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2. Definition. Industry is a diligent application to any object.

Judgment. - Every one should laboriously pursue his business ; since, by that means, our endeavours are generally crowned with success,

3. Definition. - Temperance is the proper restraint of our passions and appetites.

Judgment. — Every man should avoid excesses, as they disarrange both mind and body.

4. Definition. Piety is reverence of God and affection for parents and relatives.

Judgment. - It connects preparation for heaven, with the comfortable and honourable discharge of those obligations implanted in us by Providence.

5. Definition. Virtue, doing our duty to our neighbour in opposition to all temptations to the contrary.

Judgment. — Every one should carefully follow the path of duty, since it is productive of so much inward satisfaction and happiness.

6. Definition. - Friendship is an affectionate union of two persons, of nearly the same situation in life, and the same sentiments.

Judgment. - Since our joys are so increased, and our sorrows so much abated when shared by a sincere friend, it is no wonder that we find few people of sentiment without


7. Definition. - Charity is a practical solicitude for the welfare of others.

Judgment. - This is one of the most important and extensive of the Christian Graces, and affords to the mind the highest comfort.

8. Definition. Courage, that state of mind which can view danger without alarm.

Judgment. — Some degree of courage is absolutely necessary for every man to be virtuous.

9. Definition.Perseverance is a continued application with a view to success.

Judgment. However slowly we may progress in an undertaking, we should never give it up, remembering that every little done, brings us nearer its completion.

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1. Definition. Truth, An adherence to reality.

Judgment. — Truth is important both to the narrator and hearer.

2. Definition. Falsehood, A departure from reality.

Judgment. Prejudicial both to general and individual interests.

3. Definition. Sloth, Sluggishness of mind and body.

Judgment. — Prejudicial to health, and every kind of business.

4. Definition. Cleanliness, Bodily purity.
Judgment. — Contributes to health and comfort.
5. Definition. —Humility, A low estimate of one's self.
Judgment. -A good incentive to real advancement.

6. Definition. Envy, A mean depreciation of another's merits.

Judgment. - The source of constant irritation and annoy


7. Definition. Resentment, The union of anger and revenge.

Judgment. -A disposition utterly at variance with the Christian injunction of Forgiveness.

8. Definition. Order, The methodical arrangement of things.

Judgment. Most contributive to comfort and despatch.

9. Definition. Happiness, That state of mind and body harmonising with God's appointed course for producing agreeable sensations.

Judgment. — That state to which every individual ought to aspire, as the best appointed by our Creator.

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39. EXERCISES. — 1. A long sentence divided into five smaller ones.

a. In the volumes of sacred history there is an impartiality of narrative, which is an undoubted characteristic of truth. 6. If we read the lives of Plutarch, or the history by Livy, we soon discover that these writers composed their works under the influence of many prejudices in favour of their respective countries.-C. A veil is thrown over the defects of their heroes, but their virtues are placed in a strong light, and painted in vivid colours.-d. In the Scriptures, on the contrary, both of the Old and the New Testament, the strictest impartiality prevails. - e. The vices of David, Solomon, and their successors, are neither concealed nor palliated.

2. The following sentences are rendered uniform according to Rule 7, No. 38.

1. Active verbs. — We place the works of Pagan writers in their proper situation, and give them an additional value by making them subservient to the cause of religion, and the illustration of divine truth.

2. Passive construction. - In the Holy Scriptures the characters of persons are faithfully sketched, and the effects of the passions are represented without reserve or conceal


3. Active construction. The art of writing preserves the memorials of truth, and imparts an accurate knowledge of its records to successive generations.

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40. EXERCISES. The sentences arranged into four distinct paragraphs.

1. When Socrates was asked why he had built for himself so small a house, “ Small as it is,” he replied, “I wish I could fill it with friends.” These, indeed, are all that a wise man would desire to assemble ; for a crowd is not company, faces are but a gallery of pictures, and talk but a tinkling cymbal where there is no love.

2. It is related of Pythagoras, an eminent philosopher of antiquity, that before he would admit any one as a pupil into his school, he was accustomed to inquire, who were his associates; justly concluding, that those who would keep bad company would not be much profited by his instructions.

3. When any of his courtiers attempted to inflame Antoninus Pius with a passion for military glory, he would answer, that he more desired the preservation of one subject than the destruction of a thousand enemies.

4. Every man is fastened to some spot of earth, by the thousand small threads that habit and association are con. tinually binding over him. When the Canadian Indians were once solicited to emigrate, “What !” they replied, “shall we say to the bones of our fathers, arise and go with us into a foreign land ? ”

b. Sentences arranged into three distinct paragraphs.

1. Optics. This is a beautiful and interesting branch of science, for it relates to the properties of light, which is the most rapid, subtile, divisible of all bodies ; and to the structure of the eye, the most wonderful organ of the human frame. Optics explains the manner in which vision is effected, assigns the reasons of the several alterations which the rays of light undergo in the eye, and shows by what causes objects appear at different times greater or smaller, more

distinct or confused, nearer or more remote. In this extensive signification, the science is considered by Sir Isaac Newton in his work on this subject.

2. Optics is commonly divided into two parts : Dioptrics, under which term is included whatever relates to the appearance of bodies seen through transparent substances, as fish in water; and Catoptrics, from a Greek word, signifying a looking-glass, which relates to seeing bodies by reflected light. To these may be added a third, which treats of the causes and varieties of colours, observable in all bodies.

3. The more the properties of light are investigated, the more astonishing they appear. A succession of the particles, following each other in a straight line, is called a ray of light ; and this ray, in whatever manner its direction may be changed, whether by refraction, reflection, or inflection, always preserves a rectilinear course till it be again changed ; neither is it possible to make it move in the arc of a circle, ellipsis, or other curve. As a proof of this we cannot see objects through a crooked tube.

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