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ceding the possession of the defenceless city to the Empe
Frederic Barbarossa, jos) Al Abrúz deprived the Western Christians of all pretext, upon religious grounds, of invading his territory. Muhammadan fanaticism, however, rendered such a tenure very insecure, and accordingly the Christians were in a few years surprised by treachery, and expelled. It would seem that there is some doubt whether Omar was actually engaged in the siege of the city before its surrender, or came from Medina merely to receive its submission. The object of the author is (it would appear) to maintain that the Treaty of Capitulation signed by Omar is irreversibly binding upon the Moslems and Christians, and not to be repealed by any future and inferior authority. So that the Moslems, in wresting the Holy Abode from the Christians by any means, were not liable to the charge of want of faith.
Page 195. The following lively description of the entrance of the Victorious Crusaders into the Holy City is extracted from William of Tyre :-" Intueri erat amenissimum, et spirituali plenum jucunditate, quanta devotione, quanto pii fervore desiderii, ad loca sancta fidelis accederet populus; quanta mentis exultatione et spirituali gaudio Dominicæ dispensationis deosculabantur memoriam. Ubique lachrymæ, ubique suspiria, non qualia mæror et anxietas solet extorquere, sed qualia fervens devotio, et interioris hominis consummata lætitia, solet Domino in holocaustum incendere. Erat porrò tam in ecclesia, quàm per urbem universam, tantus populi gratias Domino exhibentis clamor, ut jam quasi usque ad sidera tolli sonus videretur, et de eis merito dictum crederetur, Vox lætitiæ et exultationis in tabernaculis justorum. Fervebant sanè, pio succensa desiderio, per urbem universam opera misericordiæ. Hi Domino confitebantur
deflenda quæ commiserant, voto se obligantes ne de cætero deflenda committerent. Illi in senes, valetudinarios, et egentes, profusa liberalitate cunctam erogabant substantiam, pro summis et sufficientibus reputantes divitiis quod hunc vidisse diem sibi fuerat concessum divinitus. Illi flexis nudisque genibus, cum singultibus et præcordialibus suspiriis, loca circuibant venerabilia, lachrymarum cuncta replentes aspergine, quorum vero sermo dirigebatur ad Dominum, • Exitus aquarum deduxerunt oculi mei.' Quid plura ? Difficile est ut nostro comprehendatur sermone, quanta in plebe fideli sanctæ devotionis esset immensitas; certatim enim se mutuo vincere cupientes in operibus pietatis unani. miter desudabant, cælestis memores beneficii et gratiam præ oculis habentes divinam, quæ tantos eorum labores remunerare dignata est. Quis enim tam ferrei pectoris, quis tam mentis adamantinæ, cujus interiora non liquefierent, cum liceret tantæ peregrinationis fructum carpere dignissimum, et exhibitiæ militiæ numerare stipendia ? Quibus tamen mens fuit altior, in arram futuræ retributionis qua sanctos suos se remuneraturum promisit Dominus, id muneris videbatur exhibitum, ut per collationem præsentium munerum, firma sit expectatio futurorum, et per eam quæ hic peregrinatür Hierusalem, ad eam perveniatur cujus participatio est in idipsum. Porrò episcopi et sacerdotes in ecclesiis consummantes sacrificia orabant pro populo, pro collato beneficio gratias exhibentes."-(Gesta Dei, per Francos, p. 760. lib. viii. c. 20.)
“Very pleasant it was, and a source of spiritual delight, to behold with what devotion, with what fervour of pious zeal, did the faithful people approach the holy places; with what exultation of mind, and spiritual joy, they kissed the memorials of the stewardship of the Lord. On all sides are tears, on all sides sobs, not such as sorrow or suffering extort,
but such as fervent devotion, and the consummation of delight in the inner man, commonly cause to flame up as a whole burnt-offering to the Lord. Indeed, both in the churches and throughout the whole city, so loud were the thanksgivings which the people offered unto the Lord, that the sound thereof mounted to the sky, and one might well believe that it was of them it had been said, The voice of joy and gladness is in the dwellings of the just.' Assuredly works of mercy, lit up by pious zeal, were warmly undertaken throughout the whole city. Here were beheld some confessing unto the Lord those grievous sins which they had committed, binding themselves by vows not to commit such sins again. There were others, who with profuse liberality spent all their substance upon the old, the sick, and the poor, deeming it to be the most surpassing and sufficing wealth, that Heaven had granted them to see this day. There were others, who upon naked knees, with sobs and sighs from the inmost heart, were making the circuit of the venerable spots, who might with truth direct that exclamation to the Lord, • Mine eyes gush out with water.' But why more? Words of mine can but with difficulty express how great was the immensity of sacred devotion among the faithful people; for with one accord, vying with each other, did they zealously labour mutually to surpass one another in works of piety, mindful of the heavenly gift, and still keeping in view that grace divine, which had vouchsafed to requite their great labours. Whose heart, indeed, could be so steeled,—who could possess so adamantine a spirit, as not to melt within himself, when it was permitted to reap that most worthy fruit of so great a pilgrimage, and to count over the
accomplished services and terms of warfare? Some there were, however, of a more exalted spirit, who looked upon the gift
thus granted as an earnest of that future recompense wherewith the Lord hath promised to requite his saints ; since, from present benefits conferred, we deduce a firm expectation of benefits to come; and since it is through the Jerusalem which is now a stranger upon earth, that we must arrive at the Jerusalem wherein to be a partaker is a reality indeed. The Bishops also, and Priests, were in the churches, accomplishing the sacrifices (i. e. of prayer and thanksgiving) by praying for the people, and offering thanksgivings for the blessing imparted."
Page 205. The word translated bells may more properly be rendered clappers, which, being beaten, gave the signal for assembling in the churches. It is doubtful whether the Christians of Jerusalem possessed metal bells in Omar's time.
Ibid. “ Secret lurking-places," &c.- Probably confessionals. Since the conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, in A.D. 1099, the Latin church possessed the ascendancy in the city. The variations between the Greek and Roman churches form a frequent subject of remark and animadversion with the contemporary writers: the mode of confession varies considerably. Probably, these controversies, as well as the Eutychian and Monothelite questions, may be scoffingly alluded to by the author in several passages of this chapter.
“ Balian-Ibn-Bazán."--Belianus, or Belian, is a name that occurs in the annals of chivalry. The name of this nobleman was Balian of Ibelin. He commanded the Christians in the absence of the captive king of Jerusalem.
“ Church of the Holy Sepulchre."--Literally, “ The Round Building.” The Temple Church in London, the Church of Maplestead in Essex, and the Church of St. Sepulchre in Cambridge, are remaining examples of this form.
· Page 234. The Khalif Othmán is called Dhi Núráin, or Dhú Núráin (possessor of the Two Lights), because he enjoyed the experience of his two predecessors, the first Khalífs, Abú Bekr and Omar, or because, upon his elevation to the Khilafat, he engaged himself to abide by the precedents they had established.
Page 273. Ultim Sinjáb, or Sunjáb, is an animal of the sciurus or squirrel genus, whose fur was considered extremely precious, and used to line robes of state.
· Page 288. Shaib, or Shuaib, is a prophet, said in the Korán to have been sent to warn the Midianites. He appears sometimes to be confounded with Zacharias son of Barachias, and with Isaiah.
Chap. X. All this is evidently copied from the Gospels, although much corrupted.
Page 305. Abú-Mahmúd-Al-Járí appears to have held the dogma of the necessary singularity of the essence of the Deity. The theologians of this sect asserted that God has no attributes, because, to attribute unto him the qualities of Justice or Mercy, which are themselves separate and distinct qualities, is to introduce a principle incompatible with pure Unity, incapable of division into parts, and thus to resemble the Christians, who ascribe, they pretend, partners unto. God.