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ERRATA.

Page 68.--For Purņas'ubhakaran, read Purņas'ubhakaraní.
Page 320.—In line 21, and also line 26, in place of No. X., read No. IX.

INTRODUCTION.

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ALIKE as to limits and as to influence, the Indian kingdoms of former times were, with few exceptions, inconsiderable; such of them as lay conterminous were often at open feud; and their cities, or fortified towns, constituted, in fact, their only stable boundaries. It was, probably, with the dominion of the Kâśis as it was with other seats of Hindu power. Deriving its origin from some city, as Pratishthâna,' or Vârâņasî,” it must have acquired extent and consideration by very gradual development.

At least since a hundred and twenty years before our era, Vârâņasî, as denoting a city, has been a name

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Vide infra, p. xxv., note 1. ? Also called Varâņasî and Varaņasî, according to the Haima-kośa and the Sabdaratnávali, respectively. The latter of these vocabularies is of small authority.

A rational system of Romanized spelling would give us, instead of Benares, Banâras. The form agite was the work, perhaps, of the Muhammadans. It should appear that the inetathesis of r and ?, in the original word, must be later than the times of Fă Hian and Hiouen Thsang.

Vide infra, p. xxviii., notes 1 and 2. In the ordinary belief of the vulgar of Benares, the name of their city is connected with Raja Banâr,-a mythical magnate, of whom mention is associated with that of the reformer Kabîr, of the beginning of the fifteenth century. Asiatic Researches, Vol. XVI., p. 57. “According to some of the Muhammadan accounts,” says Mr. James

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