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is said to have occupied. This is called the Wukúf or (standing), a necessary part of the Hajj. He must also listen to the sermon delivered by the Imám, explaining what still remains of the ritual of the Hajj, i.e., how the Hájís are to stand in Muzdalífah, to throw the stones in Miná, to make the sacrifice, &c.

All the time the Hájí should constantly shout out the Talbiyah, and the Tahlil, and weep bitterly.

The Hájí then proceeds to Muzdalifah, a place situated about half-way between Miná and 'Arifát, where he should pass a portion of the night. After a visit to the Mosque Mashar al Harám, he should collect seven pebbles and proceed to Miná.

When the morning of the tenth day, the 'íd-ul-Azhá arrives, he again goes to Miná, where there are three different pillars, called respectively the Jamrat-ul-Akabah, commonly known as the Shaitan-ul-Kabír? (great devil), the Wusta, or middle pillar, and the Al Ula, or first one. Holding the jamár, or pebble, between the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, the Hájí throws it a distance of not less than fifteen feet and says : "In the name of Alláh, and Alláh is Almighty, (I do this) in hatred of the Fiend and to his shame." The remaining six stones are thrown in like manner. The object is to confound the devils who are supposed to be there. The stones are small lest the pilgrims should be hurt. Before each stone is thrown the Takbír must be said. This ceremony is called Ramí-ul-Jamár, the throwing of stones. It is also known as Hasal Khazaf. It is said that this ceremony has been performed since the time of Abraham, and that the stones are miraculously removed. Ibn 'Abbás, a Companion, says that if the pilgrimage of a Hájí is approved of by God, the stones are secretly removed. Mujáhid, a well known Traditionist,

1. “The Shaitan.ul.Kabír is a dwarf buttress of rude masonry about eight feet high, by two and a half broad, placed against a rough wall of stones." (Burton).

says that he put a mark on his stones and afterwards searched, but found them not. The pilgrim then returns to Miná, and there offers the usual sacrifice of the 'Id-ul-Azhá. An account of this will be given in the next chapter. This act strictly speaking, concludes the Hajj. The Hájí can now shave his head, pare his nails and remove the Ihrám.

The remaining three days, the 11th, 12th and 13th of Zu'lHajja are called the Aiyám-ut-Tashriq “days of drying flesh” because now the pilgrims prepare provisions for the return journey, by cutting slices from the victims offered in sacrifice and drying them in the sun. The Hájí should spend this time at Miná, and each day throw seven pebbles at each of the pillars. This ceremony duly over, he returns to Mecca and makes the Tawáf-ul-Wida' (circuit of farewell). He should also drink some water from the well of Zemzem. Tradition says that when Ishmael was thirsty Gabriel stamped with his foot and a spring gushed forth. This is now the far-famed well Zemzem. Finally, the Hájí kisses the threshold, and then, with hands uplifted laying hold of the covering of the K’aba, and weeping bitterly, he prays most humbly, and expresses regret that he will soon have to depart from a place so dear as the sacred K'aba. Retiring backwards, he makes his exit and the Hajj is complete. The Umráh or little pilgrimage can be made at any time except the eighth, ninth and tenth of Zu'l-Hajja. It is usually done before pilgrims start homewards. Its coremonies differ but slightly from the Hajj. The Ihrám must

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1. Most of the ceremonies connected with the Hajj, the Ihrám, the shaving of the head, the going to Safá and Marwah, the throwing of the stones, the circuit of the K'aba, the kissing of the black stone, and the sacrifice were all pagan ceremonies performed by the idolatrous Arabs. Muhammad by his time-serving policy, adopted to gain the Meccans to his side, has confirmed an idolatrous practice which otherwise would probably have been extinct long ago. Safá and Marwah were hills held in superstitious reverence by the Meccans. The early Muslims had some doubt about retaining them as sacred places : then came the revelation to the Prophet, “ Safă and Marwah are among the monuments of God, whosoever then maketh a pilgrimage to the temple or visiteth it, shall not be to blame if he go round about them both.” (Búra ii. 153).

be put on, and the obligations of abstinence which it entails must be observed.

The usual course is then to make the Ziárat, or visit to the tomb of the Prophet at Madína. Henceforth the pilgrim assumes the honorable title of Hájí and so is, ever after, a person of some consequence among the community in which he dwells. The Hajj cannot be performed by proxy, though it is esteemed a 'good work,' if some one who can afford it, sends a pilgrim who otherwise could not go.

This account of the Irkán-i-dín, or five pillars of religion, must now draw to a close. They illustrate well the fixed and formal nature of Islám, whilst the constant reference to the Prophet's sayings and practice, as an authority for many of the details, shows how largely Islám is based on the Sunnat. With regard to the differences of opinion which the great Imáms hold on some of the details, it is most difficult to decide which side holds the correct view. Such opinions are always based on some Tradition, the value of which it is impossible to determine. The opponent says it is a weak (z’aif) Tradition-a statement it would puzzle any one to prove or to disprove. It is sometimes said in praise of Musalmáns that they are not priest-ridden ; but no people in the world are so Tradition-ridden, if one may use such an expression. Until this chain of superstition is broken there can be no progress and no enlightenment; but when it is so broken Islám will cease to be Islám, for this foundation of the Faith and the edifice erected on it are so welded together that the undermining of the one will be the fall of the other.

NOTE TO CHAPTER V.

The following Fatvá was publicly given in the Great Mosque,

Triplicane, Madras, February 13th, 1880.

In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

QUESTION.

“O’Ulama of the religion, and Muftís of the enlightened Law, what is your opinion in this matter? A person having translated a juz (one-thirtieth part) of the noble Qurán into the Hindustani language has printed it. The translation is defective: moreover the Arabic text is not given. In order to give the translation the same authority as the original, he has retained the usual signs and marks of the Arabic editions; such as-toi, qif, jím, lá, mím, and 0.1 At the end of the juz he has added a translation of the Tashshahud, Qanúd, Saná, Ta'awwuz, Tasmí', Tashibát, Rukú' and Sujúd, and has said that all these must be read in Hindustani. He further states that in the translation he has retained the rhythm of the original, and that in eloquence and style it is equal to the Arabic. He has also added rubrical directions as to the ritual of the Namáz, and has stated that to those who do not know Arabic, it is a wájib and a farz duty to recite the translation; otherwise they commit sin and the Namáz is vain. As regards the past, he considers that the ignorant are forgiven, but he maintains that the 'Ulama of these days must answer for the neglect they show in not telling the people to use translations of the Qurán. Further, in support of his views he adduces a Hadís-i-Sahíh, according to which the Prophet said to a Companion, Salmán-i-Farsí: “Read a translation of the Quran in the Namáz.” He claims, as on his side, the four great Imáms. He himself understands Arabic, yet he says his Namáz in Hindustani and influences others to do likewise. He has been spoken to, but he takes no heed and strives to spread his sect all over India.

Now, what is the order of the noble Law with regard to such a person, and what is the decree in the case of those who follow

1. These are the letters contained in words which direct the reader when to pause. Thus toí stands for mutlaq (slight pause), qif (pause), jím for já,íz (freedom to pause, or not to pause), lá for no (no pause), mím for laʼzim (necessary to pause), O is a full stop .

him, or who circulate his opinions, or who consider him a religious man and a guide, or who consider the translation to which reference has been made to be the Holy Qurán, or who teach it to their children? O learned men, state the Law in this matter and merit a good reward.”

THE ANSWER.

After praising God, and after imploring His mercy and peace on Muhammad, be it known that the person referred to is an infidel, an atheist and a wanderer from the truth. He also causes others to wander. His assertion that his opinions are in accordance with those of the four Imáms is utterly false, because according to Imám Shafa’í, Imám Málik, and Imám Hanbal it is illegal to use a translation of the Qurán when saying the Namáz, whether the worshipper is ignorant of Arabic or not. Thus Imám Navarí, a disciple of Sháfa'í says : "It is unlawful in any case to use Persian 1 in the Namáz." Faqi’Alí, a disciple of Málik says:

“ Persian is unlawful.” To these opinions Káfí, a disciple of Hanbal adds his testimony: “ To recite in the Namáz from a translation of the Qurán is unlawful.” Moreover from the Qurán itself, the recital of it in Arabic is proved to be a divine command (farz). The term Qurán, too, means an Arabic Qurán, for God speaks of it as a revelation in Arabic. The words “recite so much of the Qurán as may be easy to you” prove the duty of reciting it; whilst the words an Arabic Qurán have we sent it down” show that the Qurán to be used is an Arabic one. Imám Abu Hanifa and his disciples, the Sáhibain (Imám Muhammad and Imám Abu Yúsuf), consider that, if a person can recite only a short verse in Arabic, it is not lawful for such an one to use a translation. If he cannot read the rabic character, he must learn by heart such a sentence as * Praise be to God, Lord of the people.” Until he learns this he may use a translation. In the Tanwír-ulAbsár it is written : “It is a farz duty to read one verse, and to learn it by heart is farz-i-’ain” (i.e., incumbent on all). In the Masíh-ulAzhar it is written : “ If a person says the Namáz in a language other than Arabic, he is a madman or an atheist.” With regard to the statement made by Imám Abu Hanifa that a person might use for a

1. Persian was the foreign language with which the early Muslims were brought most into contact; but the objection applies equally to any other language.

2. A concession of no practical value, as any one with the power of speech could learn these words in a very short time.

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