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Page 306. Kaab-Al-Habár, or the Scribe, was a Jewish Rabbi, who was over to Islám by Omar-Ibn-AlKhattáb, and proved a most fertile originator of traditions, from his knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Page 321. By “the Declarers," appears to be intimated, Promulgators of New Revelations.
“ The prophetic signet” was an excrescence, or wen, said to be found only on inspired prophets.
Page 357. The remainder of this chapter, not possessing sufficient interest, is not printed.
Page 358. “Hebron.”-Russell's • Hist. Palestine' contains the Cave of Machpelah, wherein Abraham and the Patriarchs were interred. It was formerly a Greek church, and is now a mosque. The ascent (says Burckhardt) is by a large and fine staircase, leading to a long gallery, to which the entrance is by a small court. Towards the left is a portico, resting upon small pillars. The vestibule of the Temple contains two rooms; one supposed to be the tomb of Abraham, the other that of Sarah. In the body of the church, between two large pillars to the right, is seen a small recess, in which is the sepulchre of Isaac, and in a similar one, on the left, that of his wife. On the opposite side of the court is a vestibule containing two rooms, in which are the sepulchres of Jacob and his spouse. At the extremity of the portico, to the right, is a door which leads to a long gallery, which is still a mosque. Passing thence, we observe another room, containing the ashes of Joseph, brought from Egypt. All the sepulchres are covered by rich carpets of green silk, magnificently embroidered in gold : those of the wives'
sepulchres are of red silk. They are given by the Sultán, and renewed from time to time. Mr. Burckhardt counted nine on the sepulchre of Abraham, one above the other. The rooms which contain the sepulchres are covered with rich carpets; the entrances are guarded by iron gates and wooden doors plated with silver, having bolts and padlocks of the same. More than one hundred persons are here employed in the care of the buildings, &c. &c.
Page 359. “ The Cock in the sky.”—This is the Celestial Bird, which, as the Musalmáns assert, from the Talmudists, crows every morning, and is heard by angels, animals, and genii, but not by men. By the cessation of this crowing, on the morning of the last day, all rational creatures, except man, will be convinced of the actual arrival of that event. Absurd as this fable is, it is far surpassed in childishness by the tales of its Rabbinical source.
Page 361. Palestine abounds with
appear to have been useful as reservoirs of water. William of Tyre seems to intimate that Jerusalem itself was thus mostly supplied with water in the time of the first crusade...
CHAP. XV. This chapter is omitted, being already recorded in the Korán, and is a mere corruption of the Scriptural account of the destruction of the cities of the plain.
There are three Palestines; one whose capital metropolis is Jerusalem; another whose capital is Cæsarea Maritima ; a third whose metropolis is Bethsan, or Scythopolis. All Palestine is sometimes confounded with Syria by later writers. Syria-Palestina is the designation
used by Herodotus and Arrian. The Talmudists represented the sacredness of their territory, not as stopping short abruptly, but as gradually diminishing and melting away; so that all Syria possessed a portion of sanctity.
Pages 396 and 420. “ To aid the Unitarians.”—It is by no means easy to define the opinions of the Muhammadan divines upon Christ. Some attribute to him a rank which would appear to be above that of their prophet, although, no doubt, they would evade such a conclusion. None of the orthodox sects entertain the opinion of his simple humanity, at least in the Socinian sense. Many of them allow the doctrine of the Incarnation; but their notions are confused and inconclusive. An obscure passage in our author, which occurs in page 420, seems to imply that he was not free from original sin, since the impress of his baptism remained. Muhammad, they say, was purified from all taint, in his early youth, by Gabriel.
Page 404, &c. The Khalíf Abdul-Málik-Ibn-Marwán, often mentioned in the ninth and seventeenth chapters, was of the family of Ommia. He ascended the throne A. H. 65, and died A. H. 86. His son and successor, Al Walíd, built the Masjidu-l-Aksá.
Page 410. “Hill of the Dropsical.”—Perhaps alluding to some miracle.
Page 412. In the letter of the Grecian emperor to Al Walid, the expression “thy father” evidently alludes to Muhammad, both as the originator of the Khalíf's religion, and as his collateral ancestor. By the reference to David and Solomon, the poet intimated that the spiritual ruler
was entitled to the property of his subjects, and was supreme referee in all causes; his judgment being final. The passage of the Korán in question contains a story of Solomon's judgment. Some sheep having trespassed in a field, and injured the corn, David thought that the sheep should be forfeited to the owner, in compensation ; but Solomon, then only eleven years old, was of opinion that the produce of the sheep only-the milk, lambs, &c.-should be given to the owner, until the amount of the damage was discharged.
Page 414. The head which the architect found was probably that of John the Baptist, mentioned below. Probably he was supposed to be a magician.
Page 421. By the “ Two Moments” is meant, the moment when all creatures shall perish, at the blast of the trumpet; and the moment, forty years after, when all shall be resuscitated to the final reckoning.
Our materials for an account of Jerusalem, from the apostolic period to the capture by the Khalíf Omar-Ibn-AŁ Khattab, are not very abundant. The storm and demolition of the city by Titus are, indeed, accurately described by Josephus; but of the restored city not much is recorded. The earlier Cirristians, perhaps, did not wish needlessly to excite the jealousy of their persecuting rulers by performing pilgrimages unto those sacred spots; and even after the pre
dominance of Christianity, Jerusalem, being upon the frontiers of the Byzantine empire, was open to attack on the side of Persia and Arabia. It probably always remained an inconsiderable place, chiefly supported by the resort of pilgrims.
Soon after Titus quitted the scene of his success, many Jewish and Christian families returned to dwell among
the ruins. Gradually beginning to restore the city, they alarmed Vespasian, who, to prevent any attempts to rebuild the place, established a garrison of 800 men on Mount Zion. He is said also to have put to death all the known descendants of David. In the reign of Trajan, the Jews, still numerous, and not entirely uprooted, revolted, but were defeated. Adrian expelled the Jews from Cyprus. He published an edict, forbidding circumcision, the reading of the law, and the observation of the sabbath. A leader at this time started up to head the desperate Jews. Barchochab (son of a star) asserted himself to be the true Messiah; and, being recommended by a famous Rabbi, Akiba, the Jews rallied round him, and seized the Holy City. Adrian resolved upon their utter destruction. After a desperate struggle, Barchochab was defeated and slain. In the course of this war, it is said that 580,000 were slain. Judea was reduced to a desert. Adrian now built the city which he had long projected; but in such a manner as to confound the topography of the original Jerusalem. This city was called Ælia Capitolina. To mortify and repulse the Christians, Adrian moreover erected a statue of Venus upon the Mount Calvary; another of Jupiter, near the Holy Sepulchre, and consecrated the grotto of Bethlem to Adonis. The Jews were forbidden to enter Ælia ; and the statue of a sow was placed over the principal gate. By the establishment of Christianity, Jerusalem was partially restored to importance. Helena, mother of Con