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a theft. Now, in general, the Will of that man to supply his necessity, and the Power occasionally of so supplying it, are both decreed by God. Moreover, that very action of theft was decreed to happen ; but the concurrence of that man's decreed will and power with that decreed action is the man's own acquisition or act. This argument (which only transfers the difficulty) is stated in various ways and with endless modifications. In truth, the discussions upon both these subjects are interminable. Other points of discrepancy relate to the eternity, or non-eternity, of the Korán, the rank of Muhammad, the comparative excellence of the Kiblah (or point towards which the face is turned in the act of praying), of Mecca or Jerusalem, &c. &c.
The following Works are quoted in the MS. originals. There are also several others, whose titles are expressed too indefinitely to render an exact transcription useful for any purpose of reference,
pliers mio by Shaháb-Uddín-Abú-Mahmúd. The first word appears to be derived from the root ;li, which in Conj. iv, signifies, “to stir up dust as by the wind—to scatter dust into the air ;” and the other from pre only used in Conj. iv. “to divide into small particles.” Hence the title of the work may be rendered, “ The Stirrer-up of Minute Subtleties ;” or, more freely, “The Minute TextSifter.” It is evidently a favourite theological work. The Translator cannot find the precise name of the author or the work in Casiri Biblioth. Escurial.
wwiet weg i by Taj-Uddin,—“ The Gardens of the Circus, or of Exercise.” um signifies “to be skilful in horsemanship—to be a good equestrian."
,by Bh6-Uddin, – « Book كتاب الانس في فضائل القدس
-— or Writing, of Cheerful Communion 'with the Excellences of the Holy Places, or Saints."
yraään Eroles by Abu-l-Kásim, “The Carefully-compiled Volume,” on the Masjidu-l-Aksá.
-By Barhan-Uddin-Al-Ka (كتاب باعث للنفوس إلي zart, Writing or Book و زيادة القدس العروس
; I zárí—“ of the Stirring up Souls to the Visitation of the Guarded Holy Spots."
sisiugd volüs by Bíhá-Uddín,—“The Select or Lucid Writing.”
Alplugdo jete cholende spansi by Shaháb-Uddin, surnamed sudëji Al Afkahsí,—“ A Smoothing of the Road for Pilgrims to the Mosques.”
It is in the Escurial Collection.
“The Elegant Volume,” by Abúl-HassanAl-Maliki.
please locaill pcl by Barhán-Uddín,—“ Notices of the Wondrous Privileges of Syria."
There is another playlio “ Upon the Pilgrimage to Abraham's Tomb,” by Ishak-Ibn-Ibrahim. Al-Tadmírí, Tadmor, or Palmyra, was the name given, not only to the celebrated city of Zenobia, but also to one in Moorish Spain. wie zblio Perhaps, “ Mirrors, or Looking-glasses, dyret "
for certain Jews :" but the points are confused in the two MSS. It is by Abú Aliat.
There is an Abul Faraj also mentioned, (possibly the author of “The Dynasties,") as Jerusalem was an object of
veneration to Christians as well as Jews. Omad, secretary of Salah-Uddín, wrote a work upon that Sultan's reign in very difficult Arabic. He is frequently quoted in the ninth chapter.
Page 2 “The Holy Spirit Gabriel.”—The Muhammadans assert that by the Holy Spirit, mentioned in the Christian Scriptures, is intimated the angel Gabriel. Thus, in the Korán, chap. ii. “We gave evident miracles to Jesus the son of Mary, and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit.”
Page 4. It is not called “the Venerable,” or Forbidden Place; that being appropriated to the territory and the temple of Mecca, from which infidels are excluded ; whereas they may approach Jerusalem, although they may not enter the Mosque of Omar.
“ The Hidden Book.”—The Korán was supposed to have existed from all eternity upon the preserved table of God's decrees; there remaining hidden until brought down, in parcels, by Gabriel to Muhammad.
Page 7. The “Revealed Words," here quoted, were probably corruptions of Exodus xii. 11, 12. and xxix. 43. Psalm xcv. 8. Ezekiel xliii. 12. &c.
Ibid. “ The figs and the olives."-An allusion to the opening verses of the ninety-fifth chapter of the Korán, “By the fig and the olive, and by Mount Sinai, and by this territory of security,” &c. &c.
Page 10. “ In the Psalms.”—Psalm xxxvii. 11, 29. Isaiah lx. 21. &c.
Page 11. “The Holy of Holies, in the seventh heaven, is a counterpart," &c.-A Talmudic fab
There is a story, referred to by Tertullian, in his third book against Marcion, of a city which had been seen in Judea, suspended in the air, for forty successive days, in the early part of the morning, and said to be the New Jerusalem.-Bishop Kaye, on Tertullian, p. 367.
“ God called David and Solomon to repentance. Yet some authors assert, from the Talmudists, that Solomon was not himself guilty of apostacy, but that one of his dependent demons, fraudulently obtaining his magic signet, assumed his form, and perverted the people in his name.Sale's Korán, vol. ii. page 321.
Ibid. “ In the Holy House, or Baitu-l-Mukaddas, unto Maria, &c. were winter-fruits made to come,” &c.—The Virgin Mary, (the Muhammadans assert,) from a mixture of Jewish traditions and Christian apocryphal fables, was the daughter of Imrám (or Amram), by Hannah, or Ann, daughter of Fakudh. Being barren and aged, Hannah, one day observing a bird feeding its young, became very desirous of children, and prayed to God to grant her issue; promising to dedicate the child to his service in the temple. She had a daughter, Maria, who nevertheless was accepted by the priests, entrusted to her uncle Zacharias, and educated in the Temple. Here she was miraculously supplied with summer-fruits in winter, and winter-fruits in summer. After the conception of Christ, Maria was compelled to flee from the persecutions of the Jews. Her travail came upon her whilst leaning against the trunk of a palm-tree. It was à withered tree, and the season was winter; yet it revived
at her prayer, shot forth green leaves, and produced ripe fruit; a rivulet, at the same time, starting forth to supply her with drink. She presented her child to the people, who, still continuing to calumniate her, were miraculously reproved by the infant, who declared her innocence and his own divine commission.
“ The Strengthener.”—The Muhammadans would seem to confound the Descent of the Holy Spirit at Christ's baptism, with the Descent of the Angel during his passion. The Arabic language expresses “baptism” by two different words; one simply implying immersion; and the other, corroboration, or confirmation. The practice adopted by the Greek and many Oriental churches, of conjoining the confirming chrism with the baptismal water, may have led to this etymological confusion. It is to be observed, that the Muhammadans draw a distinction between the “Holy Spirit” and “the Paraclete” of the Gospels. The former, they assert to be Gabriel; the latter, Muhammad himself. In drawing this distinction, they may possibly have copied from some Christian heretics. Montanus, towards the latter end of the second century, drew a similar distinction between the Holy Spirit and the Paraclete; asserting that he himself was the latter, appointed to perfect the Gospel by the addition of doctrines omitted by our Saviour (Bishop Kaye's Tertullian, p. 23); and the Gnostic heretics represent a succession of various angels, æons, or existences, as partakers of the nature of the Supreme Deity. Simon Magus gave out that he himself was the Holy Spirit. (Epiphanius, Hæres. 21. and Walsh's Essay on Christian Coins, &c. p. 15.) Yajúj and Majúj, Gog and Magog, now confined in Armenia by a wall constructed by Alexander the Great, will break out