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he is represented as victorious over the dragon-power of temptation. No doubt, this circumstance contributed to spread and confirm his reputation ; and he is immortalized in the English language (having long before been adopted by English piety and chivalry) by Spenser, as the Red-Cross Knight, the chief champion of the divine Una, the indi. visible church.

St. George is the patron saint of Portugal, Georgia, Genoa, Greece, &c.; but England especially claims him, and connects his Red Cross with her glories. Antonius Macedo, in a work whose strange title is · De Diis Tutelaribus Orbis Christiani,' * quoted by Fabricius in Bibliograph. Antiquar. p. 264. says, “The general patrons of England are St. Mary and St. Peter; but in military matters, St. George.The latter is now, however, regarded as principal patron. The order of St. George of the Garter, at Windsor, instituted by Edward III., is the most noble Order of Earope. Richard I. had some intention of founding this Order. During a tedious siege, it occurred to him (by the suggestion of St. George, as was the opinion,) to institute an Order of select knights, who should wear on their legs a leather strap, such as he then held in his hand, in imitation of the Romans, who, by crowns and other marks of distinction, stirred up, and, as it were, caused to leap, the fervid bravery of the heart in their soldiers. The following epigram was written by Callicles, or by Cyrus Theodorus, upon a statue of St. George :

Παίς 'Αβραάμ ο μάρτυς ούτος έκ λιθών-
Πλήν εί τι σαρκός είχεν ήμυθρωμένον,
'Εχιονώθη τούτο, λευκών ευρέθη,
Μαρτυρικούς δρώσιν εκπεπλομέιον. .

The See note 6. infra.

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66 Think it not marble, stranger; 'tis a son

Of Abraham's race, a life-blood pourished one,
Whose reddening flesh is blanch'd as white as snow,
Steep'd in the precious drops that from a martyr flow."

The following Iambics are prefixed to the commemoration of St. George, in the Greek Ritual :

'Εχθρούς ο τέμι ων Γεωργίος έν μαχαίς

'Eκών παρ' εχθρών τεμνέται διά ξίφους. *Ηρε Γεωργίον είκάδι τριτάτη αυχενα χαλκός “George, who in battle cut his enemies to pieces, was himself, unresistingly, by his foes cut to pieces by the sword. George was beheaded on the twenty-third.”

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The following prayers are addressed to St. George, in the Greek Ritual :-Ως των αιχμαλωτών ελευθερώτης, και των πτωχών υπεράσπιστης, ασθενούντων ιατρός, βασιλέων υπερμάχε, Τροπαιοφορε, μεγαλόμαρτυς Γεώργιε, πρέσβευε Χριστώ τω Θεώ σωθήναι τάς ψύχας fpwr.-"O mighty martyr George ! Trophy-bearer! Thou who art the rescuer of warriors, the guardian of the poor, the physician of the sick, the champion of kings; be our mediator with Christ the God, that our souls may be saved !" In the Collects of the Roman office for April 23 :-“ Deus, qui nos beati Georgii martyris tui meritis et intercessione lætificas, concede propitius ut qui tua per eum beneficia poscimus, dono tuæ gratiæ consequamur per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum.”—“O God, who, by the merits and intercession of St. George thy blessed martyr, dost rejoice our souls, grant, we beseech thee, that those benefits which by him we crave, we may by the gift of thy grace obtain, through Jesus Christ our Lord.” After the offering :“Munera, Domine, oblata sanctifica, et, intercedente beato Georgio martyre tuo, nos per hoc a peccatorum nostrum

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maculis emunda, per J. C. D. N.”—“Sanctify, O Lord, these gifts of oblation; and, by the intercession of the blessed George the martyr, cleanse us thereby from the contamination of our sins, through Jesus Christ our Lord.” At the Post-Communion :-“Supplices te rogamus, omnipotens Deus, ut quos tuis reficis sacramentis, intercedente beato Georgio martyre tuo, tibi etiam placitis moribus dignanter tribuas deservire, per D. N. J. C.”—“ Almighty God, we humbly beseech thee to grant that we, who are refreshed by thy holy sacraments, may, by the intercession of thy blessed martyr Saint George, worthily serve thee in all ways of living well-pleasing unto thee, through Jesus Christ our Lord.” (The Gospel is St. John xv. Ego sum vitis vera,” &c.; the Epistle, 2 Tim. iii. “Thou hast known my doctrine, manner of life, purpose,” &c.) Collect from Sarum Missal: . “Offerimus tibi, Domine, solemne sacrificium pro veneranda S. Georgii martyris tui passione, deprecantes clementiam tuam, ut per hæc S. S. mysteria, antiqui hostis teutamina, te triumphante, vincamus, et æternæ remunerationis te largiente sequamur, per, &c."-.-“We offer unto thee, O Lord, the solemn sacrifice (of praise and thanksgiving) for the venerated passion of Saint George the martyr; earnestly beseeching thy clemency, that, through these most holy mysteries, we, by thee made to triumph, may subdue the temptations of our old enemy, and of thy gift may obtain the eternal recompense of reward."

Page 537. note 1. Henry VII., in his will, mentions a piece of the true cross, and a leg of St. George. They were given to him by the Cardinal d'Amboise, and had been originally brought from Milan. He bequeaths them to his

Chapel in Westminster Abbey. They were probably destroyed at the Reformation.-See Brayley's · Londiniana.'

Page 540. note 2. Κατά 'Ανομοιών, κ. τ. λ. (Epiph. adυ. Heres. Greece, Basil. 1544. Heres. 76. p. 388.)

'Ανόμοιοι πάλιν τινές εισιν καλουμένοι, ούτοι δε πρόσφατοι: έσχον δε αρχηγών 'Αετίον, τινα διακόνον, πραχθέντα διά την αυτήν φλυαρίαν υπό Γεωργίου του Αλεξάνδρεως, των 'Αρειανών άμα Μελετίανων γεγονότος επίσκοπου, και ένα χρόνοις Ιουλίανου, ως άνω μοί προδεδήλωται, την πόλιν πομπεύσαντος υπό καμήλου και πρώτον μεν πολλά υπό των Ελληνων συγκλείσθεντος και πεπονθότος. Πομπεύσαντος τε, ώς έφην, και ξυλοίς παισθέντος, έπειτα δε συρέντος όλην σχέδον την πόλιν» και ούτως αποθανόντος, και μετά θανάτου καέντος, και μετά πολλών οστέων κτηνών και ζώων είς τέφραν συναχθέντος, και μετέπειτα τοις άνεμοϊς υπ' αυτών λικμηθέντος και ούτως το πέρας έσχηκότος, λέξειε δ' άν τις περί του ούτως τε τελευτήσαντος, Ούκουν εμαρτύρησεν, υπό Ελλήνων ταύτα πέπονθως ; Και ει μεν υπέρ αληθείας αυτή ην ο αγών, και υπό Ελλήνων διά φθόνον και την εις Χριστόν ομολογίαν τα τοιαύτα αυτό συμβέβηκεν, όντως έν μάρτυσι, και ουκ εν μικροίς ετέτακτο: ουκ ήν δε το αίτιον διά τήν εις Χριστόν ομολογίαν, αλλά δι' ήν, εν τη εαυτού δηθεν επισκοπή καλουμένη, πολλήν βίαν την πόλιν τε και τον δήμον διέθετο, πη μεν αρπάξων από ανθρώπους τα υπό των γονέων αυτών κληρονομήματα. Και ίνα μη διαβάλλομεν τον άνδρα, πολλά γάρ έστι τα υπ' εκεινού τοίς 'Αλεξανδρεύσι γενομένα, πώς μεν την νίτρον άπασαν εξέλαβε, πως δε τα έλη τα του παπύρου και του καλάμου, και τας λίμνας του αλός διοίκειν, και εις εαντον αποφέρεσθαι επενοήσεν. Ως πάσα αισχρότης βίου, κερδούς διά πολλής μηχανής άχρι, και λεπτών πραγμάτων παρ' αυτώ ουκ ημέλητο ως τάς κλίνας επενοήσε τοις σώμασι των εξοδεύοντων ποιήσαι εν αρίθμω τινι, και, άνευ των υπ' αυτού επιτεταγμένων, ουκ έξεκομίζετο το σώμα των

τελευτούντων επιπλείστον δε των ξενών, ου διά φιλοξενίαν, αλλά (καθώς έλεγον) διά πορισμόν βίωθη" εί τις γαρ εθάπτε διά έαυτών σώμα, κίνδυνον υφίστατο, ούτως δε υφ' έκαστού των εκφερομένων κέρδος τι αυτή προσεφέρεται. Και σιωπώ τα άλλα λέγειν όσα ο ανήρ εν τρυφαίς και άλλους έκομίζετο και εν απηνότητι. Διά γούν ταύτα πάντα την εις αυτόν μήνιν ηκρατηκότες 'Aλεξανδρεών παϊδες, "Ελληνες δε μάλιστα, τουτο αυτόν διέθεντο το τέλος. 'Εμοί δε γέγονε πρόφασις περί τουτών λέγειν, ως ενηχήθεντες την του Κωνσταντίον τελευτην, ευθύς ούτως αυτόν απολέσαν οι 'Αλεξανδρείς. Δι' ουδέν έτερον ή περί τούτου μοί γεγένηται υποθέσεις, αλλά διά τον 'Αετίoν, του υπ' αυτού καταστανθέντα διακόνον, κ.τ.λ.

Page 543. note 3. For some instructive remarks on early Christian martyrdom, see Bishop Kaye's Tertullian, p. 137 et seqq.

Page 545. note 4. Thus, for example, the followers of Arminius and Wesley have been very incorrectly termed Semi-Pelagians.

Page 545. note 5. The character of St. Martin of Tours has been justly impugned (see · British Magazine'); but whatever credit we give to his assertion, this instance shows that the apotheosis of saints was not always unquestioned; and if Martin felt some jealousy at the worship paid to others, would not the accusation of heresy, which could be so directly proved, have been a ready expedient for un-canonizing the Arian George? The Arian controversy was still agitated, to a serious extent, in Martin's time. The Arian heretics generally held the dogma of the similarity as opposed to the identity of substance in the divine Persons of the Trinity. The Anomæi therefore probably professed this general belief with some modifications peculiar to themselves.

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