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1 Chron. 28. 9.
Jer. 11. 20. & 17. 10. & 20.
upon God | Or,
the malice of his enemies.
By faith he seeth his defence. 2 Lest he tear my soul like a lion, the just: " for the righteous God trieth 5 1 Sam. 16.
rending it in pieces, while there is the hearts and reins. 1 Heb. sot a t none to deliver.
10 + My defence is of God, which Ps. 139. 1. 3 O Lord my God, if I have done saveth the upright in heart. this; if there be iniquity in my 11 || God judgeth the righteous, 1: hands;
and God is angry with the wicked buckler is
made it ready
14 Behold, he travaileth with ini- c Job 15. 35.
made. 7 So shall the congregation of
16 His mischief shall return upon the people compass thee about: for his own head, and his violent dealing their sakes therefore return thou on shall come down upon his own pate. high.
17 I will praise the LORD accord8 The LORD shall judge the peo- ing to his righteousness: and will sing : Ps. 18. 20. ple : judge me, O Lord, a according praise to the name of the Lord most
to thy righteousness, and according to high.
his love to man.
hath digged a
d Ps. 9. 15. &
Ver. 2. Lest he tear &c.] Lest mine enemy tear, &c. 14. Behold, he travaileth &c.] See the folly of these Green.
wicked plots and contrivances against my life, which 3.- done this ;] With which I am falsely charged. shall all miscarry, and deceive the expectation of this Bp. Wilson.
wicked slanderer. Travell. 4. If I have rewarded &c.] David probably alludes to 15. He made a pit,] This alludes to the method of the circumstance of Saul's life having been twice pre- catching wild beasts in pits covered over slightly with served by him, when he had been pressed by his atten- reeds or small branches of trees. Dr. Shaw. dants to embrace the opportunity of taking it away.
We learn from this Psalm, that the wickedness of the See 1 Sam. xxiv. and xxvi. Bp. Horne.
ungodly shall come to an end ; that God lets them 6.- awake for me to the judgment &c.] Inflict that alone, and bears with them for a time ; but if they pera punishment upon mine enemies which Thou hast com- sist in their wickedness, He prepares for them the pumanded should be inflicted upon malicious oppressors nishments they deserve, and will make the evil which and persecutors. Dr. Clarke.
they design for others fall upon their own heads. These 7. So shall the congregation — compass thee about :] are powerful motives to induce us to adore the justice So, by seeing justice done to me through Thy special of God; to improve by His forbearance and longsufferProvidence, shall the congregation of the people be in- ing ; and to avoid every thing that may expose us to duced to resort unto Thee to do them justice. Dr. His vengeance. Ostervald.
"Compass Thee about” with praises for Thy goodness to me, and for the manifold blessings they shall Psalm VIII. The scope and meaning of this Psalm enjoy under my government. S. Clarke.
seems plainly to be this: to display and celebrate the - return thou on high.] When God seems to take no great love of God to man, not only in his creation, but notice of the transgressions of men, it is as if He de especially in his redemption by Jesus Christ; whom, as scended from the place of His power and from His judg- He was man, He advanced to the honour and dominion ment-seat ; but when He visits and judges their iniqui- here mentioned, that He might carry on that great and ties, He seems to elevate Himself on high, or to return glorious work. Thus Christ is the principal subject of to His judgment-seat. Edwards.
this Psalm, of whom it is interpreted, both by Christ 9. — trieth the hearts and reins.] That is, knoweth Himself, Matt. xxi. 16, and by His holy Apostle, 1 Cor. intimately the very thoughts and desires of all men. Bp. xv. 27; Hebr. ii. 6, 7. Poole. Horne.
In a prophetical sense, it is understood of Christ's 11. God judgeth the righteous,] The meaning is, God victory over Satan. Reeves. will maintain the cause of the righteous. Dr. Wells. This Psalm is suited to the service of the Ascension
12. If he turn not, he will whet &c.] If the wicked day, when we commemorate so signal a proof of the will not repent, God will whet &c. Dr. Wells. “ Whet Divine love, as the exaltation of our nature, in the His sword,” prepare and speedily execute His judgments second Adam, to the right hand of the Majesty on high. upon him. S. Clarke.
a Matth. 21. 16. + Heb. founded.
God's glory is magnified by his works. PSALMS.
David praiseth God.
tith, A Psalm of David. is thy name in all the earth.
13 He prayeth that he may have cause to
labben, A Psalm of David.
my whole heartwill shew
4 b What is man, that thou art mind- most High.
back, they shall fall and perish at thy
righteousness. ion over the works of thy hands; 5 Thou hast rebuked the heathen, * thou hast put all things under his thou hast destroyed the wicked, thou feet:
hast put out their name for ever and 1 Or, The de7 + All sheep and oxen, yea, and ever. the beasts of the field;
6 O || thou enemy, destructions are 8 The fowl of the air, and the fish come to a perpetual end: and thou end; and. of the sea, and whatsoever passeth hast destroyed cities; their memorial hast thou through the paths of the seas. is perished with them.
b Job 7. 17. Ps. 144. 3. Hebr. 2. 6.
+ Heb. in
c1 Cor. 15.
+ Heb. Flocks and oren all of them.
structions of the enemy are come to a perpetual
- upon Gittith,] Some have supposed this expression mindful of Thee: since Thou hast shewed Thy mercy to denote, that this Psalm was to be sung to a harp in visiting and redeeming us, never let us shew ourwhich David brought with him from Gath : others, to selves unthankful for this Thy visitation and redemption. a musical instrument used at the time of the vintage. Suffer us not to abuse Thy creatures which Thou hast Both
may be true: the instrument bearing this name given us for food, nor Thy gifts bestowed for clothing, might have been used by the people of Gath; and the nor wantonly and cruelly to make use of our dominion. Jews might have adopted it from them, and afterwards But give us grace so highly to esteem Thy rich mercies, it might have become the favourite instrument amidst and with such temperance and sobriety to use Thy the festivity and dances of the vintage. Street. creatures, that Thy name thereby may still be more
Ver. 2. Out of the mouth &c.] Thou art pleased to magnified, Thy bounty exalted, Thy providence mere make choice of the meanest and most humble persons, declared, Thy honour' enlarged, Thy person glorified, and even very children in age, to sing hosannas to the and our souls at last saved by the merits of our Lord Son of David, Matt. xxi. 16, to acknowledge Thy power and Saviour Jesus Christ. Bp. Nicholson. and majesty. And this Thou hast done, that they whose pride makes them resist and despise Thee, may Psalm IX. This Psalm consists of two parts ; a be thus visibly punished; and the power of the devil thanksgiving, and a prayer. Upon what particular ocdestroyed. Dr. Hammond.
casion it was composed, is not known; probably, to 3—6. When I consider &c.]. When, on the one hand, celebrate the victories gained by David over the neighI
survey the glorious bodies in the heavens, and com- bouring nations, after God had exalted him to be king pare them with man, I am induced to think degradingly in Zion. Bp. Horne. of him, and to wonder why he should be the object of This and the two following are the proper Psalms Thy care. When, on the other hand, I consider the appointed for the fast service on the thirtieth of Jarank of being in which Thou at first placedst man, nuary, making him but a little below the angels, I correct my- Muth-labben,] Some suppose Labben to be the self for having made too degrading a comparison of name of a prince or chief in the enemy's army; and him, and adore Thee for Thy providential care of him Muth-labben to mean “the death of Labben,” in celeat present, and for the dignity to which Thou didst ad- bration of which this Psalm may have been composed. vance him, when Thou madest him the head of the Dimock. Or it may be the title of a tune or instruvisible creation Green.
ment. S. Clarke. 4.-- visitest him.'] With Thy presence and protec- Ver. 3. When mine enemies &c.]. Rather, It was Thou tion. Bp. Wilson.
who madest my enemies turn their backs, and through The following prayer is so well adapted to the senti- the dread of Thee they fell and were destroyed. Bp. ments contained in this Psalm, that it may be added in Patrick. the place of practical reflection. O our God, since Thou 6. O thou enemy, &c.] As for the enemy, they are hast been so mindful of us, never suffer us to be un- / utterly destroyed, they are become everlasting deso
a Ps. 96. 13. & 98. 9.
o Ps. 37. 39.
e Gen. 9. 5.
He inciteth others
to praise God.
17 The wicked shall be turned into
minister judg- God.
9 b The Lord also will be ta re- be forgotten : the expectation of the
19 Arise, Ó LORD; let not man
the nations may know themselves to
12 . When he maketh inquisition 1 David complaineth to God of the outrage of for blood, he remembereth them: he
the wicked. 12 He prayeth for remedy. 16
He professeth his confidence.
HY standest thou afar off, O 13 Have mercy upon me, O LORD; LORD? why hidest thou thyself consider my trouble which I suffer of in times of trouble? them that hate me, thou that liftest me 2 + The wicked in his pride doth pride of the up from the gates of death :
persecute the poor: a let them be taken wicked he 14 That I may shew forth all thy in the devices that they have ima- secule, praise in the gates of the daughter gined. of Zion: I will rejoice in thy sal
3 For the wicked boasteth of his #Heb. soul's. vation.
+ heart's desire, and || blesseth the i Or, the 15 • The heathen are sunk down in covetous, whom the LORD abhorreth. blesseth himthe pit that they made: in the net 4 The wicked, through the pride of abhorreth the which they hid" is their own foot his countenance, will not seek after 10r, all his taken. God: ||God is not in all his b thoughts. ihoughts are
, 16 The Lord is known by the judg- 5 His ways are always grievous; God. ment which he executeth: the wicked thy judgments are far above out of his
+ Heb. In the
a Ps. 7. 16. & 9. 16. Prov. 5. 22.
Ps. 7. 16,
b Ps. 14. 1. & 53. 1.
lations, for their cities Thou hast erased, the memory never forsakes those that seek Him; and that the expecof them as well as themselves is perished. Edwards. tation of the sorrowful shall not be in vain. These are
12. When he maketh inquisition for blood, he remem- feelings which we should always retain, which should bereth them :) When He calls His enemies to account fill us with trust in His name, and strongly engage us for the blood of His people, which they unjustly shed to fear Him. Ostervald. or coveted. S. Clarke.
To make inquisition for blood,” is not to inquire Psalm X. Some have supposed this Psalm to have after blood spilt, but to sit as inquisitor or judge on all been occasioned by foreign enemies making inroads capital crimes, where the blood of the offender is due into the country; and others by domestick ones in the to justice.
“ Them” refers to the “humble” or afflicted, court of Saul. Mudge, Rosenmüller. at the end of the verse. Mudge.
Ver. 2. — the poor :] This word here means, the 14.- in the gates of the daughter of Zion:) That is, humble, the afflicted, and helpless. Bp. Wilson. in the solemn assemblies of Thy people, the inhabitants 3. For the wicked boasteth &c.] The first part of this of Zion. S. Clarke.
verse points out that alarming symptom of a reprobate 15.- in the pit] See the note on Psalm vii
. 15. mind, a disposition to exult and glory in those lusts 16. --- Higgaion.) A meditation, or a fit subject of which are the shame and disgrace of human nature, meditation. Fenwick.
whether the world or the flesh be their object. The Or possibly the word here means an interlude of soft latter clause is differently rendered, as implying either whispering notes, as Selah another of bolder and louder that "the wicked blesseth the covetous, whom God ones. Mudge, Dr. Kennicott.
abhorreth,” or that “the wicked, being covetous, or 17.- into hell,] By the word “hell” in this place is oppressive, blesseth himself, and abhorreth the Lord.” meant the region of the dead; and the Psalmist seems Either way, an oppressing, griping, worldly spirit is to foretell that the wicked will descend to the grave by characterized, with its direct opposition to the Spirit of some great and signal overthrow. Mudge, Edwards. God, which teaches that sin is to be confessed with
The Psalmist here teaches us, that God will reign for shame and sorrow; that in God alone man is to make ever, and will judge the world with righteousness; that his boast ; and that it is more blessed to give than to He will render to the wicked according to their works; receive. Bp. Horne. that all those who forget Him shall perish; that He 5. His ways are always grievous ; &c.] That is, alwill not suffer the wicked always to prevail; that He I ways troublesome and injurious to all about him. s.
+ Heb. unto
generation. c Rom. 3. 14. + Heb. deceits,
Jer. 10. 10.
+ Heb. in the
+ Heb. He breaketh him
Or, into his his strong ones.
d Ps. 94. 7.
David complaineth to God
of the outrage of the wicked.
art the helper of the fatherless.
not be moved: for I shall † never be wicked and the evil man : seek out
his wickedness till thou find none. 7 His mouth is full of cursing and 16 e The LORD is King for ever e Ps. 29.10.
+ deceit and fraud: under his tongue and ever: the heathen are perished 146. 10. || Or, is mischief and || vanity.
out of his land. iniquity.
8 He sitteth in the lurking places 17 LORD), thou hast heard the deof the villages: in the secret places sire of the humble: thou wilt || pre- 10r,
doth he murder the innocent: his pare their heart, thou wilt cause thine Heb, hide eyes + are privily set against the ear to hear : poor.
18 To judge the fatherless and the 9 He lieth in wait + secretly as a oppressed, that the man of the earth secret places. lion in his den: he lieth in wait to may no more || oppress.
· ] Or, lerrify. catch the poor: he doth catch the
1 David encourageth himself in God against
his enemies. 4 The providence and justice himself, that the poor may fall || by
of God. self.
I To the chief Musician, A Psalm of about 1060. strong parts. 11 He hath said in his heart, God
David. : d
N see it.
say to my , Flee a bird 12 Arise, O LORD; O God, lift up to your mountain ? || Or, thine hand: forget not the || humble. 2 For, lo, the wicked bend their afflicted.
13 Wherefore doth the wicked con- bow, they make ready their arrow
vily shoot at the upright in heart.
quite it with thy hand: the poor 4 a The Lord is in his holy temple, a Hab. 2. 20. Clarke. As for God's laws and judgments, he never iniquity. 3dly, That though “ the wicked saith in his lays them to heart; and he despises and contemns all heart, Thou wilt not require it,” the faithful know ashis opposers. Dr. Hammond.
suredly, that God beholds all that travail and vexation 10. He croucheth, &c.] He will meanly crouch and which some inflict, and others sustain, upon the earth ; counterfeit any thing that will serve his purpose; so and that He will infallibly recompense to the former that the helpless may fall into his power.
Travell. their deeds, to the latter their sufferings. Bp. Horne. 12. - the humble.] Or rather, “the afflicted," as in the margin. Street.
Psalm XI. This Psalm seems to have been composed 13. Thou wilt not require it.] The wicked concludes by David, when, in order to avoid the evil designs of from God's patience, that He will never punish him. Saul, his friends advised him to flee to the mountainous Bp. Patrick.
parts of Judea. Edwards. 15. Break thou &c.] This may be either a prayer, or In the first verse David expostulates with his friends a prediction, implying that the time will come, when for advising him to fly to the mountainous parts of the power of Jehovah will dash in pieces that of the Judea, as the only safe retreat from Saul. In the second enemy, by the demolition either of sin or the sinner, and third verses, he subjoins the reasons which his until wickedness be come utterly to an end, and right- friends assigned for their advice. In the four last, he eousness be established for ever in the kingdom of the replies to the advice of his friends, telling them that the Messiah. Bp. Horne.
God of heaven, who searcheth the heart, would protect 18. To judge the fatherless &c.] Thy gracious assist the innocent. Green. ance shall assert the right of those who are helpless and Ver. 3. If the foundations be destroyed, &c.] When oppressed; so that their insolent persecutors, whose the fundamental laws of the land, such as stipulate prosordid minds cling entirely to this world, may be pre- tection to the subject, are subverted by the prince, who vented from doing them further mischief. Travell. ought to be the guardian of them, what has the perse
We may learn from this Psalm, 1st, That to behold cuted subject to trust to? or what can he do, but, as in the righteous cause oppressed, and good men seemingly a state of nature, fly to the fastnesses of the mountains deserted by Heaven, is apt to offend the weak, and for security? Green. Had David been guilty of any oftentimes stagger those who are strong. 2dly, That crime, he ought to have had a fair trial by the laws : but prosperity begets presumption in the wicked; and he, Saul tried to assassinate him, contrary to justice, and to who has been long accustomed to see his designs suc- the fundamental law of all nations. Dr. Kennicott. ceed, begins to think it impossible they should ever do 4. The Lord is in his holy temple, &c.] The meaning otherwise. The longsuffering of God, instead of leading is, that the Lord is the supreme and righteous Ruler such an one to repentance, only hardens him in his of all affairs; that He knows the most secret designs
+ Heb. great things.
Or, & bateing tengest.
He craveth help of God.
He complaineth of delay in help. the Lord's throne is in heaven: his , ing lips, and the tongue that speaketh eyes behold, his eyelids try, the chil- 1 + proud things: dren of men.
4 Who have said, With our tongue 5 The LORD trieth the righteous : will we prevail; our lips fare our + Heb. are but the wicked and him that loveth own : who is lord over us? violence his soul hateth.
5 For the oppression of the poor, 6 Upon the wicked he shall rain for the sighing of the needy, now will snares, fire and brimstone, and || an I arise, saith the Lord; I will set horrible tempest: this shall be the him in safety from him that || puffeth Or, would portion of their cup.
7 For the righteous Lord loveth 6 The words of the LORD are righteousness; his countenance doth pure words : & as silver tried in a fur- a 2 Sam. 22. behold the upright.
nace of earth, purified seven times.
7 Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, Prov. 30. 5. PSALM XII.
thou shalt preserve † them from this 4 Heb. him, i David, destitute of human comfort, craveth help of God. 3 Ře comforteth himself with generation for ever. God's judgments on the wicked, and confi
8 The wicked walk on every side, dence in God's tried promises.
when + the vilest men are exalted. + Heb. the 1 To the chief Musician || upon She
PSALM XIII. minith, A Psalm of David. 107, Sace. II ELP, Lord; for the godly 1 David complaineth of delay in help: 3 He
for preventing grace. 5 He boast-
eth of divine mercy,
q To the || chief Musician, A Psalm | Or,
that is, every
one of them.
07, upon le cigáth.
vilest of the sons of men are exalted.
+ Heb. an heart and an heart.
lips and with a double heart do they H O'Lom "for ever? how long
O ? ?
of men, and can disappoint them. Bp. Patrick, Dr. plain-dealing man, in whom one might confide. Bp. Wells.
Patrick. 6. — snares,] Or, “burning coals.” Bp. Horne. Ву It was probably written on the occasion of Saul's this word, live coals, or simply the lightning, seems to be evil administration, and the persecution of David and understood. Bp. Lowth.
other good men, S. Clarke. fire and brimstone,] These terms are evidently - Sheminith,] See the note on the title to Psalm vi. horrowed from the history of Sodom and Gomorrah. Ver. 2. They speak vanity] Or falsehood. Mudge. St. John also, at the conclusion of his prophecy, Rev. 4. Who have said, &c.] Who have said, We will IX, describing the destruction of the ungodly, refers to prevail by false accusations, we are not afraid to speak the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, which, as St. or affirm what we please; for who can call us to account Jude informs us, "are set forth for an example,” or for what we say, however false it may be ? Dr. Wells. figure, “ suffering the vengeance of eternal fire,” Jude 6. The words of the Lord are pure words :] The prover. 7. Bp. Horne. They mean dreadful judgments in mises which God hath made to me and His people have this world, and eternal vengeance in the world to come. no deceit in them, but shall certainly be fulfilled in their 8. Clarke.
season. S. Clarke. the portion of their cup.] It being the custom, 7.- from this generation] From this kind of scornful in old times, to set before each guest a certain portion of oppressors. S. Clarke. honor for his share ; it is very common in Scripture to 8. The wicked walk &c.] It must needs be, that describe the different allotments which the providence wicked men should abound every where, when the worst of God dispenses to good and bad men, by the image of men are exalted, and preferred to places of honour and a eup. Tracell.
command. Bp. Hall. The vile men, whom David here This Psalm furnishes us with an example of the con- complains of as advanced to power, were probably his fidence which the righteous have in the Lord their God, persecutors in the days of Saul, such as Doeg, Cush, &c. who is their sure refuge, even when they are in the most Green. deplorable condition, and know not what will become For the consolation of the afflicted and poor in spirit, of them. It also teaches us, that God has His throne God hath promised in this Psalm, to “arise, and set in the heavens ; that He sees and knows both the good them in safety,” or place
them in a state of salvation. and the wicked ; that His soul hates those that love un- Such all along has been His promise to the Church, nghteousness ; that He will cause the fire of His ven- which, by looking back to the deliverances wrought of geance to fall upon them; and, as He is perfectly just old for the servants of God, is now encouraged to look Himself, He loves justice above all things, and always forward and expect her final redemption from the scorn favours the upright. Ostervald.
and insolence of infidelity. Bp. Horne. Psalm XII. This Psalm is a complaint of the corrupt Psalm XIII. In this Psalm David, being in danger manners of that age, especially, as is probable, of the from his enemy, entreats the Lord to deliver him, and court of Saul; so that it was hard to find an honest rejoices in hopes of his salvation. Green,