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the combination of springs, spiral wires, and ringlets ; but to the clearing-up of the problem, there would not be denied the praise of finding it out and of successful thought.

4.- 1. By breathing, by flame, or by decay, air is rendered unfit for the support of animal life.

2. By the constant working of these defiling principles, the whole atmosphere, if there were no restoring causes, would at length be stripped of its necessary degree of purity.

3. Some of these causes seem to have been discovered. 4. Vegetation proves to be one of them.

5. A plant may purify what an animal may have poisoned ; in return, the defiled air is more than ordinarily nourishing for the plant.

5. - 1. The tastelessness of water forms one of those negative qualities which make up its purity.

2. Having no taste of its own, it becomes the real bearer of

cyery other.

3. Had there been a taste in water, it would have tainted everything we ate or drank, with an importunate renewal of the same flavour.

- p. 36.

LESSON 22. 54. Rule 9. EXERCISES. The sentences recast.

1. b. If the advantages of this world were innocently gained, they are still uncertain blessings.

c. We may indeed innocently gain the advantages of this world ; but even then they are uncertain blessings.

d. The blessings which we derive from the advantages of this world, are not secure, even when they are innocently gained.

2. b. Speculative ideas of general benevolence do not constitute the virtue of charity; for these often float in the head, and leave the heart untouched and cold.

c. Speculations which leave the heart unaffected and cold, though they may consist of general benevolence floating in the head, do not form the great virtue of charity.

d. Universal benevolence to mankind, when it rests in the abstract, does not constitute the noble virtue of charity. It is then a loose indetermined idea, rather than a principle of real effect; and floats as a useless speculation in the head, instead of affecting the temper and the heart.

3. b. Education produces the same change on the human mind as sculpture does on a block of marble.

c. The transformation effected by sculpture on a block of marble corresponds to what is produced by education on the human mind.

4. b. We may often afford relief to others though unable to give pecuniary aid, by imparting to them what we feel.

c. We may often afford relief by imparting our sympathy to others, when we are unable to bestow anything else.

5. 6. The pious son shall have the blessing of long life, and he who is obedient to the Lord, shall prove a comfort to his mother.

c. Long life is promised to the son that honours his father, and joy to the mother whose son is guided by the law of the Lord.

6. b. My son, saccour thy father in his old age, and cause him no grief as long as he lives.

c. My son, to thy father be a constant support; and secure his approbation in all thy actions.

7.6. Distinction cannot be obtained by desultory efforts, or by the mere study of a few years.

c. Continuous application and systematic study, are necessary to secure a high position.




LESSON 23.- p. 37. 56. The clauses properly arranged, and the construction improved without altering the sense.

1. EXERCISES. - The Helvetii, moved by the want of

everything, sent ambassadors to Cæsar concerning a surrender. These having met him on the way, addressed him with great humility, and with tears besought peace. Cæsar ordered them to wait for his arrival in that place in which they were; they obeyed. After Cæsar had come there, he demanded hostages, arms, and those slaves who had fled to them. Whilst they were occupied in seeking for these and bringing them to the appointed place, about 6000 men of the canton called Verbigenus, night intervening (either actuated from fear lest their arms, having been given up, they should undergo severe punishment, or, induced by the hopes of safety, because, in such a multitude of surrenderers, they thought that their flight would either be concealed or altogether overlooked), departed at midnight from the camp of the Helvetii and escaped to the Rhine on the confines of Germany.

2. At the same time as messages were brought to Cæsar, ambassadors came from the Ædui and Trevěri. The Ædui complained that the Harudes, who had lately come into Gaul, were laying waste their country; and that although hostages had been given, they were unable to purchase peace from Ariovistus. The Trevěri stated that 100 cantons of the Sucvi had settled on the banks of the Rhine, and that under the command of Iwo brothers, Nasma and Cimberius, they were endeavouring to cross the Rhine. Cæsar being much alarmed at these things, thought that by all means he should hasten to prevent a junction of these new troops of the Suevi with the old forces of Ariovistus, lest the combination should prove too powerful. Therefore, having hastily procured a supply of corn, he advanced by rapid marches against Ariovistus.

3. This thing being determined upon, they departed from the camp about the second watch, with great noise and tumult, and in no fixed order or discipline, since each individual sought the first place for himself, and hastened to arrive home, so that their departure seemed very much like to a flight. Cæsar, having been quickly informed of this thing by means of scouts, and, fearing some treachery, because he had not perceived why they should depart, restrained his army and cavalry within his camp. However, at dawn of day, the figlit having been certified by the scouts, he sends forward all his cavalry to harass the enemies' rear. Over these he appointed Quintus Pedius, and Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta. He ordered Titus Labienus to follow with three legions. These having pursued the fugitives for many miles, slew a great number of them. But when our soldiers came up to the rear of the main body, these faced about; and, bravely resisting the attack of our men, maintained their ground. The troops, however, in advance, thinking themselves at too great a distance from immediate attack, and not being held under any discipline, when they heard a clamour behind, broke rank, and placed their safety in flight.

LESSON 24. p. 39

Transposition continued. 57. The clauses properly arranged, and the construction improved.

1. The German war having been finished, Cæsar, for many reasons, determined to cross the Rhine; more especially since he saw that the Germans were so easily induced to come into Gaul. He wished, too, that when they perceived that the Roman army both could and would cross the Rhine, they should be made to fear for their own affairs. In addition to this, a portion of the cavalry of the Usipētes and Tenchthëri had not been present in the recent conflict, having crossed the Meuse for the sake of plunder and forage; but, after the flight of their countrymen, having crossed the Rhine, had now betaken themselves into the territory of the Sigambri, with whom they had formed an alliance. When Cæsar sent messengers to the Sigambri demanding the surrender of those men who had brought war both upon him and Gaul, the following reply was given:- “ The Rhine terminated the empire of the Roman people. Therefore, if Cæsar thought it


improper that the Germans should pass into Gaul against his will, why should he demand for himself any power or authority beyond the Rhine?” The Ubii were the only inhabitants residing across the Rhine who had sent ambassadors to Cæsar, giving hostages and forming an alliance. These earnestly entreated him to render them assistance, because they were very sorely oppressed by the Suevi. Should, however, his public occupations prevent him from doing this, essential service would be rendered them, both now and in future, were he only to transport his army across the Rhine, so high was the opinion entertained both of himself and his army, even among the farthest nations of the Germans, both from the defeat of Ariovistus and from his recent victory, that they should feel themselves safe in the friendship of the Roman people. They promised a large number of vessels for transporting the army.

2. The following is the mode of fighting from the chariots: - At first, they ride round in every direction casting their darts, and, by the alarm which they excite among the horses of their foes, and by the noise of the wheels, they generally throw all ranks into confusion. When they have insinuated themselves among the enemy's cavalry, the warriors leaping from their chariots, fight on foot. In the mean time, the drivers, by degrees, leave the thick of the battle, and so stand in their chariots, that should their masters be oppressed by the multitude of the enemy, they have à ready access to their friends. Thus, in their battles, they exhibit the rapidity of cavalry and the firmness of infantry. By daily use and exercise, they are enabled to rein in their horses at full speed, even in steep and precipitous places, and govern and turn them within a very short space. They are also accustomed to stand on the yoke, run along the beam, and to betake themselves thence into the chariot with amazing rapidity.

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