Page images


advise (ii. 1. 29), reflect, consider; used reflexively. Similarly advice = consideration, judgment. O.Fr. aviser, avis, Late Lat. ad-visum. Originally "the way in which a matter is looked at, opinion, judgment " (Murray). aidant (iv. 4. 17), helpful.

[ocr errors]

O.Fr. aidant, pres. part. of aider. alarum'd (ii. 1. 55), aroused, called to arms. Alarum is another form of alarm. O.Fr. alarme, Italian allarme = all' arme! "To arms!" Thus originally an interjection, but used later as a name for the summons to arms. The derivative sense of fright," which is confined to the form alarm, is not found in Shakespeare. allow (ii. 4. 194), approve of, sanction. O.Fr. alouer, representing both Lat. allaudare, to praise, and allocare, to place, assign. Hence the two senses of approving and granting," which are so close as to blend. The former sense is more common in M.E. and E.E., the latter in Mod. E. Cf. allowance (i. 4. 228), approval.

[ocr errors]


an (i. 4. 112; ii. 2. 48, 106; ii. 4. 65), if. Spelled and in the Qq and F1, and generally in E.E. Its derivation is uncertain, but it is probably the same word as the coördinate. attaint (v. 3. 83), impeachment. O.Fr. ateinte, from p.p. of ateindre," to attain," hence 'to strike, condemn." Lat. attingere, to touch upon."


[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

form. The word is occasion

The sense of ally used in E.E. in the original mitting survives in such sense, captive."

“ commend

to can (iv. 4. 8). O.E. cunnan, memory but it was much “ The 0. Teut. sense was 'to commoner in E.E. than the know, know how, be mentally sense of “ praising." or intellectually able,' whence compeers (v. 3. 69), equals, is a 'to be able generally, be physi compeer with. O.Fr. comper, cally able, have the power' com + per, a peer (in Mod. Fr. (Murray).

pair), Lat. parem. champains (i. 1. 65), or cham-conceit (iv. 6. 42), imagination,

paigns, plains. Þ.E.' cham illusion. Probably formed payne, O.Fr. champaigne, Lat. from conceive on the analogy of campania; ultimately from deceit, deceive, there being Lat. campus, a level field. The apparently, no corresponding word was taken into English O.Fr. word. It never occurs in the central French form in Shakespeare in the modern champaigne, not in the Norman sense of “high opinion of oneFrench form campaigne (Mur self." ray); contrast caitiff.

convey (i. 2. 109), carry out, do cockney (ii. 4. 123), a pampered, secretly. M.E. conveien, O.Fr. affected woman;

see note. conveier, Late Lat. conviare, M.E.cokeney, apparently coken, con + via. Originally " to ac" of cocks " + ey,

company on the way," thus literally '" cock's egg

convoy"; but used later of The word was either a child's inanimate things “ to transname for an egg, or a name for port, carry,'

," and especially a small or misshapen egg. It with a sense of secrecy. Cf. i. was then applied as a humor 4. 300. ous or derisive name for an cozen'd (v. 3. 154), cheated, beunduly pampered child, a milk guiled. The derivation is unsop. From this it was applied certain. It has commonly to a townsman, as being effemi been connected with Fr. cousinate in comparison with a defined by Cotgrave, 1611, countryman. Finally it has got to clayme kindred for adits modern special reference to vantage, or particular ends;

a native of London (Murray). as he who, to save charges in comforting (iii. 5. 21), aiding, travelling, goes from house to assisting; common legal house as cosin to the honor of

O.Fr. conforter, Lat. everyone." But there is no confortare, to strengthen, con idea of pretext of relationintensive + fortis, strong. In ship in cozen in E.E., in legal phraseology it is com which the meaning is simply monly used along with the syn to “ cheat." Cf. cozener, iv. onymous word

aiding,'. e.g. 6. 167. “ aiding and comforting, curious (i. 4. 35), complicated,

giving aid and comfort." intricate. O.Fr. curius, Lat. commend (ii. 4. 28; iii. 1. 19), curiosus, full of care, scrupu

deliver, commit. Through lous. Cf. curiosity,“ scruples," O.Fr. from Lat. commendare, i. 2. 4, "nicety of suspicion, com + mandare, to commit to i. 4. 75, and “ careful investione's care. The secondary gation," i. 1. 6. sense of “praising." arose from the idea that what is com- darkling (i. 4. 207), in the dark. mitted is worthy of accept M.E. darkeling, dark + ling,





[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]


an old adverbial formative. phium, a writing style. Gr. Cf. flatling or flatlong, headling

γράφειν, to

write. The Qq or headlong, sidelong.

have the form ingrafted. debosh'd (i. 4. 237), an early enormous (ii. 2. 176), abnormal,

variant of “ debauched. monstrous. Lat. enormis, et Taken, about 1600, from Fr. norma, pattern, rule. This is débaucher, to draw away from the only instance of the word duty; hence to lead astray, in Shakespeare's plays. The corrupt. Obsolete in Eng usual sense now - "huge lish before the middle of the is derivative. seventeenth century; retained entertain (iii. 6. 83), take into longer in Scotch; revived by service; a common meaning in Scott, and now frequent in E.E. Cf. Two Gentlemen of literary English with some Verona, ii. 4. 110, “ entertain what vaguer sense than de him for your servant." Fr. bauched (Murray). De entretenir, Lat. inter + tenere. boshed is the only form in esperance (iv. 1. 4), hope. O.Fr. Shakespeare.

esperance, Late Lat. sperantia, deer (iii. 4. 144). Not used in

sperare, to hope. its modern special sense, but essay (i. . 2. 47), trial, test. applied to animals generally, 0.Fr. essai or assai, Lat. exausually to quadrupeds as dis gium,“ weighing,” hence" tinct from birds and fishes. amination, exigere, to O.E. déor. Not connected weigh, consider,' ex + ago.

with Gr. Ońp, a wild beast. The commoner form in Shakedemand (iii. 2. 65; v. 3. 62), speare is assay; essay occurs

ask; the commoner meaning only here and in Sonnets, cx. 8. of the word in Shakespeare. Cf. the substantive, i. 5. 3. exhibition (i. 2. 25), allowance. Fr. demander, Lat. de + man 0.Fr: exhibicion, Late Lat. exdare.

hibitionem, maintenance, exhidigest (i. 1. 130), divide, dispose bere, to maintain, support, in

of. Lat. digerere, to carry legal sense. (Cf. exhibitio et asunder, divide, dis + gerere. tegumentum food and raiSchmidt's explanation that it ment.) Its original meaning is used figuratively in the sense was “maintenance, support "; of “enjoy " is untenable. hence, as here,

" allowance,

pension." This sense survives earnest (i. 4. 104), money paid only in its specialized use as a

beforehand as a pledge. The kind of scholarship given by an derivation is uncertain. Cf. English college, etc. It has 0. Fr. erres, Mod. Fr. arrhes, the sense of present” in from Lat. arrha. The Scottish Othello, iv. 3. 75: “I would form arles is apparently from not do such a thing for a jointthe same root.

ring nor any petty exhiengraffed (i. 1. 301), engrafted. bition." The meaning

disGraff was the original form, play,' etc., is comparatively and was in common use in E.E. late. The current form graft probably arose from the use of graft favours (iii. 7. 40), features. (graffed) as the p. part. of the M.E. favour, Nor. Fr. favor, old form. O.Fr. grafe, greffe Lat. favorem, kindliness. The (Mod. Fr., greffe), a slip of meaning “ face," features,” à tree, originally a pointed arose from the common transinstrument. Late Lat. gra ition from the feeling or dis

Cf. say.



1. BLANK VERSE The normal verse consists of ten syllables alternately stressed and unstressed, beginning with an unstressed syllable, without rhyme (hence called “blank verse”), and with a sense pause at the end of the line, e.g.:

He raised' the house with loud' and cow'ard cries' (ü. 4. 43).

Return' to her,' and fif'ty men' dismiss'd'? (. 4. 210). As the line contains five feet, each of two syllables, and each stressed on the second syllable, it is commonly called an iambic pentameter.


A succession of such lines, however, would be monotonous. Accordingly, there are several variations in the rhythm.

(a) Stress Inversion. The normal order of non-stress and stress may be inverted; e.g. in the various feet:

(1) Why' have my sisters husbands, if they say (i. 1. 101). (2) But love, | dear' love, ) and our aged father's right (iv. 4. 28). (3) Which I must act: I brief'ness and fortune, work! (ii. 1. 20). (4) Let me beseech your grace | not' to do so (ii. 2. 147).

(5) Though I condemn not, yet, under | pardon (i. 4. 365). This inversion occurs commonly after a pause, and is thus found most frequently in the first, third, and fourth feet, i.e. after the pauses at the beginning or centre of the line. It is seldom found in the second foot, and it is very rare in the fifth foot. When it occurs in the fifth foot the effect is generally unrhythmical.

There are occasionally two inversions in the same line, e.g.: (1, 4) Broth'er, I a word; descend: | broth'er, I say! (ii. 1. 21). (1, 4) Bold' in the quarrel's right, / roused' to the encounter

(ii. 1. 56). 1 This appendix has been suggested largely by the "Outline of Shakespeare's Prosody” in Prof ssor Herf 's Richard II.

« PreviousContinue »