Page images

Death of Ahaziah's brethren.


Jehu and Jehonadab.

2 Heb., house of

iny sleep.

his great men, and his ? kinsfolks, and his lor, acquaintance. (15) And when he was departed thence, priests, until he left him none remaining.

he 5lighted on Jehonadab the son of (12) And he arose and departed, and

Rechab coming to meet him: and he came to Samaria. And as he was at the shepherds " Cind- 6 saluted him, and said to him, Is thine - shearing house in the way, (13) Jehu

heart right, as my heart is with thy 3 met with the brethren of Ahaziah king

heart? And Jehonadab answered, It is. of Judah, and said, Who are ye? And 3 Heb., found. If it be, give me thine hand. And he . they answered, We are the brethren of

gave him his hand; and he took him up Ahaziah ; and we go down to salute

to him into the chariot. (16) And he the children of the king and the children

said, Come with me, and see my zeal for of the queen. (14) And he said, Take

the Lord. So they made him ride in them alive. And they took them alive,

his chariot. and slew them at the pit of the shearing

5 Heb., found.

(17) And when he came to Samaria, he house, even two and forty men; neither

slew all that remained unto Ahab in left he any of them.

Samaria, till he had destroyed him, ac

4 Heb., to the peace

oj, &c.

6 Heb., blessed.

None remaining.--No survivor.

eked. Either they cut their throats over the cistern, or (12) And he arose ... and came. So the Syriac, threw the corpses into it. rightly. The common Hebrew text has, “And he arose Two and forty-Curiously parallel with chap. ii. and came and departed.”

24; and perhaps a definite for an indefinite number. And as he was at the shearing house in the (15) Jehonadab the son of Rechab.-Comp. Jer. way.-Rather, He was at Beth-eqed-haroim on the way. xxxv. 6—11; and 1 Chron. ii. 55. Ewald supposes that The Targum renders : " He was at the shepherds' meet- the Rechabites were one of the new societies formed ing-house on the way.” The place was probably a soli. after the departure of Elijah for the active support of tary building, which served as a rendezvous for the the true religion. Their founder in this sense was shepherds of the neighbourhood. (The root aqad means Jonadab, who, despairing of being able to practise the “to bind,” or “knot together;" hence the common ex- legitimate worship in the bosom of the community, replanation of the name is the shepherds' binding house," tired into the desert with his followers, and, like Israel i.e., the place where they bound their sheep for the of old, preferred the rough life of tents to all the allureshearing. But the idea of binding is easily connected ments of city life. Only unusual circumstances could with that of meeting, gathering together : comp. our

induce them (like their founder, in the present instance) words band, knot.) The LXX. has : “ He was at Baith. to re-enter the circle of common life. “The son of akad (or Baithakath) of the shepherds.” Eusebius Rechab” means the Rechabite. mentions a place called Beithakad, fifteen Roman miles And he saluted him.-It was important to Jehu from Legio (Lejjún), identical with the present Beit- to be seen acting in concert with a man revered for kád, six miles east of Jenín, in the plain of Esdraelon ; sanctity, and powerful as a leader of the orthodox but this seems too far off the route from Jezreel to party. Samaria, which passes Jenîn.

Is thine heart right, as my heart is with (13) Jehu met with.-Literally, And Jehu found. thy heart ?—The Hebrew is : Is there with thy heart

The brethren of Ahaziah king of Judah- right (sincerity) ? but this does not agree with the rest i.e., Ahaziah's kinsmen. His brothers, in the strict of the question. Some MSS. omit the particle 'eth sense of the word, were slain by a troop of Arabs, in ("with "); but the original reading is probably prethe lifetime of his father Jehoram (2 Chron. xxi. 17, served in the Vatican LXX : "Is thy heart right (i.e., xxii. 1). (See the Notes on 2 Chron. xxii. 8.)

sincere, honest] with my heart, as my heart with thy We go down.-Rather, we have come down.

heart ?” This secures a parallelism of expression. To salute-i.e., to inquire after their health, to (Syriac: “ Is there in thy heart sincerity, like that of visit them.

my heart with thy heart ?) The children of the king-i.e., the sons of Joram. If it be.- Literally, An it be (the old English idiom, The children of the queen.-Literally, the sons i.e., and it be). Jehu makes this reply. The LXX. of the mistress (gebîrah)—i.e., the sons of the queen. (Alex.) has : " And Jehu said ;” Vulg., saith he; Syriac, mother, Jezebel, and so Joram's brothers. Both these * It is, and it is ; and he said to him ” (perhaps an acci. and the former are included in the “sons of Ahab” dental transposition). whom Jehu slew.

Give me thine hand.-As a pledge of good faith The news of the taking of Ramoth, and of Joram's and token of amity. Striking hands sealed a compact. convalescence, may have reached Jerusalem, and in- (Comp. Isa. ii. 6; and Cheyne's Note.) duced these princes to make a visit of pleasure to the (16) See.-Rather, look on at. court of Jezreel, not suspecting the events which had My zeal for the Lord.—Jehu addresses Jehonameanwhile happened with the headlong rapidity charac- dab as a notoriously staunch adherent of the old faith. teristic of Jehu's action.

They made him ride.-The Syriac, LXX., and (14) Take them alive.-Perhaps they made some Arabic read, “ he made him ride; " the Vulg. is amshow of resistance. Jehu slew them because of their biguous; the Targum agrees with the Hebrew text, connection with the doomed house of Ahab. Keil thinks which may mean that Jehu's followers assisted Jehonahe dreaded their conspiring with the partisans of the dab (who was probably an aged sheikh) to mount the fallen dynasty in Samaria.

chariot. Slew them at the pit of the shearing house. (17) And when he came ... he slew.-Literally, -Literally, slaughtered them into the cistern of Beth- And he entered Samaria, and smote.

Jehu Assembles the


Priests of Baal.

cording to the saying of the LORD, which

that there was not a man left that came he spake to Elijah.

not. And they came into the house of (18) And Jehu gathered all the people

Baal; and the house of Baal was ? full together, and said unto them, “Ahab

from one end to another. (22) And he served Baal a little; but Jehu shall serve

said unto him that was over the vestry, him much. (19) Now therefore call unto 1 Heb., Sanctify. Bring forth vestments for all the worme all the prophets of Baal, all his ser

shippers of Baal. And he brought them vants, and all his priests; let none be

forth vestments. (23) And Jehu went, wanting: for I have a great sacrifice to

and Jehonadab the son of Rechab, into do to Baal; whosoever shall be wanting,

the house of Baal, and said unto the he shall not live. But Jehu did it in

worshippers of Baal, Search, and look subtilty, to the intent that he mighty na podporuin

e or so finally think that there be here with you none of the destroy the worshippers of Baal. (20) And

servants of the LORD, but the worshipJehu said, 'Proclaim a solemn assembly

pers of Baal only. (24) And when they for Baal. And they proclaimed it.

went in to offer sacrifices and burnt (21) And Jehu sent through all Israel :

offerings, Jehu appointed fourscore men and all the worshippers of Baal came, so

without, and said, If any of the men

to mouth.

19 seq.

Ahab.-Again put for the house or family so called. (22) The vestry.-The word (meltāhāh) occurs here Some MSS. and the Syriac express it so, reading “the only. The Targum has chests (qumtrayya - i.e., house of Ahab.” (Comp. 1 Kings xv. 29.)

xáuttpai, " caskets”; comp. Latin, capsa). The LXX. (18) Ahab served Baal a little; but Jehu shall does not translate the word. serve him much.- Ahab had, as the people well The Syriac has, “And he said to the treasurer" knew, served Baal more than a little ; but the anti- (gizbârâ). The Vulg., " And he said to those who thesis was not too strong for Jehu's hidden meaning. were over the vestments.” Thenins thinks the word He was thinking of his intended holocaust of human merely means cell” or “storechamber," like lishkah, victims (verse 25).

the root of which may be cognate (1 Chron. xxviii. 12). (19) Call unto me all the prophets of Baal.- It is said that there is an Ethiopic word, meaning Comp. the similar convocation of the prophets of the “ linen robe,” which is connected with this curious Baal and Asherah by the prophet Elijah, 1 Kings xviii. term. Thus it would be literally " vestry.”.

Brought them forth vestments.-Literally, the His servants. The same word as “worshippers,” vestments-viz., those which were customary on such infra.

occasions. Thenius supposes that festival attire from To do.-Omit.

Jehu's palace is meant, rather than from the wardrobe To Baal.-For the Baal.

of the Baal temple. But it seems more natural to But Jehu did it.-Or, Now Jehu had done it; a understand that Jehu simply gives directions that all parenthesis.

the priests and prophets should be careful to wear their In subtilty.-Or, in guile, treacherously. The distinctive dress at the festival, which was to be a word ('oqbāh) occurs only here. It is connected with specially great one. (Comp. Herod. v. 5; Sil. Ital. iii. the proper name Jacob. (See Gen. xxv. 26; Hosea xii.

24 seq.) 4.) The LXX. renders literally, ev atepriouq, “in heel- (23) And Jehu went ... into the house-i.e., ing”-i.e., striking with the heel, tripping up.

into the outer court before the temple, where all the (20) Proclaim a solemn assembly. Rather, worshippers were waiting. Sanctify a solemn meeting (Isa. i. 13). Every person That there be here with you none of the who wished to attend would have to " sanctify,” or servants of the Lord.—This precaution of Jehu's purify, himself in due form.

suggests suspicion to a modern reader, but it would They proclaimed-i.e., gave notice of the festival suggest the very contrary to the Baal-worshippers-viz., by criers“ through all Israel " (verse 21).

an extraordinary reverence for Baal; a dread lest some (21) Sent through all Israel. - The Vatican | profane person should be present in his sanctuary. LXX. adds, “ saying: And now all his servants, and Servants of the Lord.-Worshippers of Jehovah. all his priests, and all his prophets, let none be wanting; (24) When.-Omit. because I make a great sacrifice. Whoever shall be They went in.-The priests and prophets went wanting he shall not live." This is another instance into the inner court of the Baal temple, which prob. (comp. chap. ix. 16) of the insertion in the text of a | ably resembled in general construction that of Jehovah marginal note belonging to another place. The note at Jerusalem. preserves the reading of the first half of verse 19 Sacrifices and burnt offerings - i.e., peace according to another MS. (See Thenius ad loc.) offerings and burnt offerings, which could only be

Was full from one end to another.-Right as offered in an open court. to the sense.

The figure is taken from a full vessel; Jehu appointed fourscore men if we were to say, “ The house was brimful.” The Rather, now Jehu had set him on the outside (of the rim of a vessel was its mouth. The rim of the con- building) fourscore men. tents reached the rim of the vessel. Schulz explains If any of the men life of him.-Literally, "head to head ” (comp. the margin); Gesenius, "from The man that escapeth of the men whom I am bringing corner to corner” (comp. chap. xxi. 16); LXX. lite- into

your hands-his life for his life! This is a little rally, or bua eis otóua, “mouth to mouth.”

incoherent, as is natural in energetic speech, but the


Death of the


Prophets of Baal.

1 Heb., the mouth.

whom I have brought into your hands escape, he that letteth him go, his life shall be for the life of him. (25) And it came to pass, as soon as he had made an end of offering the burnt offering, that Jehu said to the guard and to the captains, Go in, and slay them ; let none come forth. And they smote them with the edge of the sword; and the guard and the captains cast them out, and went to the city of the house of Baal. (26) And they brought forth the ? images out of the house of Baal, and burned them. (27) And they brake down the image of Baal, and brake down the house of Baal, and made it a draught house unto this day.

2 Heb., statues.

(28) Thus Jehu destroyed Baal out of Israel. (29) Howbeit from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, Jehu departed not from after them, to wit, the golden calves that were in Beth-el, and that were in Dan.

(30) And the LORD said unto Jehu, Because thou hast done well in executing that which is right in mine eyes, and hast done unto the house of Ahab according to all that was in mine heart, thy children of the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel. (31) But Jehu 3 took no heed to walk in the law of the LORD God of Israel with all his

3 Heb., observed


sense is clear. Thenius, however, suggests that the an implicit sanction to the erection of a sacred pillar in verb "escapeth” should be pointed as a transitive form Egypt(Cheyne's Note on Isaiah xix. 19). The LXX. (pihel instead of niphal). This gives : “ The man that has the singular here (Thy ornany) and the plural in the letteth escape any of the men,” &c., an improvement

next verse. The Syriac has the singular • statue” in that may be right, although the old versions agree with both. the present Hebrew pointing of the word.

(27) The image of Baal.- Again the word is pillar, (25) As soon as he had made an end.-The which in this case is the conical pillar of stone repre. Syriac has, when they (i.e., the Baal priests) had made senting the Baal himself. The wooden pillars of verse an end. This is probably right. Comp. the begin. 26 probably symbolised companion deities (Tapédpoi ning of verse 24). We can hardly suppose with Ewald ovubúuoi) of the principal idol. that Jehu personally offered sacrifices in the character Made it a draught house. By way of utter of an ardent Baal-worshipper. For the massacre Jehu desecration. (Comp. Ezek. vi. 11; Dan. ii. 5.) chose the moment when all the assembly was absorbed Unto this day. On the bearing of this phrase, in worship.

see the Introduction to the Books of Kings. To the guard and to the captains.-Literally, (28) Thus Jehu destroyed Baal. Objectively to the runners (or couriers) and to the adjutants (or considered, the slaughter of the servants of Baal was in squires; chap. ix. 25). (Comp. 1 Kings ix. 22.) The perfect harmony with the Law; but, subjectively, the royal guardsmen and their officers are meant.

motive which influenced Jehu was thoroughly selfish. Cast them out. That is, threw the dead bodies The priests and prophets of Baal in Israel, as dependout of the temple. This is the explanation of the Tar. ing entirely on the dynasty of Ahab, the king who gum and the other versions. Thenius asks why this had originally introduced the Baal-worship, might should be specially mentioned, and proposes to under- prove dangerous to Jehu. By exterminating them stand the verb intransitively, “rushed out,” which suits he might hope to secure the whole-hearted allegiance very well with what follows.

of the party that stood by the legitimate worship. His Ånd went to the city of the house of Baal.-- maintenance of the cultus established by Jeroboam The word city has here its original meaning, which is (verse 29) proves that he acted from policy rather than also that of the Greek rólis--viz., citadel, stronghold ; religious zeal. properly, a place surrounded by a ring-fence or ram

(29—36) Jehu's reign and death. part. Jehu's guards, after the completion of their bloody work in the court of the temple, rushed up the (29) Howbeit from the sins of Jeroboam.steps into the sanctuary itself, which, like the temple Comp. 1 Kings xii. 28, seq., xv. 26, 30, 34. Jehu mainof Solomon, resembled a fortress. (“Ex atrio irrupe- tained the worship at Bethel and Dan on the same runt satellites Jehu in ipsam arcem templi.”—Sebastian grounds of state policy as the kings who preceded him. Schmidt.) Gesenius explains the word as meaning the How beit.-Only; the word constantly used by the temenos or sacred enclosure of the temple, but that redactor to qualify his estimate of the conduct of the does not suit the context. (The origin of the word kings. (Comp. chap. xii, 3, xiv. 4, xv. 4.) The verso 'îr, "city," obscure in Hebrew, is revealed by the is, therefore, a parenthetic qualification of the approval cuneiform inscriptions in the Accadian word erim or implied in verse 28. eri, meaning "foundation,” and Uru—i.e., Ur, a proper

(30) And the Lord said.-Perhaps through Elisha. name, meaning “the city.”)

And hast done.-So the Syriac and Arabic ver(26) The images.-Rather, the pillars ; which were sions. The Hebrew wants the and. of wood, and had a sacred significance. (Comp. Hosea Thy children of the fourth generation.-The ii. 4.)

" In primitive times a pillar was the distin- fulfilment of this oracle is noticed in chap. xv. 12. guishing mark of a holy place. Idolatrous pillars were (Comp. the words of the commandment, "visiting the commanded to be destroyed (Exod. xxiii. 24), but sins of the fathers upon the children unto the third and most critics think that pillars to Jehovah were quite fourth generation;" Exod. xx. 5.). allowable till the time of Hezekiah or Josiah, to which (31) But Jehu took no heed.-Or, Now Jehu had they assign the Book of Deuteronomy. (Comp. Deut. not been careful. This verse, rather than the next, begins xvi. 21, 22.) At any rate, the prophet (Isaiah) gives a new paragraph.

Death of Jehu.


Joash hidden.

B.C. cir. 800.

rising of the sun.


3 Or, eren to Gilead

are Bushes.

heart: for he departed not from the sins ? pleh, to cut of they buried him in Samaria. And Jeof Jeroboam, which made Israel to sin.

hoahaz his son reigned in his stead. (32) In those days the Lord began to

(36) And the time that Jehu reigned over cut Israel short: and Hazael smote

Israel in Samaria was twenty and eight them in all the coasts of Israel; (33) from 2 ):, torcard the Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites, and the Reubenites, and

CHAPTER XI.-(1) And when Athathe Manassites, from Aroer, which is

liah the mother of Ahaziah saw that her by the river Arnon, 3 even Gilead and

son was dead, she arose and destroyed Bashan.

* Web: the days all the 5 seed royal. (2) But Jehosheba, (31) Now the rest of the acts of Jehu,

the daughter of king Joram, sister of and all that he did, and all his might,

Ahaziah, took Joash the son of Ahaziah, are they not written in the book of the 5 Liebesked of the and stole him from among the king's chronicles of the kings of Israel?

sons which were slain; and they hid him, (35) And Jehu slept with his fathers : and

even him and his nurse, in the bed

B.C. R.

& 2 Chron. 22. 10.

B.C. 856.

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To walk in the law-i.e., the Mosaic law, which a man of Jehu's energy must soon have established forbids the use of images, such as the “calves.”

domestic tranquillity. With all his heart.- This is explained by the (34) All his might.-- Comp. chap. xx. 20; 1 Kings next sentence. He had done honour to Jehovah by ex- xv. 23; some MSS., the Targum, and Vulg. omit“ all.” tirpating the foreign Baal-worship, but he supported The LXX. adds : "and the conspiracies which he the irregular mode of worshipping Jehovah established conspired.” by Jeroboam as the state religion of the Northern (36) In Samaria.-The Hebrew puts this phrase kingdom.

last, perhaps to indicate by emphasis that Jehu inade For.-Not in the Hebrew.

Samaria, and not Jezreel, the seat of his court. (32) In those days.-As a vassal and ally of Assyria (see Notes on chap. ix. 2), Jehu drew upon

XI. himself the active hostility of Hazael. (See Note on ATHALIAH USURPS THE THRONE OF JUDAH, BUT chap. viii. 15.) Schröder remarks that it was quite

IS DEPOSED AND SLAIN, AND HER GRANDSON natural for the Israelite sovereign to “throw himself into the arms of distant Assyria, in order to get pro.

JOASH CROWNED, THROUGH THE INSTRUMENtection against his immediate neighbour Syria, Israel's


2 Chron. xxii. 10, xxiii. 21.) hereditary foe.”. Comp. the similar conduct of Ahaz as against Pekah and Rezin (chap. xvi. 7). From the (1) And when Athaliah

saw.-Rather, point of view of the sacred writer, this verse states

Now Athaliah ... had seen. (The and, which the the consequence of Jehu's neglect of "walking in common Hebrew text inserts before the verb, is merely Jehovah's instruction with all his heart” (verse 31). a mistaken repetition of the last letter of Ahaziah,

The Lord began. — Through Hazael and the Many MSS. omit it.) Syrians. (Comp. Isa. vii. 17, 20, x. 5, 6.)

As to Athaliah and her evil influence on her husband To cut Israel short.-Literally, to cut off in Jehoram, see chap. viii. 18, 26, 27. By her ambition Israel--i.e., to cut off part after part of Israelite terri- and her cruelty she now shows herself a worthy tory. (The verb means to cut of the extremities, Prov. daughter of Jezebel. xxvi. 6.) This refers to the conquests of Hazael. The Her son.-Aluziah (chap. ix. 27). The history of Targum explains, “The wrath of the Lord began to the Judæan monarchy is resumed from that point. be strong against Israel;” and the Vulg. has, “ tædere Destroyed all the seed royal.- "The seed of super Israel.” Thenius conjectures from this that we the kingdom ” (see margin) means all who might set up should read,“ to be wrathful with Israel;” but the con- claims to the succession. Ahaziah's brothers had been struction would not then be usual.

slain by the Arabs (2 Chron. xxi. 17); and his “kinsIn all the coasts.-Rather, on the whole border- men" by Jehu (chap. x. 14). Those whom Athaliah scil., conterminous with Syria.

slew would be for the most part Ahaziah's own sons, (33) From Jordan eastward.--This verse defines though other relatives are not excluded by the term. the border land which Hazael ravaged, and, in fact, oc- (2) But Jehosheba ... sister of Ahaziah.cupied. It was the land east of the Jordan, that is to By a different mother (see Josephus). Athaliah would say, all the land of Gilead, which was the territory of not have allowed her daughter to marry the high priest Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh.

of Jehovah. (Comp. verse 3 with 2 Chron. xxii. 11.) From Aroer.-Aroer, now 'Arârîr, on the Arnon, This marriage with a sister of the king shows what was the southern limit of Gilead, which extended north- almost royal dignity belonged to the high priest's ward to Mount Hormon, and included Bashan. Even office. (both) Gilead and Bashan," is added to make it clear The king's sons which were slain.- Rather, that the whole of the land east of the Jordan, and not which were to be put to death. At the time when the merely Gilead in the narrower sense, was conquered by order for slaying the princes had been given, Jehosheba Hazael. These conquests of Hazael were characterised (or Jehoshabeath ; Chronicles) concealed the infant by great barbarity. (Comp. Amos i. 3–5, and Elisha's Joash. The fact of his infancy caused him to be overprediction of the same, chap. viii. 12, supra.) Ewald looked. [The Hebrew text here reads by mistake a thinks Hazael took advantage of the internal troubles word meaning deaths (Jer. xvi. 4). Chronicles supports at the outset of the reign to effect his conquests. But the Hebrew margin.)

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And they hid him.-This clause is out of its Samuel, and that rendered “captains” in this place, place here. The Hebrew is, him and his nurse in the Thenius explains as marking an adjectivo denoting chamber of the beds ; and they hid him from Athaliah, position or class. It may be so, but sub judice and he was not put to death. Clearly the word, “and she lis est. put,” supplied in Chronicles, has fallen out before this. Made a covenant with them.-The chronicler The Targum and Syriac read, “and she hid him and gives the names of the centurions. His account of the his nurse,'' &c.

whole transaction, whilo generally coinciding with that In the bedchamber.-In the chamber of beds, given here, presents certain striking differences, of i.e., the room in the palace where the mattresses and which the most salient is the prominence assigned to the coverlets were kept, according to a custom still the priests and Levites in the matter. These deviations prevalent in the East. This chamber being unoccupied are explicable on the assumption that the chronicler was the nearest hiding-place at first. The babe was drew his information from a large historical compilation afterwards secretly conveyed within the Temple somewhat later than the Books of Kings, and con. precincts.

taining much more than they contain, though mainly (3) And he was with her-i.e., with Jehosheba his based upon the same annalistic sources.

The comaunt. The words“ in the house of the Lord ” should pilers of the two canonical histories were determined immediately follow. The word “hid” is connected in their choice of materials and manner of treatment with “six years

in the Hebrew, and relates to the by their individual aims and points of view, which iufant prince only. Joash was with his aunt “in the differed considerably. (See the Introductions to Kings house of the Lord”-i.e., in one of the chambers and Chronicles.) At the same time, it must not be allotted to the priests, perhaps even in the high priest's forgotten that the account before us is the older and residence, which may have been within the sacred pre- more original, and, therefore, the more valuable recincts. Thenius assumes that the statement of Chroni. garded as mere history. cles, that Jehosheba was wife of the high priest, has no other ground than a “ traditional interpretation” of

(5, 6) Three companies of the guards to be stationed

at the three approaches to the palace. these words; and asserts that Jehosheba was herself obliged to share the asylum of the infant prince in (5) A third part of you ... king's house.order to escape the vengeance of Athaliah. But it is Rather, the third of you who come in on the Sabbath certain that the chronicler had better authority than shall keep the ward of the king's house. (Reading mere tradition for his important additions to the his- w‘shāmʻrâ, as in verse 7.) The troops of the royal guard tory of the kings. (See Note on 2 Chron. xxii. 11.) regularly succeeded each other on duty just as they do Did reign.- Was reigning.

in modern European capitals. That the Sabbath was () And the seventh year.- When perhaps dis- the day on which they relieved each other is known only content at Athaliah’s tyranny had reached a climax. from this passage ; but the priestly and Levitical

Jehoiada.—The high priest (verse 9). The curious guilds did the same, and their organisation in many fact that his rank is not specified here upon the first ways resembled that of an army. mention of his name, suggests the inference that in The watch of the king's house.—There were the original authority of this narrative he had been two places to be occupied for the success of the present mentioned as high priest, and husband of Jehosheba, at movement-viz., the royal palace and the Temple, “the the outset of the story, as in 2 Chron. xxii. 11.

king's house” and “the house of the Lord.” In the The rulers over hundreds, with the captains former was Athaliah, the usurping queen, whose moveand the guard. -- Rather, the centurions of the ments must be closely watched, and whose adherents Carians and the Couriersi.e., the officers commanding must be prevented from occupying and defending the the royal guard.

The terms rendered “Carians” and palace ; in the latter, the young heir to the throne, who “Couriers

are obscure. Thenius prefers to translate must be protected from attack. That “the king's the first “executioners.” (Comp. Notes on 1 Kings i. house" here means the palace proper is evident from 38; 2 Sam. viii. 18, xv. 18, xvi. 6; 1 Chron. xviii. 17.) verses 16 and 19, and, indeed, from the whole narraThenius argues against the idea that so patriotic and tive. The LXX. adds, “at the entry” ({v TỨ TUA@vi) pious a king as David could have employed foreign and -i.e., the grand entrance to the palace itself. This heathen soldiers as his body-guard. But did not David is at least a correct gloss, and may be part of the orihimself serve as a mercenary with Achish, king of Gath,

ginal text. and commit his parents to the care of the king of (6) And a third part shall be at the gate of Moab? And would not the mercenaries who enlisted Sur.--Or, and the third (shall be on guard) at the in the guard of the Israelite sovereigns adopt the reli- gate of Sur. Instead of Sûr (“ turning aside") Chronigion of their new country? (Comp. the case of Uriah cles has Jesód (“* foundation”). The gate Sur was the Hittite.) The apparently gentilic ending of the apparently a side exit from the court of the palace, words rendered “Cherethites and Pelethites” in such as may be seen in the old Egyptian palaces at

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