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Sunnat of the Prophet with all its energy. It breaks down shrines, but insists on the necessity of a pilgrimage to a black stone at Mecca. It forbids the use of a rosary, but attaches great merit to counting the ninety-nine names of God on the fingers. It would make life unsocial. The study of the Fine Arts with the exception of Architecture can find no place in it. Ismá'íl quotes with approval the following Tradition. ! 'Ayesha said: 'I purchased a carpet on which were some figures. The Prophet stood in the doorway and looked displeased.' I said : 'O messenger of God, I repent to God and His Messenger ; what fault have I committed that you do not enter ? His Highness then said : What is this carpet ?' I replied ; 'I have bought it for you to sit and rest upon.' Then the messenger of God replied : 'Verily, the maker of pictures will be punished on the day of resurrection, when God will desire them to bring them to life. A house which contains pictures is not visited by the angels.'” In a Tradition quoted by Ibn 'Abbás, the Prophet classes artists with murderers and parricides. Wahhábíism approves of all this, and thus by forbidding harmless enjoyments it would makė society an organised hypocrisy.". It would spread abroad a spirit of contempt for all mankind except its own followers, and, where it had the power, it would force its convictions on others at the point of the sword.

Wahhábíism was reform after a fashion, in one direction; in the history of Islám there have been attempts at reform in other directions ; there will yet be such attempts, but so long as the Qurán and the Sunnat (or, in the case of the Shía’h, its equivalent) are to form, as they have hitherto

1. Muhammad Ismá'il concludes his great work, the Takwiat-ul-Imán, with the prayer—"O Lord teach us by Thy grace, the meaning of the terms Bid'at and Sunnat, and the Law of the Prophet. Make us pure Sunnís and strictly submissive to the Sunnat." This is a clear and distinct proof that Wahhábís do not reject Tradition as a basis of the Faith. It also shows their horror of innovation, and reveals the little hope there is of any real progress through their influence,

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done for every sect, the sole law to regulate all conditions and states of life, enlightened and continued progress is impossible. The deadening influence of Islám is the greatest obstacle the Church of God has to overcome in her onward march; its immobility is the bane of many lands; connection with it is the association of the living with the dead ; to speak of it, as some do, as if it were a sort of sister religion to Christianity, is but to show deplorable ignorance where ignorance is inexcusable. Thus it is plain that Musalmáns are not all of one heart and soul.1 In the next chapter I hope to show that Islám is a very dogmatic and complex system in spite of the simple form of its creed.

1. “Mr. Finlay, the clever but partial author of "The Byzantine Empire,” bas declared in a sweeping way that there is no greater delusion than to speak of the unity of the Christian Church.' However this may be, I can affirm the perfect applicability of this sentence to Islám in the East. In no part of the world is there more of secret division, aversion, misbelief (taking Muhammadanism as our standard), and unbelief than in those very lands which to a superficial survey, seem absolutely identified in the one common creed of the Quran and its author.”—Palgrave's Arabia, vol. i. p. 10.

NOTE TO CHAPTER III.

WAHIÁBÍISM.

In the Journal Asiatique, 4me Série, tome 11, a curious account is given of the voyage of Mirza Muhammad ’Alí Khán, some time Persian Ambassador in Paris. This gentleman states that in one of his voyages from Persia to India he met with a Wahhábí, who had in his possession a tract written by the founder of the sect. This small pamphlet he allowed Mirza Muhammad to copy. I give the substance of the pamphlet in this note. The original Arabic will be found in the Journal Asiatique. It is of considerable interest as a protest against idolatry. It is as follows :- I know that God is merciful, that the sect of Abu Hanifa is orthodox and identical with the religion of Abraham. After thou hast known that God has created His servants for the purpose of being served by them, know also that this service or devotion is to worship God, One and alone ; just as prayer (Salát) is not prayer (Salát), unless it is accompanied with the legal purification. God Most High has said : " It is not for the votaries of other gods with God, witnesses against themselves of infidelity, to visit the temples of God. These! vain their works: and in the fire shall they abide for ever!" (Súra ix. 17.)

Those who in their prayers, address any other than God, in the hope of obtaining by them that which God alone can give-those bring unto their prayers the leaven of idolatry and make them of none effect, “and who erreth more than he who, beside God, calleth upon that which shall not answer him until the day of resurrection.” (Súra xlvi. 4.) On the contrary, when the day of resurrection comes, they will become their enemies and treat them as infidels for having served others than God. “But the gods whom ye call on beside Him have no power over the husk of a date-stone! If ye cry to them they will not hear your cry; and if they heard they would not answer you, and in the day of resurrection they will disown your joining them with God.” (Súra xxxv. 14, 15.)

He who says: “O thou Prophet of God! O 'Ibn 'Abbás! O 'Abd-ul-Qadir!" &c. with the persuasion that the souls of these blessed ones can obtain from God that of which the suppliant has need, or that they can protect him, is an infidel whose blood any one may shed, and whose goods any one may appropriate with impunity unless he repent. There are four different classes of idolaters.

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, the infidels against whom the Prophet made war. These acknowledge that God is the creator of the world, that He supports all living creatures, that in wisdom He rules over all. 'Say: who supplieth you from the heavens and the earth? who hath power over hearing and sight P and who bringeth forth the living from the dead, and bringeth forth the dead from the living? who ruleth all things ? they will surely say: 'God,' then say: 'What! will ye not therefore fear Him.'' (Súra x. 32.) It is difficult to distinguish idolatry of this kind; but under an outwardly orthodox appearance they go astray; for they have recourse to divinities of their own choosing and pray to them.

Secondly, there are idolaters who say that they only call upon these intermediary powers to intercede in their favour with God, and that what they desire they seek from God. The Qurán fur. nishes a proof against them. “They worship beside God what cannot hurt or help them, and say, these are our advocates with God! say: will

ye inform God of aught in the heavens and in the earth which He knoweth not p" (Súra x. 19.)

Thirdly, those are idolaters who choose one idol as their patron, or rather those who, renouncing the worship of idols, become attached to one saint, as Jesus or His Mother, and put themselves under the protection of Guardian Angels. Against them we cite

Those whom ye call on, themselves desire union with their Lord, striving which of them shall be nearest to Him; they also hope for His mercy, and fear His chastisement.” (Súra xvii. 59.) We see here that the Prophet drew no distinction between the worship of an idol and the worship of such and such a saint; on the contrary, he treated them all as infidels, and made war upon them in order to consolidate the religion of God upon a firm basis.

Fourthly, those who worship God sincerely in the time of trouble, but at other times call on other Gods are idolaters. Thus: “Lo ! when they embark on board a ship, they call upon God, vowing Him sincere worship, but when He bringeth them safe to land, behold they join partners with Him." (Súra xxix. 65.)

In the age in which we live, I could cite still worse heresies. The idolaters, our contemporaries, pray to and invoke the lower divini. ties when they are in distress. The idolaters of the Prophet's time were less culpable than those of the present age are. They, at least, had recourse to God in time of great evil; these in good and evil states, seek the aid of their patrons, other than God, and pray to them.

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CHAPTER IV.

THE CREED OF ISLÁM.

Faith is defined by Muslim theologians as: “Confession with the tongue and belief with the heart.”2 It is said to “stand midway between hope and fear." It is sub-divided into Imán-í-mujmal and Imán-í-mufassal. The former is an expression of the following faith: "I believe in God, His names and attributes, and accept all His commands.”'s The latter is the acceptance of the following dogmas :

"I believe in God, Angels, Books, Prophets, the Last Day, the Predestination by the Most High God of good and evil and the Resurrection after death.” 4 These form the articles of faith which every Muslim must believe, to which belief, in order to render it perfect, he must add the performance of the "acts of practice," viz. : (1) “ The recital of the Kalima or creed :-There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the Apostle of God.' (2) Salát. The five daily prayers. (3) Roza. The thirty days fast of Ramazán. (4) Zakát. The legal alms. (5) Hajj, or the pilgrimage to Mecca.” This chapter will contain an account of the Imán-the dogmas of Islám. An account of the Din—the practical duties, will be given in the next chapter.

1. Strictly speaking, this chapter should be entitled the 'Faith of Islám,'. as the subject of it is technically called Imán, or faith. The Kalima, or creed is, in the strict sense, the expression of belief in one God, and in Muhammad as His apostle. I'here use the word creed in the usual sense of a body of dogmas.

2. Iqrárun bil-lisáni wa tasdíqun bil janáni.

3. Amantu billáhi kama hua bismáíbi wa sifátíhi wa qabiltu jami'a ahkámihi.

4. Amantu billáhi wa maláíkatihi wa kutubihi wa rusulihi wal. am-il. ákhiri wal-qadri khairihi wa sharrihi min alláhi ta’álá wal-baʼsi ba'd al. mouți.

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