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A short distance to the north of Kásí-deví is the temple of Bhút-Bhairo or, more properly, Vishama-Bhairava; the former being the vulgar designation which the idol bears. Bhút means a demon; and Bhairo is the deified magistrate of Benares; so that the idea is, that the god Bhairo delivers his worshippers from demons and other infernal beings. The idol is dignified with a moustache, the ends of which are curved after the most approved fashion; but it is, nevertheless, an ugly object. The head and part of the neck are alone visible, the remainder of the person being hidden by an apron which reaches above the head. The court in which this temple stands contains several other shrines, all which bear the marks of age upon them. Several of those curious blocks of stone found in various parts of Benares, -to which allusion has been made in a previous chapter,—of pyramidal shape, and presenting, on their surface, rude carvings of small temples, are lying about the enclosure. I counted as many as seven; and it is likely there are others. They are in various positions; several being erect, whilst some are standing out of the perpendicular, or are lying prostrate on the ground. There is no other place in Benares, I believe, which contains such an assemblage of these remarkable stones. On one side of the courtyard is a large emblem of S'iva, about which the following singular story is told. It is said, that, about six or seven years ago, a tree fell down at this place, and, on the spot where the trunk had stood, the emblem was found in the position in which it is now seen. The figure looks old; and it is not unlikely, that, in

the youth of the tree, it was inserted in the earth immediately at its base, and that, as the tree grew, it gradually enveloped the stone, which, being large and strongly fixed in the ground, was not expelled, but, on the contrary, became more firmly set by the lateral pressure of the tree. This explanation is strengthened by the supposition that the tree was the sacred peepul, the trunk of which is so strangely corrugated, as often to appear to consist of a multitude of small trees united together. Preparations were made for erecting a temple around this sacred stone; but the person who had undertaken the task died before much progress had been made in the work. Fragments of carved stones are lying about, which were, doubtless, originally destined for the new temple : but there is now little chance of its ever being raised; as no Hindu likes to prosecute an enterprise begun by another man, inasmuch as, when completed, he believes that all the merit resulting from it will go to such person and not to himself.

In the Ausánganj Mahalla is the well-known fane of Bará Gaņeś, or the Great Gaņeś. An alley branches off from the main road, and conducts to this temple. At an angle of the alley is a low shrine, dedicated to Jagannath, containing three figures, of horrible ugli

On the right is Jagannath; on the left is his brother Balbhadra; and, in the middle, is their sister Subhadrá. The two former have arms, but no hands or feet; while the latter is destitute of arms, as well as of feet. These large-mouthed, goggle-eyed, round-faced deities are equal in frightfulness to some of the idols

ness.

made and worshipped by the savages of the Fiji Islands in the South Seas. In another place, in a corner of this alley, are two Satís, that is to say, two figures of women, in bass-relief, placed upon a square pedestal, in commemoration of the cremation of widows on the funeral pile of their husbands at this spot. In addition to the Satís, there are two other objects of interest placed upon the pedestal. One is a bass-relief sculpture of a small figure, much worn by time. The other presents, in a small compass, most elaborate chiselling; the design illustrated being of a complicated character. There is a central figure, in an erect posture, but headless; and, in the back-ground, a nimbus surrounds the space formerly occupied by the head. On either side are several other figures, but of smaller stature, and also a column, with a capital, on the summit of which is a diminutive statue of a man. Between the columns, but raised above them, in a line with the central object beneath, is, likewise, another small statue of a man. Altogether, this delicate piece of statuary exhibits ten human figures, besides various other objects, all which are defined with considerable nicety. It is not easy to comprehend the general design which the sculptor had before his mind, or to furnish a satisfactory account of this work of art. It is, certainly, far superior to modern productions of Hindu art; and I suspect it is not, properly, of Hindu origin at all.

The towers of two temples are seen rising high above the Satís; and in the adjoining enclosure stands the temple of Bará Gaņeś. The quadrangle is open to the sky; but it has a covered verandah,

supported on pillars, running round the four walls, on their inner side, opposite to the temple, in the centre. In the midst of the temple is a large idol of Gaņeś, the elephant-headed god, with silver hands and feet. The head is decorated with a gilded nimbus. Inside the temple, four bells are suspended; and immediately over the doorway, and in front of the idol, three small mirrors are placed, the object of which, possibly, is to produced a threefold image or reflexion of the idol ; for even a reflexion of a god is accounted a sacred object, and worthy of veneration. On either side of the threshold, leading into the temple, is another idol of Gaņeś; but both are well worn, and, evidently, many centuries old. The present temple was erected only some twenty-four years ago; but the priests say that these two figures have always existed here. The extensive verandah of the quadrangle contains several other figures of Gaņeś, of, apparently, as great antiquity as those just described.

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CHAPTER IX.

The Pisách-Mochan Tank. Legend of the goblin Pisách. The

Festival of Lotá-Bhantá, or the Egg-plant.- The Gháts and Temple of Pisách-Mochan.-Súraj-Kund or Tank of the Sun.—The Hom or Burnt Sacrifice.--The god Ashtáng-Bhairo. —Temple of Dhruveswar or the Pole Star.

In the outskirts of the city, on its western side, is a large square tank or reservoir, called Pisách-Mochan, built in a regular manner, with gháts or stone stairs leading down to the water. On the bank, towards the road, are several temples, containing a great many images of various deities. Pisach-Mochan is a noted place of pilgrimage among the Hindus. All pilgrims coming to Benares must visit it; and all the residents in the city must bathe in its waters at least once a year. These waters are considered to have a peculiar efficacy in ensuring deliverance from the power of demons and all kinds of evil spirits, in preventing horrible dreams, or destroying their bad effect, and in removing sickness. The word Piśách means ghoul or bad spirit, and Mochan, release or deliverance. The history of this sacred place is said to be as follows. On one occasion, a very powerful demon had the temerity to approach the holy enclosure in which Benares is situated. He was, however, stopped, at the Panchkosí road, by the deities stationed there. But, although they contended bravely with him, yet, being

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