city was in quiet: and they slew Athaliah with the sword beside the king's house.
(21) Seven years old was Jehoash when he began to reign.
people. (18) And all the people of the
CHAPTER XII.-(1) In a the seventh year of Jehu Jehoash began to reign ; and forty years reigned he in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Zibial of Beer-sheba. (2) And Jehoash did that which was right in the sight of the LORD all his days wherein Jehoiada the priest
(Comp. Note on 2 Chron. xxiii. 16.) The people were the Temple, but to the palace, and was probably the to be loyal to the house of David.
chief entrance thereto. (18) All the people of the land went into the And he sat on the throne. – The proceedings house of Baal.-Immediately after the covenant had ended with the solemn enthronement of the king in the been renewed, of which the extirpation of the foreign palace of his fathers. (The LX X. reads more suitably: Baal-worship was a consequence. In the fervour of * And they seated him on the throne ; so Chronicles.) their newly-awakened enthusiasm for Jehovah, the (20) All the people of the land ... the city. assembly may have hurried off at once to the work of --Thenius calls this an “evident contrast between the demolition. It seems to be implied that the “ house of soldiery and the citizens; the former exulting in their Baal ” stood on the Temple mount, in ostentatious work, the latter not lifting a finger while the idolatrous rivalry with the sanctuary of Jehovah. (Comp. the in- tyrant was being put to death” (connecting the first troduction of idolatrous altars into the Temple itself half of the verse with the second, after Ewald). But by Manasseh, chaps. xxi. 4, 5, 7, xxiii. 12.) This house his assumption that “all the people of the land,” here of Baal had, perhaps, been built by Athaliah. (Comp. and in verse 14, means the soldiery” (“ die ganze 1 Kings xvi. 31, 32.)
in Jerusalem anwesende Kriegerische LandesmannHis altars ... his images.-Or, its (the Temple's) schaft-Die Kriegsmannschaft”) is certainly wrong. altars ... its images.
" The people of the land” are plainly opposed to the And the priest appointed officers over the royal guards—“the Praetorians "—who effected the rehouse of the Lord.-The obviously close connection volution, as civilians to soldiers. of this statement with what precedes, almost proves The city was in quiet.-The citizens of Jerusathat the sanctuary of Baal had stood within the Temple lem accepted the revolution without attempting any precincts, probably in the outer court. After the de- counter movement. No doubt there was a strong struction of it, Jehoiada appointed certain overseers- element of Baal-worshippers and partisans of Athaliah probably Levites of rank—to prevent any future dese- in the capital. “The people of the land” (i.e., probably, cration of the Temple by the practice of idolatrous the people whom the centurions had called together rites (comp. Ezek. viii. 5- 16), or by wanton attacks of from the country, at the instance of Jehoiada, according the Baal-worshippers, who might be cowed, but were to 2 Chron. xxiii. 2) are contrasted with the burghers of certainly not exterminated (comp. 2 Chron. xxiv. 7); Jerusalem. The phrase, “ the city was in quiet” (or and to see that the legitimate cultus was properly “ had rest,” Judges v. 31), may, however, possibly refer carried out. (The sentence tells us what was done some to the deliverance from the tyranny of Athaliah. time afterwards, in consequence of the reformation ; And they slew Athaliah.--Rather, and Athaliah thus finishing the subject in hand at the expense of the they had slain ; an emphatic recurrence to the real strict order of time.)
climax of the story (verse 16), by way of conclusion. Mattan.-Mattan is short for Mattanbaal, “ gift of Beside.-Rather, in, i.e., within the palace enclosure. Baal,” a Phænician name occurring in Punic and Assy- (21) Seven years old was Jehoash.-The Hebrew rian inscriptions (the Muthumballes of Plautus). Comp. editions connect this verse with chapter xii. also Mitinna and Mattén, as names of Tyrian kings
XII. (Inscr. of Tig. Pil. ii.; Herol. vii. 98).
(19) And he took the rulers ... the land.- The REIGN OF JEHOASH, OR JOASH. (Comp. Jehoiada now arranges a procession to escort the king
2 Chron. xxiv.) in triumph from the Temple to the palace.
(1) Forty years.-A common round number. David The rulers ... guard.-Rather, the captains of and Solomon are each said to have reigned forty years. the hundreds (the centurions) and the Carians and the His mother's name. The author of these short Couriers ; or, as Thenius prefers, the lictors and the abstracts generally gives this particular in regard to satellites.
the kings of Judah. They brought down the king from the house Beer-sheba.-A famous Simeonite sanctuary, and of the Lord.-Down from the Temple to the bridge resort of pilgrims (Amos v. 5, viii. 14). connecting Moriah with Zion.
(2) All his days wherein Jehoiada the priest And came by the way... king's house.- instructed him.-The Hebrew is ambiguous, but Rather, and entered the king's house by way of the gate | may certainly mean this, which is the rendering of the of the Couriers. This gate, therefore, belonged not to LXX. and Vulg. (The accent dividing the verse ought
Jehoash Orders the
II. KINGS, XII.
Temple to be Repaired.
3 Hel), the money
of the souls of his
instructed him. (3) But the high places (1 0r, holy things. let them repair the breaches of the were not taken away: the people still
house, wheresoever any breach shall be sacrificed and burnt incense in the high 2 Heb., holinesses. found. places.
(6) But it was so, that 5 in the three (4) And Jehoash said to the priests,
and twentieth year of king Jehoash the All the money of the 12 dedicated things
priests had not repaired the breaches of that is brought into the house of the
the house. (7) Then king Jehoash called LORD, even the money of every one
for Jehoiada the priest, and the other that passeth the account, 3 the money
priests, and said unto them, Why rethat every man is set at, and all the upon the heart of pair ye not the breaches of the house? money that cometh into any man's
now therefore receive no more money of heart to bring into the house of the
your acquaintance, but deliver it for Lord, (5) let the priests take it to them, 5 Heb., in the twen- the breaches of the house. (8) And the every man of his acquaintance: and
priests consented to receive no mo
4 Heb., (Lscendeth
tich vear and
to fall on “ the Lord” rather than on his days.")
(5) Every man of his acquaintance. -See % Perhaps the peculiar form of the sentence arose in this Chron. xxiv. 5. From that passage it is evident that way: the writer first set down the usual statement con
the chronicler understood that the priests were required cerning kings who supported the worship of Jehovah, to collect such moneys, each in his own city and district, and then, remembering the evils which ensued upon the year by year. Our text, taken alone, would seem to death of the high priest (2 Chron. xxiv. 17), added as a imply that persons going to the Temple to have the correction of that statement, “during which Jehoiada value of vows estimated, or to make free-will offerings, the priest instructed him.” Thenius says the words can resorted to the priests whom they knew. (The word only be rendered, all his life long, because Jehoiada rendered “ acquaintance ” only occurs in this account.) had instructed him. They certainly can, however, be The breaches of the house. The dilapidations rendered as our version renders them, and further, of the Temple were serious, not because of its age-it thus: “ And Jehoash did all his days, whom had only stood about 130 years—but owing to the Jehoiada the priest instructed.” But the ambiguity wanton attacks of Athaliah and her sons (comp. 2 of the statement gave an opportunity for discrediting Chron. xxiv. 7), who had, moreover, diverted the rethe chronicler.
venues of the sanctuary to the support of the Baal. (3) But.--Save that; as at chap. xv. 4. (For the worship. statement of the verse, comp. 1 Kings xv. 14.)
(6) In the three and twentieth year.Sacrificed... burnt.-Were wont to sacrifice ... Jehoash may have ordered the restoration in his twenburn. The worship of the high places continued even tieth year, when he came of age. It is noticeable that nnder the régime of Jehoiada.
he and not Jehoiada takes the initiative in the matter. (4-16) The restoration of the Temple.
The chronicler states that the king had ordered the
priests and the Levites “to hasten the matter," but that (4) The money of the dedicated things.- * the Levites hastened it not." Comp. 1 Kings xv. 15.
(7) Now therefore receive no more money. Is brought-i.e., from time to time. All the silver -The account of the whole transaction is not very given for the purposes of the sanctuary is meant. clear, and commentators disagree upon the question of
Even the money of every one that passeth the degree of blame attaching to the priests for their the account.-Rather, to wit, current money (Gen. neglect. It is evident, however, that the king now took xxiii. 16). The currency at this period consisted of the control of the funds and the work out of their pieces of silver of a fixed weight. There was no such hands. Probably the revenues of the sanctuary had thing as a Hebrew coinage before the exile. The reason been in a very languishing condition during the late "current money ” was wanted was that it might be paid reigns; and the priesthood had used whatever offerout immediately to the workpeople employed in the ings they received for their own support. They would repairs.
now very naturally be unwilling to appropriate any The money that every man is set at.-Liter- part of the revenues which they had come to regard as ally, each the money of the souls of his valuation, i.e., their own, to the work of repair. From the account in every kind of redemption money, such as was paid in Chronicles it would not appear that any money was colthe case of the first-born (Num. xviii. 16) and of a lected for the purpose of restoration before the king vow (Lev. xxvii. 2, seq.). In the latter case, the priest took the matter into his own hands. The idea of Thefixed the amount to be paid.
nius, that Joash wished to humble the pride of the And all the money that cometh into any priests by diminishing their revenues, is not contained man's heart to bring- That is, all the free-will in either parrative. But it is in itself likely that the offerings in money.
In 2 Chron. xxiv. 6 the revenues moral tone of the whole order had degenerated in the here specified are called “ the tax of Moses . . . for the late period of apostasy. tabernacle,” implying that Moses had originally insti. But deliver it for the breaches of the house. tuted them. The chronicler's language, indeed, appears - Rather, For to the dilapidation of the house ye to indicate that he understood the money collected to should give it; scil., and not apply it to any other have been chiefly the tax of half a shekel, which the purposes. The king's words certainly seem to throw law ordered to be paid by every male on occasion of suspicion on the priests. the census (Exod. xxx. 12—16), for the good of the (8) And the priests consented.-No doubt they sanctuary.
made some such explanation as is suggested in the Note
II. KINGS, XII.
of the Temple.
2 Or, secretary.
money of the people, neither to repair 1 Heb, threshold. of the LORD, (12) and to masons, and the breaches of the house. (9) But
hewers of stone, and to buy timber and Jehoiada the priest took a chest, and
hewed stone to repair the breaches of bored a hole in the lid of it, and set it
the house of the LORD, and for all beside the altar, on the right side as
that 5 was laid out for the house to reone cometh into the house of the LORD :
(13) Howbeit there were not and the priests that kept the door put
made for the house of the Lord bowls of therein all the money that was brought
silver, snuffers, basons, trumpets, any into the house of the LORD. (10) And
vessels of gold, or vessels of silver, of it was so, when they saw that there
the money that was brought into the was much money in the chest, that the
house of the LORD: (14) but they gave king's <scribe and the high priest came
that to the workmen, and repaired up, and they put up in bags, and told
therewith the house of the LORD. the money that was found in the house
(15) Moreover they reckoned not with the of the LORD. (11) And they gave the * ush., brought it men, into whose hand they delivered money, being told, into the hands of
the money to be bestowed on workmen: them that did the work, that had the
for they dealt faithfully. (16) The tresoversight of the house of the LORD: and
pass money and sin money was not they laid it out to the carpenters and
brought into the house of the LORD : it builders, that wrought upon the house's H., went foren was the priests'.
3 Heb., bound up
on verse 7, by way of clearing themselves from the sus- Hewed stone.-Or, quarry stone. picion of fraud; after which, they agreed to resign all That was laid out. --The Hebrew tense implies connection with the business.
that it was done repeatedly. (9) But.-And.
To repair it. - Rather, for repair. The word Jehoiada the priest took a chest.-By order (chozqah) does not recur in this sense. of the king (2 Chron. xxiv. 8).
(13) There were not made.-Rather, there used Beside the altar, on the right side as one not to be made. cometh into the house of the Lord.—Chroni- For the house.-Literally, in the house. cles says:
“in the gate of the house of the Lord out- Bowls ... basons. — Comp. 1 Kings vii. 50, wards." This can hardly refer to the same position. It where the same three terms occur. probably describes where the chest, which became a Trumpets—i.e., the straight priestly trumpets. permanent feature of the sanctuary, stood in the time of the money that was brought. - The plain after the return from the Captivity; The chronicler meaning is that the whole amount offered was expended adds that offerings were asked by proclamation through- on the necessary work of restoring the Temple fabric. out the country, and that the princes and people readily (14) But they gave that to the workmen.contributed.
Literally, for to the doers of the work they used to give Put-Rather, used to put. The chest was kept it, and they used to repair, &c. In Chronicles it is locked, and the Levitical doorkeepers received the added that, after the repairs were finished, the money money from those who offered it, and dropped it at that was left was applied to the purpose of making once into the chest. This obviated all suspicion of a spoons and vessels of gold and silver " for the house possible misapplication of the contributions.
of the Lord. This certainly has the appearance of (10) And it was so. – Rather, And it came to having been added to the original account, for the purpass. Whenever the chest was full the royal secre- pose of edifying the chronicler's contemporaries. He tary and the high priest went up into the Temple, and may, however, have found it in the compilation on which emptied it.
he mainly depended. Put up in bags, and told. - Literally, they (15) Moreover they reckoned not.- Rather, bound up and counted. They put the pieces of silver and they were not wont to reckon. into bags of a certain size, and then counted the bags, To be bestowed on workmen.-Literally, to weighed, and sealed them up. These would be paid out give to the doers of the work. Here the phrase “ doers as money.. (Comp. chap. v. 23.) Instead of “ they of the work” obviously means the artisans, not the bound up,” Ewald prefers the word used in Chronicles, superintendents, as in verse 11. "they emptied,” which is very similar in Hebrew They dealt faithfully.--This is not a covert writing. The royal secretary came, as the king's re- thrust at the priests, as Thenius imagines. The state. presentative, to make a record of the amount.
ment of the verse is repeated in chap. xxii. 7, in con. (11) They gave.-Rather, And they used to give, i.e., nection with the restoration of the Temple under every time they had emptied the chest.
Josiah, where the priests are not concerned in the Being told.-Rather, which was weighed.
matter at all. All that is meant is, that the officials en. Them that did the work.- Not the actual trusted with the oversight of the work were above susworkmen, but, as is immediately explained, “ those who picion, and did not belie their reputation. had the oversight of the house," or were charged with (16) The.-The definite article should be omitted. the superintendence of the work.
Trespass money and sin money.- See Lev. That wrought.-Literally, who were making. v. 15–18; Num. v.8; Lev. vi. 26–29.
(12) Masons. hewers.--Heb., the masons .. Was not brought.-Was not wont to be brought ; the hewers.
i.e., put into the chest for the restoration fund.