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before had forded so deep and rapid a river, and I assure you there are to be found aquatic sports much more to my taste than riding half a mile in a wild torrent, with the water half way up the saddle. I experienced no other inconvenience than that of a cold bath when my horse lay down to roll in mid channel. We lost some dry stores and got our beds wet. This was coming off better than we at

first anticipated.

As I cannot find the name of this river on our map, I can only suppose it to be the Cnidus or the Calycadnus, which are described by ancient authors as flowing somewhere near where we now are. Most probably the former, as the ruins of the city of Cnidus are found on a promontory immediately south of us.

During our ride from Macri to this place we touched the head of another deep gulf similar to that of Macri, bounded on each side by spurs of the Taurus. On the shore of this gulf were situated several ancient Greek cities, which have not been explored in modern times, and which present a fine field for classical antiquarian labours. But I have seen enough of antiquities, and now desire once more to reach some land of civilization.

With the sites of Cnidus, Miletus, Mylasa, Bargylia, Halicarnassus, and many others within a few hours' ride of us, I cannot sufficiently rouse my dormant enthusiasm to concur in the gentlemen's desire to explore some of these longlost cities, however well persuaded I feel that many laurels might be reaped in these regions by patient and persevering travellers.

The town of Mullah is two hours distant from our present encampment; we shall reach it to-morrow morning, and avail ourselves of the government post-horses which we learn are there stationed.

In a few days we shall arrive at Smyrna, whence I will write to you again. Until then, adieu.




Return to Civilization.-How to get Purified.-Ravages of the Plague.Perils escaped.-Mullah.-A Scene with a Governor.--The Bastinado. -Visit from a Patriarch.-A Field of Tombs.-Camels crossing a Stream.-Guizel Hissar.-A civil Governor.-Missing Horses.-The Lost found.-Provisions for thirsty Travellers.-Tiret.-A Disaster.Return to Smyrna.

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We have at last reached a place where, if civilization does not reign predominant, there is to be found a degree of comfort, refinement, and social intercourse such as we have not met with in all our wanderings since we left it.

My feelings, on entering once more the capital of Ionia, were like those which I suppose would be realized by a wanderer among the tribes of the Rocky Mountains and pathless prairies, when, after many months' absence, he should come again in contact with civilization in one of our fron tier settlements. The gentlemen compared their sensations to those experienced when returning to Paris after a winter campaign in Italy.

Besides many warm friends among the natives, we here again meet some of our own countrymen, and behold the star-spangled banner waving over ships just arrived from the land of the West.

In the half year that we have been absent from this place, how much have we done and how much have we seen that is interesting, curious, and extraordinary! how many risks have we run by sea and by land!

The elements have conspired against us, and disease and death have been dealing out destruction in our every path.

We were not made sensible how much we had been exposed to disease in various shapes, during our late journey in Asia Minor, until we were informed of it here by our friends.

The very idea now makes me shudder. In Egypt and

Syria we were apprized of the danger before we encountered it, and took the necessary precautions; but, during our later peril, we were ignorant of its existence, and went not out of its way.

When we first arrived here our friends would not permit us to enter their houses without undergoing purification. This was performed by our getting one by one into a machine like a sentry-box, where one stands upon a grating, under which is placed a pan of coals, with a bunch of half. dried weeds, and the door is then shut. The whole interior is immediately filled with a dense smoke. In order to prevent suffocation, a hole is cut in the door large enough to permit the face to be protruded through it. Ten minutes of this purifying process each one of us submitted to in turn, after which our friends took us by the hand and permitted us to mingle with their families.

They seemed surprised that we were not aware of the ravages which the plague is now making all over the interior. We had indeed seen during the last three days many deserted villages and half-peopled towns, but supposed that the inhabitants were off to the plains and engaged in their har. vest fields; instead of which, the scythe of Death had been mowing them down.

The Orientals are not communicative on the subject of the plague, pay little attention to it, and use no precautions against it.

We understand that many villages in our route have late. ly been entirely depopulated, and large towns decimated. At Magnesia, we are informed, the deaths during the last six weeks have amounted to 500 per day! And to show you the temerity, or rather apathy, of these semi-barbarians, we saw, as we rode through the bazar, piles of clothing, bedding, &c., brought direct from Magnesia by speculating Jews, and purchased freely by the fatalist Mussulmans.

The smallpox also is claiming its share of victims; of




this, however, we were fully aware, and endeavoured to avoid it; but, with all our precautions, we would frequently come in contact with it in its various stages. In all the plains on which we have encamped during the last fortnight, the malaria prevails to a great degree at this season of the year. How we have escaped so many dangers, to which we have been exposed day and night on our last journey, is to me a wonder; and I can only consider it as another of those mys. terious interpositions of Providence in our behalf which I feel that I never can properly appreciate, or remember with sufficient gratitude.

Let us now return to where I dated my last letter..

It was about two hours beyond Mullah, which place we reached early the next morning. It is a populous Greek town, situated on the side of a steep hill, built entirely of wood, and one house rising above the other, so that each can overlook its neighbour, have a view of the beautiful plain beyond, and receive the full benefit of the northerly breeze. It is no doubt erected on the site of some ancient town; for such a commanding situation would never have been overlooked by the intelligent and luxurious Greeks of old, who cultivated the plains before it.

It is the first eligible situation for a city after leaving the last gorge of the Taurus. We had now arrived at a place where there was at least the semblance of authority, and felt secure with our firmans from the Porte.

These, however, our cunning Giovanni advised us not to show, for, as he very justly remarked, they might give us some trouble, or inconvenience at least, by exciting the impertinent curiosity of the ignorant Turkish governor and his officers, and induce them to teaze with silly questions the wanderers from the New World. Giovanni accompanied us to the governor's house, where we went to demand posthorses. He boldly asserted that we were Russians, the only nation known and feared by these barbarians. At the VOL. II.-U

name of Russian the proud Turk made a profound salaam, ordered horses to be supplied instantly, and said he should attend in person to see us well mounted.

We had halted at a small kiosk at the foot of the hill near the town, where we discharged our Macri conductors and their animals.

We rode through the town accompanied by a janizary to protect us from insult, and found not a single feature in it worth noting down.

About one hour after we had returned to our bivouac, his governorship made his appearance, attended by a train of swaggering officers and cringing slaves. He took his seat on a divan, or an elevated platform, under the shade of a tree. Our fresh horses were led out, and then an officer stepped forward to apportion the weight each sumpter horse was to carry. Many high words passed between him and Giovanni; one invoked the Prophet, while the other threatened the vengeance of the great emperor of all the Russias.

We found it necessary to make a complete overturning of our luggage, in order to lessen its weight and bulk by excluding all useless articles, such as empty jars and bottles, and supernumerary canteen boxes. By this process we found that we could dispense with the services of at least two horses; but this did not square with the arithmetic of the Mussulman governor. We had come with fifteen horses, and he did not see why we should not go as we came; nor could we make his obtuse intellect perceive that, by the quantity of empty vessels and boxes thrown away, we must, of course, carry in the aggregate a much lighter burden.

It was of no use to attempt arguing the matter into the dull brain of the great governor of Mullah and its dependancies; so we were obliged to submit, and see the sum total of okkas of baggage reduced, by too great a division, into light half loads, each horse being the gainer by our loss. During the time occupied by this arrangement, I saw another

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