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6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger, lift up thyself because of the rage of mine enemies: and awake for me to the judgment that thou hast commanded.
By faith he seeth his defence.
the just: for the righteous God trieth b1 Sam. 16. the hearts and reins.
1 Chron. 28.
7 So shall the congregation of the people compass thee about: for their sakes therefore return thou on high.
16 His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.
17 I will praise the LORD accord
8 The LORD shall judge the peo-ing to his righteousness: and will sing a Ps. 18. 20. ple: judge me, O LORD, according praise to the name of the LORD most to thy righteousness, and according to high. mine integrity that is in me.
9 Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; but establish
9.-trieth the hearts and reins.] That is, knoweth intimately the very thoughts and desires of all men. Bp.
11. God judgeth the righteous,] The meaning is, God will maintain the cause the righteous. Dr. Wells. 12. If he turn not, he will whet &c.] If the wicked will not repent, God will whet &c. Dr. Wells. Whet His sword," prepare and speedily execute His judgments upon him. S. Clarke.
10+ My defence is of God, which saveth the upright in heart.
17. 10. & 20.
+ Heb. My
11 | God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked buckler is every day.
upon God. || Or,
God is a
12 If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow, and judge. made it ready.
13 He hath also prepared for him the instruments of death; he ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors.
Is. 59. 4.
14 Behold, he travaileth with ini- c Job 15. 35. quity, and hath conceived mischief, James 1. 15. and brought forth falsehood.
15 † He made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he
Jer. 11. 20. &
God's glory is magnified by his works, and by
his love to man.
Heb. He pit.
hath digged a
d Ps. 9. 15. & 10. 2.
Prov. 5. 22.
15. He made a pit,] This alludes to the method of
4. If I have rewarded &c.] David probably alludes to the circumstance of Saul's life having been twice pre-catching wild beasts in pits covered over slightly with served by him, when he had been pressed by his atten- reeds or small branches of trees. Dr. Shaw. dants to embrace the opportunity of taking it away. See 1 Sam. xxiv. and xxvi. Bp. Horne.
6.- awake for me to the judgment &c.] Inflict that punishment upon mine enemies which Thou hast commanded should be inflicted upon malicious oppressors and persecutors. Dr. Clarke. 7. So shall the congregation· compass thee about:1 So, by seeing justice done to me through Thy special Providence, shall the congregation of the people be induced to resort unto Thee to do them justice. Dr. Wells. 66 Compass Thee about" with praises for Thy goodness to me, and for the manifold blessings they shall enjoy under my government. S. Clarke.
We learn from this Psalm, that the wickedness of the ungodly shall come to an end; that God lets them alone, and bears with them for a time; but if they persist in their wickedness, He prepares for them the punishments they deserve, and will make the evil which they design for others fall upon their own heads. These are powerful motives to induce us to adore the justice of God; to improve by His forbearance and long suffering; and to avoid every thing that may expose us to His vengeance. Ostervald.
- return thou on high.] When God seems to take no notice of the transgressions of men, it is as if He descended from the place of His power and from His judgment-seat; but when He visits and judges their iniquities, He seems to elevate Himself on high, or to return to His judgment-seat. Edwards.
14. Behold, he travaileth &c.] See the folly of these wicked plots and contrivances against my life, which shall all miscarry, and deceive the expectation of this
wicked slanderer. Travell.
Psalm VIII. The scope and meaning of this Psalm seems plainly to be this: to display and celebrate the great love of God to man, not only in his creation, but especially in his redemption by Jesus Christ; whom, as He was man, He advanced to the honour and dominion here mentioned, that He might carry on that great and glorious work. Thus Christ is the principal subject of this Psalm, of whom it is interpreted, both by Christ Himself, Matt. xxi. 16, and by His holy Apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 27; Hebr. ii. 6, 7. Poole.
In a prophetical sense, it is understood of Christ's victory over Satan. Reeves.
This Psalm is suited to the service of the Ascension
day, when we commemorate so signal a proof of the Divine love, as the exaltation of our nature, in the second Adam, to the right hand of the Majesty on high.
God's glory is magnified by his works.
a Matth. 21. 16.
+ Heb. founded.
b Job 7. 17. Ps. 144. 3. Hebr. 2. 6.
c 1 Cor. 15. 27.
oxen all of them.
¶ To the chief Musician upon Git-
LORD, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.
2 a Out of the mouth of babes and
sucklings hast thou tordained strength¶To
3 When I consider thy heavens, the
4 b What is man, that thou art mind-most High.
5 For thou hast made him a little
6 Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet:
7+ All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field;
8 The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.
-upon Gittith,] Some have supposed this expression to denote, that this Psalm was to be sung to a harp which David brought with him from Gath: others, to a musical instrument used at the time of the vintage. Both may be true: the instrument bearing this name might have been used by the people of Gath; and the Jews might have adopted it from them, and afterwards it might have become the favourite instrument amidst the festivity and dances of the vintage. Street.
Ver. 2. Out of the mouth &c.] Thou art pleased to make choice of the meanest and most humble persons, and even very children in age, to sing hosannas to the Son of David, Matt. xxi. 16, to acknowledge Thy power and majesty. And this Thou hast done, that they whose pride makes them resist and despise Thee, may be thus visibly punished; and the power of the devil destroyed. Dr. Hammond.
3-6. When I consider &c.] When, on the one hand, I survey the glorious bodies in the heavens, and compare them with man, I am induced to think degradingly of him, and to wonder why he should be the object of Thy care. When, on the other hand, I consider the rank of being in which Thou at first placedst man, making him but a little below the angels, I correct myself for having made too degrading a comparison of him, and adore Thee for Thy providential care of him at present, and for the dignity to which Thou didst advance him, when Thou madest him the head of the visible creation. Green.
9 O LORD our Lord, how excellent
1 David praiseth God for executing of judg
David praiseth God.
the chief Musician upon Muthlabben, A Psalm of David. WILL praise thee, O LORD, with
all thy marvellous works.
2 I will be glad and rejoice in thee: I will sing praise to thy name, O thou
mindful of Thee: since Thou hast shewed Thy mercy in visiting and redeeming us, never let us shew ourselves unthankful for this Thy visitation and redemption. Suffer us not to abuse Thy creatures which Thou hast given us for food, nor Thy gifts bestowed for clothing, nor wantonly and cruelly to make use of our dominion. But give us grace so highly to esteem Thy rich mercies, and with such temperance and sobriety to use Thy creatures, that Thy name thereby may still be more magnified, Thy bounty exalted, Thy providence more declared, Thy honour enlarged, Thy person glorified, and our souls at last saved by the merits of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Bp. Nicholson.
Psalm IX. This Psalm consists of two parts; a thanksgiving, and a prayer. Upon what particular occasion it was composed, is not known; probably, to celebrate the victories gained by David over the neighbouring nations, after God had exalted him to be king in Zion. Bp. Horne.
This and the two following are the proper Psalms appointed for the fast service on the thirtieth of January.
-Muth-labben,] Some suppose Labben to be the name of a prince or chief in the enemy's army; and Muth-labben to mean "the death of Labben," in celebration of which this Psalm may have been composed. Dimock. Or it may be the title of a tune or instrument. S. Clarke.
Ver. 3. When mine enemies &c.] Rather, It was Thou who madest my enemies turn their backs, and through the dread of Thee they fell and were destroyed. Bp. Patrick.
6. O thou enemy, &c.] As for the enemy, they are utterly destroyed; they are become everlasting deso
He inciteth others
a Ps. 96. 13. & 98. 9.
b Ps. 37. 39.
& 46. 1. &
+ Heb. an
e Gen. 9. 5.
| Or, #flicted.
7 But the LORD shall endure for | is snared in the work of his own hands.
17 The wicked shall be turned into
8 And he shall judge the world in
18 For the needy shall not alway
19 Arise, O LORD; let not man prevail: let the heathen be judged in thy sight.
20 Put them in fear, O LORD: that the nations may know themselves to be but men. Selah.
Ps. 7. 16,
10 And they that know thy name will put their trust in thee: for thou, LORD, hast not forsaken them that seek thee.
11 Sing praises to the LORD, which dwelleth in Zion: declare among the people his doings.
12 When he maketh inquisition for blood, he remembereth them: he forgetteth not the cry of the || humble.
13 Have mercy upon me, O LORD; consider my trouble which I suffer of them that hate me, thou that liftest me up from the gates of death:
14 That I may shew forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion: I will rejoice in thy sal
15 The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot
16 The LORD is known by the judgment which he executeth: the wicked
17.-into hell,] By the word "hell" in this place is meant the region of the dead; and the Psalmist seems to foretell that the wicked will descend to the grave by some great and signal overthrow. Mudge, Edwards.
The Psalmist here teaches us, that God will reign for ever, and will judge the world with righteousness; that He will render to the wicked according to their works; that all those who forget Him shall perish; that He will not suffer the wicked always to prevail; that He
to praise God.
1 David complaineth to God of the outrage of
WHY standest thou afar off, O
LORD? why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?
+ Heb. In the
2 + The wicked in his pride doth pride of the persecute the poor: alet them be taken wicked he in the devices that they have ima- secule. gined.
a Ps. 7. 16. & 9. 16. Prov. 5. 22.
+ Heb. soul's.
Or, the blesseth him
3 For the wicked boasteth of his + heart's desire, and blesseth the covetous, whom the LORD abhorreth. 4 The wicked, through the pride of abhorreth the his countenance, will not seek after 11or, all his God: God is not in all his thoughts. thoughts are, 5 His ways are always grievous; God. thy judgments are far above out of his 3.1. 14. 1. &
There is no
never forsakes those that seek Him; and that the expectation of the sorrowful shall not be in vain. These are feelings which we should always retain, which should fill us with trust in His name, and strongly engage us to fear Him. Ostervald.
Psalm X. Some have supposed this Psalm to have been occasioned by foreign enemies making inroads into the country; and others by domestick ones in the court of Saul. Mudge, Rosenmüller.
Ver. 2. the poor:] This word here means, the humble, the afflicted, and helpless. Bp. Wilson.
3. For the wicked boasteth &c.] The first part of this verse points out that alarming symptom of a reprobate mind, a disposition to exult and glory in those lusts which are the shame and disgrace of human nature, whether the world or the flesh be their object. The latter clause is differently rendered, as implying either that "the wicked blesseth the covetous, whom God abhorreth," or that "the wicked, being covetous, or oppressive, blesseth himself, and abhorreth the Lord." Either way, an oppressing, griping, worldly spirit is characterized, with its direct opposition to the Spirit of God, which teaches that sin is to be confessed with shame and sorrow; that in God alone man is to make his boast; and that it is more blessed to give than to receive. Bp. Horne.
5. His ways are always grievous; &c.] That is, always troublesome and injurious to all about him. S.
David complaineth to God
6 He hath said in his heart, I shall not be moved: for I shall † never be and genera- in adversity.
7 © His mouth is full of cursing and + deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief and vanity.
8 He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages: in the secret places doth he murder the innocent: his + Heb. hide eyes are privily set against the
+ Heb. unto generation
c Rom. 3. 14.
|| Or, iniquity.
+ Heb. in the secret places.
of the outrage of the wicked. sight: as for all his enemies, he puff-|+ committeth himself unto thee; thou Heb. eth at them. art the helper of the fatherless. 15 Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil man: seek out his wickedness till thou find none.
9 He lieth in wait + secretly as a lion in his den: he lieth in wait to catch the poor: he doth catch the poor, when he draweth him into hist
12 Arise, O LORD; O God, lift up thine hand: forget not the || humble. 13 Wherefore doth the wicked contemn God? he hath said in his heart, Thou wilt not require it.
14 Thou hast seen it; for thou beholdest mischief and spite, to requite it with thy hand: the poor
Clarke. As for God's laws and judgments, he never lays them to heart; and he despises and contemns all his opposers. Dr. Hammond.
10. He croucheth, &c.] He will meanly crouch and counterfeit any thing that will serve his purpose; so that the helpless may fall into his power. Travell.
12.- the humble.] Or rather, "the afflicted," as in the margin. Street.
13. Thou wilt not require it.] The wicked concludes from God's patience, that He will never punish him. Bp. Patrick.
15. Break thou &c.] This may be either a prayer, or a prediction, implying that the time will come, when the power of Jehovah will dash in pieces that of the enemy, by the demolition either of sin or the sinner, until wickedness be come utterly to an end, and righteousness be established for ever in the kingdom of the Messiah. Bp. Horne.
18. To judge the fatherless &c.] Thy gracious assistance shall assert the right of those who are helpless and oppressed; so that their insolent persecutors, whose sordid minds cling entirely to this world, may be prevented from doing them further mischief. Travell.
We may learn from this Psalm, 1st, That to behold the righteous cause oppressed, and good men seemingly deserted by Heaven, is apt to offend the weak, and oftentimes stagger those who are strong. 2dly, That prosperity begets presumption in the wicked; and he, who has been long accustomed to see his designs succeed, begins to think it impossible they should ever do otherwise. The longsuffering of God, instead of leading such an one to repentance, only hardens him in his
16 The LORD is King for ever e and ever: the heathen are perished out of his land.
17 LORD, thou hast heard the desire of the humble: thou wilt || pre- Or, pare their heart, thou wilt cause thine ear to hear:
18 To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the man of the earth may no more || oppress.
Ps. 29. 10. 146. 10.
& 145. 13. &
Jer. 10. 10.
N the LORD put I my trust: how say ye to my soul, as a bird to your mountain?
| Or, terrify.
1 David encourageth himself in God against his enemies. 4 The providence and justice of God.
To the chief Musician, A Psalm of about 1060. David.
2 For, lo, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow upon the string, that they may † pri- Heb. in vily shoot at the upright in heart.
3 If the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do?
4 The LORD is in his holy temple, a Hab. 2. 20.
iniquity. 3dly, That though" the wicked saith in his heart, Thou wilt not require it," the faithful know assuredly, that God beholds all that travail and vexation which some inflict, and others sustain, upon the earth; and that He will infallibly recompense to the former their deeds, to the latter their sufferings. Bp. Horne.
Psalm XI. This Psalm seems to have been composed by David, when, in order to avoid the evil designs of Saul, his friends advised him to flee to the mountainous parts of Judea. Edwards.
In the first verse David expostulates with his friends for advising him to fly to the mountainous parts of Judea, as the only safe retreat from Saul. In the second and third verses, he subjoins the reasons which his friends assigned for their advice. In the four last, he replies to the advice of his friends, telling them that the God of heaven, who searcheth the heart, would protect the innocent. Green.
Ver. 3. If the foundations be destroyed, &c.] When the fundamental laws of the land, such as stipulate protection to the subject, are subverted by the prince, who ought to be the guardian of them, what has the persecuted subject to trust to? or what can he do, but, as in a state of nature, fly to the fastnesses of the mountains for security? Green. Had David been guilty of any crime, he ought to have had a fair trial by the laws: but Saul tried to assassinate him, contrary to justice, and to the fundamental law of all nations. Dr. Kennicott.
4. The Lord is in his holy temple, &c.] The meaning is, that the Lord is the supreme and righteous Ruler of all affairs; that He knows the most secret designs
He craveth help of God.
PSALMS. He complaineth of delay in help. the LORD's throne is in heaven: his ing lips, and the tongue that speaketh eyes behold, his eyelids try, the chil-+ proud things: dren of men. 4 Who have said, With our tongue will we prevail; our lips are our + Heb. are own: who is lord over us?
5 The LORD trieth the righteous: but the wicked and him that loveth violence his soul hateth.
6 Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and ||an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup.
5 For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, saith the LORD; I will set him in safety from him that || puffeth | Or, would at him.
7 For the righteous LORD loveth righteousness; his countenance doth behold the upright.
Or, a burning
| Or, upon the eighth.
↑ Heb. an heart and an
1 David, destitute of human comfort, craveth
¶ To the chief Musician || upon She-
lips and with † a double heart do they
HOW long wilt thou forget me,
3 The LORD shall cut off all flatter- wilt thou hide thy face from me?
of men, and can disappoint them. Bp. Patrick, Dr. Wells.
6.- snares,] Or, "burning coals." Bp. Horne. By this word, live coals, or simply the lightning, seems to be understood. Bp. Lowth.
-fire and brimstone,] These terms are evidently borrowed from the history of Sodom and Gomorrah. St. John also, at the conclusion of his prophecy, Rev. xx, describing the destruction of the ungodly, refers to the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, which, as St. Jude informs us, "are set forth for an example," or figure," suffering the vengeance of eternal fire," Jude ver. 7. Bp. Horne. They mean dreadful judgments in this world, and eternal vengeance in the world to come. S. Clarke.
-the portion of their cup.] It being the custom, in old times, to set before each guest a certain portion of liquor for his share; it is very common in Scripture to describe the different allotments which the providence of God dispenses to good and bad men, by the image of a cup. Travell.
This Psalm furnishes us with an example of the confidence which the righteous have in the Lord their God, who is their sure refuge, even when they are in the most deplorable condition, and know not what will become of them. It also teaches us, that God has His throne in the heavens; that He sees and knows both the good and the wicked; that His soul hates those that love unrighteousness; that He will cause the fire of His vengeance to fall upon them; and, as He is perfectly just Himself, He loves justice above all things, and always favours the upright. Ostervald.
Psalm XII. This Psalm is a complaint of the corrupt manners of that age, especially, as is probable, of the court of Saul; so that it was hard to find an honest
6 The words of the LORD are pure words: a as silver tried in a fur- 2 Sam. 22. nace of earth, purified seven times. Ps. 18. 30. 7 Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve † them from this generation for ever.
& 119. 140.
Prov. 30. 5.
that is, every
one of them.
8 The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men are exalted.
+ Heb. great things.
David complaineth of delay in help. 3 He
5 He boast
prayeth for preventing grace.
+ Heb. the vilest of the sons of men are exalted.
¶ To the || chief Musician, A Psalm | Or,
plain-dealing man, in whom one might confide. Bp. Patrick.
It was probably written on the occasion of Saul's evil administration, and the persecution of David and other good men. S. Clarke. vi.
Sheminith,] See the note on the title to Psal Ver. 2. They speak vanity] Or falsehood. Mudge. 4. Who have said, &c.] Who have said, We will prevail by false accusations, we are not afraid to speak or affirm what we please; for who can call us to account for what we say, however false it may be? Dr. Wells.
6. The words of the Lord are pure words ] The promises which God hath made to me and His people have no deceit in them, but shall certainly be fulfilled in their season. S. Clarke.
7.- from this generation] From this kind of scornful oppressors. S. Clarke.
8. The wicked walk &c.] It must needs be, that wicked men should abound every where, when the worst men are exalted, and preferred to places of honour and command. Bp. Hall. The vile men, whom David here complains of as advanced to power, were probably his persecutors in the days of Saul, such as Doeg, Cush, &c. Green.
For the consolation of the afflicted and poor in spirit, God hath promised in this Psalm, to "arise, and set them in safety," or place them in a state of salvation. Such all along has been His promise to the Church, which, by looking back to the deliverances wrought of old for the servants of God, is now encouraged to look forward and expect her final redemption from the scorn and insolence of infidelity. Bp. Horne.
Psalm XIII. In this Psalm David, being in danger from his enemy, entreats the Lord to deliver him, and rejoices in hopes of his salvation. Green.