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The reigns of Ahaziah


and Jehoram.


B.C. 889.

nevertheless the high places were not 1 Or,had ten ships. servants go with thy servants in the taken away; for the people offered and

ships. But Jehoshaphat would not. burnt incense yet in the high places.


) And Jehoshaphat slept with his (44) And Jehoshaphat made peace with

fathers, and was buried with his fathers the king of Israel.

in the city of David his father: and (45) Now the rest of the acts of Je


reigned in

in his hoshaphat, and his might that he shewed,

stead. and how he warred, are they not written

(51) Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to in the book of the chronicles of the

reign over Israel in Samaria the sevenkings of Judah? (16) And the remnant

teenth year of Jehoshaphat king of of the sodomites, which remained in the

Judah, and reigned two years over Isdays of his father Asa, he took out of

rael. (52) And he did evil in the sight the land,

of the LORD, and walked in the way of (47) There was then no king in Edom :

his father, and in the way of his mother, a deputy was king.

and in the way of Jeroboam the son of (48) Jehoshaphat 'made ships of Thar

Nebat, who made Israel to sin : (53) for shish to go to Ophir for gold: but they

he served Baal, and worshipped him, went not; for the ships were broken at

and provoked to anger the LORD God of Ezion-geber. (49) Then said Ahaziah the

Israel, according to all that his father son of Ahab unto Jekoshaphat, Let my

had done.

B.C. 913.

B.C. 898.

away the high places and groves out of Judah.” Pro- of Edom," of 2 Kings iii., who is evidently a subject bably the key to the apparent discrepancy lies in the ally, not regarded in consultation (see verses 6-9), words“ and groves” (Asherah). The high places taken must be “the deputy” of this passage. away were those connected with the base Asherah (48) Ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir.-See worship; those which were simply unauthorised sanc- Note on chap. x. 22. We note that this revival of mari. tuaries remained, at any rate in part.

time enterprise coincides with the renewed alliance (41) And Jehoshaphat.-This verse is chronologi. | through Israel with Tyre. The account in 2 Chron. cally out of place. It refers to the policy of Jehosha- xx. 35-37 makes the brief narrative of these verses phat, pursued apparently from the beginning, of ex- intelligible. The fleet was a combined fleet of Judah changing the chronic condition of war with Israel in and Israel, built at Ezion-geber, which belonged, to the preceding reigns, for peace and alliance.

Judah ; the alliance was denounced and judgment (46) The remnant :-Sec chaps. xiv. 24, xv. 12. threatened by the prophet Eliezer. After the wreck

(47) There was then no king in Edom.—This of the feet, manned, it would seem, by the subjects of notice is apparently connected with the following Jehoshaphat, Ahaziah of Israel desires to renew the verses; for Ezion-geber is a seaport of the Edomite enterprise with the aid of Israelite and probably Tyrian territory. Whatever may have been the influence of sailors; but Jehoshaphat now refuses. Hadad in the last days of Solomon (chap. xi. 14), Edom (51) Ahaziah.- In this short reign the influence of does not seem to have regained independence till the Jezebel, evidently in abeyance in the last days of time of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. xxi. Ahab, revives; and the idolatry of Baal resumes its 8-10); although in the confederacy against Jehoshaphat, place side by side with the older idolatry of Jeroboam, those “ of Mount Seir" are included with the Moab. and (see 2 Kings i. 2) with the worship of the Canaanites and Ammonites (2 Chron. xx. 10, 22). The “ king itish Baalzebub.

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The division of the Book of Kings at this point is ont over the window-sill. (Comp. chap. ix. 30; Ps. inartificial and arbitrary. The present narrative obvi- xiv. 2.) He perhaps fell into a gallery underneath, as ously continues that of 1 Kings xxii. 51–53.

the palace would be several storeys high, and he was not 1. THE REIGN OF AHAZIAH CONTINUED.

killed by his fall. The word sěbākhāh means “net” in

Job xvii. 8, and decorative “network” in metal in EPISODE CONCERNING ELIJAH.

1 Kings vii. 18; 2 Chron. iv. 12. The Rabbis explain (1) Then.-And.

it here as a sort of skylight to the chamber beneath the Moab rebelled against Israel.-David reduced upper chamber, or a spiral stairway; both improbable. Moab to vassalage (2 Sam. viii. 2; comp. chap. xxiii. 20). He sent messengers.-By Jezebel's advice. (S After that event, Scripture is silent as to the fortunes Ephrem.) of Moab. It probably took occasion of the troubles Baal-zebub.-Here only in the Old Testament. which ensued upon the death of Solomon, to throw off “Lord of Flies” is generally compared with the Greek the yoke of Israel. The famous Moabite stone sup- Zeùs & ouvios, or uvlaypos, the “fly-averting Zeus” of plements the sacred history by recording the war of the Eleans (Paus., viii. 26, 4), and it is no doubt true liberation which Mesha, king of Moab, successfully that flies are an extraordinary pest in the East. But waged against the successors of Ahab. The inscrip- when we remember that “myiomancy,” or divination tion opens thus : "I am Mesha, son of Chemosh.gad, by watching the movements of flies, is an ancient king of Moab the Dibonite. My father reigned over Babylonian practice, we can hardly doubt that this is Moab_thirty years, and I reigned after my father. the true significance of the title “ Baal-zebub.” In the And I made this bamah ("high place," " pillar”) Assyrian deluge tablet the gods are said to have for Chemosh in Korha, a bamah of salvation, for he gathered over Izdubar's sacrifice "like flies (kima saved me from all the assailants, and let me see my zumbie). The later Jewish spelling (BeengeBoja) pro. desire upon mine enemies . . . Omri, king of Israel, bably contains an allusive reference to the Talmudic and he oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was words zèbel (“dung ”), zibbûl (“dunging”). angry with his land. And his son (i.e., Ahab) suc- Ekron.- Akir (Josh, xiii. 3). Of the five Philistine ceeded him, and he, too, said, 'I will oppress

Moab.' cities it lay farthest north, and so nearest to Samaria. In my days he said (it), but I saw my desire


him Recover.-Literally, live from, or after. and his house, and Israel perished utterly for ever. Disease.-Sickness, viz., that occasioned by his fall. And Omri ocenpied the land of Medeba, and dwelt The LXX. adds, " and they went to inquire of him.” therein, and (they oppressed Moab he and) his son (3) But the angel .. said.-Rather, Now the forty years. Ànd Chemosh looked (?) on it (i.e., Moab) angel ... had said. The angel ” is right. (Comp. in my days." From this unique and unhappily much chap. xix. 35.) Reuss strangely renders : "

Mais une injured record it appears that Omri had reduced Moab révélation de l'Eternel parla ;” and adds the note, “ Et again to subjection, and that Ahab, who, like his father, non pas un ange” (!). was a strong sovereign, had maintained his hold upon Arise, go up.-Samaria lay on a hill, and the prothe country. The death of Ahab and the sickness of phet was to meet the messengers at the gates. Ahaziah would be Moab's opportunity. The revolt of King of Samaria.-Not Israel, a mark of Judæan Moab is mentioned here parenthetically. The subject feeling. is continued in chap. iii. 4–27. (See the Notes there.) And say.-Literally, speak. LXX., Vulgate, and

Arabic add“ saying,” but comp. 1 Kings xxi. 5, 6. (2–16) A new and (according to Ewald and Thenius)

Is it not because.-Omit " not.” So verse 6. later fragment of the history of Elijah.

Ye go.

Are going. (2) Through a lattice. Rather, the lattice, i.e., A God in Israel.-Comp. Micah iv. 5: “For all the latticed window of the chamber on the palace roof, peoples will walk every one in the name of his god, looking into the court below. The word rendered and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God for " through” (běřad) implies that Ahaziah was leaning | ever and ever.”

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