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stantine the Great, visited Ælia, founded the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, discovered, it was said, the true cross, with a number of other relics, and directed the attention of Christian zeal to this interesting and sacred spot. The attempt of Julian the Apostate to rebuild the temple, and its miraculous failure, are well known. In the next century, the recluse and monastic states began to prevail; and Palestine seemed to be a fit place for the retired piety of holy and contemplative men, whether in monasteries or hermitages: many of both were to be found. In the sixth century, Justinian contributed to the beauty of the city; but shortly after this, Palestine and Syria were invaded by Chosroes the Persian. This barbarian sacked Jerusalem, and nearly destroyed it. The Jews on this occasion rose, and, joining the Persians, murdered 90,000 Christians. Not long after this, Abu Ubaidah, lieutenant of the second Khalíf, Omar-Ibn-Al-Khattab, besieged and took the city, which was thus subjected to the Musalmán yoke. At that time it probably contained but few inhabitants. Under the sway of the two dynasties of Khalífs, the Ommiades and the Abbássides, the Christians of Jerusalem enjoyed comparative security; but the decay of the Khilafat subjected them to cruel and bigoted tyrants. Achmet, a Turk, who, from being governor of Egypt, had usurped its sovereignty, conquered Jerusalem ; but his son being defeated by the Khalíf of Bagdad, the Holy City fell again under that government, A.D. 905. About thirty years after this, Muhammad Ikschid, a Turk, seized Egypt, invaded Palestine, and took Jerusalem. This dynasty was expelled by the Fátemites, who assumed the title of Khalíf and Imám, A.D. 968. (One of these Khalífs, Hákim,* cruelly oppressed the Christians, and demolished the church of the

* Scc Note B. p.


Holy Sepulchre.) The emir Ortok, towards the end of the tenth century, made himself master of the Holy City. His children were driven out by Mustáli, Khalíf of Egypt. In 1076, Meleschah, third of the Turkish race, took Jerusalem, and ravaged the country. The Ortokites, however, returned, and maintained themselves in the city against Redouan, Prince of Aleppo. They were, however, expelled by the Fátemite Khalífs, who were in possession when the Crusaders arrived.

Ælianus Adrianus, (observes William, archbishop of Tyre,) fourth from Titus, built the city Ælia Capitolina, and in the (Acts of) the Synod of Nice we read, “Let the Bishop of Ælia be honoured by all.” “ But the city thus built (continnes the archbishop) by Adrian varied in site from the original. The whole of the first city was placed upon a steep declivity, in such a way that, of the entire city, one part faced the east, and the other part the south, being founded on one side of both Mount Sion and Mount Moriah ; the temple only, and the citadel of Antonia, being upon the summit. But Adrian transferred the whole to the top of the mount; so that the scene of our Lord's Passion and Resurrection, which had before been without the walls, were now included within their circuit. The town itself is less than the greater ones, and greater than the middling-sized ones. It is of an oblong figure, longer on one side---a tetragon, but hemmed in on three sides by very deep valleys; on the east by the valley of Jehoshaphat, where there is a church to the Virgin, and also the winter-torrent of Kedron; on the south by the valley of Hinnom, in the lot of Juda and Benjamin; on the west by part of the same valley, where the site of an old fish-pond, famous in the times of the Kings of Judah, is shown. This valley extends unto the upper fish-pool; now (i. e. the time of William of Tyre) called The Patriarch's Lake,' near the

ancient cemetery called The Lion's Cave, or Den.' On the north is a flat, even road, leading to the city. The city is built upon two mountains, whose summits are within the walls; they are divided by a moderately deep valley, which also divides the city into two parts. Of these, the western is called Sion (which name is also sometimes applied to the whole), and the eastern, Moriah. On the western mountain, upon the summit, is built the church of Sion, near to which is the tower of David, a citadel that commands the town. On this western mount, but upon the eastern declivity thereof, is the church of the Holy Resurrection. It is of a round form : the summit of the mountain overlooks and renders it less conspicuous: it has a roof of timber, built up to a great height, and with wonderful workmanship, contrived so as to present the form of a round lantern, whence the needful light pours into the church : right beneath is our Lord's Sepulebre. The Golgotha, and the place where the Cross was discovered, as well as the place where the Body was anointed, were formerly small oratories, without the church. But the Crusaders enlarged the church, so as to include them. Upon the other mountain, the eastern, and upon its southern declivity, is the Temple of the Lord. It is somewhat of the following form :There is a broad space, scarcely a bow-shot in length, and about as much in width, quadrangular, and contained by equidistant sides: it is surrounded by a strong wall, of a moderate height, entered on the western side by two gates : one, named “The Beautiful,' is that near which Peter strengthened the ankles of the lame man, and set him upright; the name of the other is not positively known: on the north side there is one; on the east is another, which is, even to this day, named “The Golden Gate:' on the southern side is that royal abode commonly named The Temple of Solomon.' Over each gate which adjoined the

city, and at each corner of the above-named superficies, were very high towers, which, at certain hours, the priests of the Saracenic superstition were wont to ascend, thence inviting the people to prayer: some of these remain; some, by various accidents, have been levelled. Within these precincts no one was permitted to dwell; no one even to enter but with naked and washen feet; to enforce which, keepers were placed at every gate. In the midst of this area, thus enclosed, there is again another flat space raised higher, in like manner quadrilateral, and equidistant from the outer wall. To this area there is an ascent, on the western and southern side, of two steps; on the last, of one. In each angle were small oratories; some only of which now remain. In the midst of this last area is built a Temple, of an octagonal form, and octolateral, adorned, both within and without, with marble slabs (or panels) and mosaic work. It has a spherical roof, ingeniously covered with lead. Both of these spaces, the large outer and inner, and the contained area, are paved with white stone, so that all the rain-water, which descends abundantly in the winter season from the Temple and other buildings, flows clear, and unmingled with dirt, into cisterns or tanks, of which there are several. Within the Temple, in the centre, within the inner row of pillars, there is a Rock, rather higher than the floor. Beneath, hollowed from the the same rock, is a cave, over which the Angel is said to have sat, and sheathed his sword; thus arresting the pestilence inflicted for David's sin in numbering the people. This spot was purchased for six hundred sigli (olylou) of gold, of just weight, and an altar built. All this existed thus when we entered the city; and, for fifteen years subsequently, the rock remained open and uncovered. Afterwards, those who presided over that place covered it with white marble, erecting an altar upon it, and building a choir, wherein the

clergy might celebrate the divine offices."-(Willielmus Tyrensis, c. 8.)

Note B. (Page 488.)

(From De Sacy, Chrestomathie Arabe, compared with Abulpharcgius (Pococke). De Sacy's author is Taki-Uddin-Makrízi.)

The reign of the Khalíf Hákim Bíamr’-Illáh presents a curious example of the miseries of despotic rule in the hands of a capricious and extravagant prince, as well as a specimen of the practical effects of Muhammedan fanaticism and controversy. Hákím Bíamr’-Illáh-Abú-Ali-Mansúr was the son of Azeez Bílláh Nizár, one of the Fátemite Khalífs of Egypt, whose territory included Syria and Palestine. . His father, Azeez Bílláh, appears to have been a mild and generous monarch. His mother was of Christian extraction, sister to Orestus, bishop of Jerusalem. The consequences of this last circumstance, probably, had considerable effect in the formation of the character of the future Khalíf. The jealous Musalmáns, doubtless, took care to breed the Christian's son in the most rigid notions of Moslem bigotry, and to imbue him with that hatred of the Nazarenes which became the Commander of the Faithful: and as a Fátemite, (or rather a soi-disant Fátemite,) the eventual participators in the divided Khilafat, he would naturally become acquainted with the prejudices and controversies which divided and convulsed the Muhammadan world. All this, acting upon a mind wild, reckless, fickle, inconstant, perhaps partially deranged, yet without generosity, produced a reign at once whimsical and cruel. Azeez Bílláh dying at Bilbais at the age of forty-three, AbúAli-Mansúr was saluted Khalíf, by the surname of Hakim Bíamr-Illáh, at Bilbais, on the afternoon of Tuesday the 29th Rhamadan, A. H. 386. He was born at the palace of

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