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Khattáb, (with whom may God rest content!) and said, O Commander of the Faithful! my vineyard was in their power, and they did not eat of it, nor approach it; and I am a man under safe conduct with the Musalmáns; but when the Mussalmáns took possession of it, they fell upon it. Then Omar asked for a charger, and mounted, and rode forward in haste. Thus he came at a quick trot towards the neighbourhood of the Musalmáns; and the first who met him was Abú-Huraira, carrying grapes upon his head. Then he said, And thou too, O Abú-Huraira ! Then (the latter) said, O Commander of the Faithful ! a great hunger fell upon us; and it was more just that we should eat of his property than fight with his men. And Omar rode on to the vineyard, and looked, and, lo! there were men hurrying about in it. Then Omar asked for the client, and said unto him, What didst thou expect from the produce of this vineyard ? And he replied, So much, or so much ; and augmented it a little. To this said Omar, Then let it go free. And Omar took out the exorbitant price which the man had said, and gave it to him, who therefore gave up the vineyard as common property to the Musalmáns.

Moreover, we learn from Abdurrahmán-Ibn-Tamím as follows:-The people of Syria wrote thus

to Omar, when they capitulated with the conquerors :-"In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate! This is the writing from the Christians of such and such a city, to Omar-IbnAl-Khattáb, the Commander of the Faithful. When you came down upon us, we asked of you a capitulation for ourselves, and our possessions, and our children, and the people of our religion ; and we have stipulated with you, that we shall not be polluted by interruption in our places of worship, or whatever chapels, or churches, or cells, or monasteries of monks, may be therein; and that no one shall live therein who may have the impress of Musalmáns (by long residence), and that we will not prohibit the Musalmans from entering them, by night or by day; and that we will open the gates wide to passengers and to travellers; and if any Musalmán, passing by, shall take up his lodging with us three nights, we shall give him food; and not entertain in our churches a spy, nor conceal him unknown to the Musalmáns; and not teach our children the Korán ; and not publicly exhibit the Associating or Christian Religion, and not beg any one to embrace it; and not hinder any one of our relations from entering the Musalmán religion, if he will; and that we should honour the Musalmáns and make much of them, and place them in our

assemblies, if any one of them will; and give them the chief seats, and not imitate them in our dress, neither in girdles, nor in the turban, nor the slippers, nor the parting of the hair, and never write in their language, nor call ourselves by their surnames; and that we should never ride upon great- saddles, nor suspend our swords by belts, and never accept arms (the bow, sword, and club), nor carry them with us; and that we should never engrave upon our signet-rings in the Arabic language; and that we should not sell wine, and that we should shave the front of our heads, and tie up our dress, wherever we may be, and not wear wide girdles at our waist; and that we should never publicly exhibit the cross upon our churches, nor expose our crosses, nor ever inscribe them in the path of the Musalmáns, nor in their market-places, and never strike our bells the (quick) stroke, nor raise our voices over the dead, nor publicly expose the lights, or any thing else, in the roads and markets of the Moslems, and never come near them with our dead, and never receive any slave who has drawn upon himself familiarity with Moslems, and never look upon them in their houses."

We learn, moreover, from the same authority, as follows:- When Omar ratified the treaty, he added thereto,-“ And that we will not strike any

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you to

one of the Moslems. We stipulate this with you
for ourselves and the people of our religion ; and
we accept these terms of capitulation : and if we
subsequently violate a point of that which we
have stipulated, upon our lives be it, and let there
be no faith with us, and may it be allowed
do to us whatever is lawful against rebellious and
revolting subjects.” We are, moreover, informed
by the Imám-Al-Bikhí, and by others (but the
first has a beautiful passage by Abdurrahmán-Abú-
Tamím), the Kádi, Abú-Muhammad Ibn-Razin,
requested a final decision on this at the foot of
the assembly ; and the chiefs of Islám confirmed
this treaty; and the orthodox Khalífs acted upon it.

Moreover, we have a tradition from Ibn-Omar, on the authority of Náfá, from Islám, that Omar commanded the capitulated inhabitants to shave off their front locks of hair, and that they should ride upon small (pack) saddles on one side, and not ride as the Moslems ride ; and that they should fasten the clasps of their girdles. It is also traditionally reported from Shadad-Ibn-Awís, that he accompanied Omar when he entered the Mosque of the Holy City, on the day when God, the great and glorious, opened the gate the second time by surrender. Now be entered by the Gate of Muhammad (upon whom be the peace and blessing of God!), creeping on hands and knees,

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he, and those with him, until he came to its underground drain (or sewer). Then he looked on the right and left. Then he said, God is great! Then he said, Yes, by God! this (unless I speak at random, or am beside myself) is the Mosque (or place of worship) of David (on him be peace !), of which the Apostle of God (upon whom be the peace and blessing of God !) informed us, when he said, “ He hath brought me to come to him by night, and raised me up before him to a station before him, among the nearest of uncreated beings.” Then Omar said, Let us take here a Mosque.

Moreover, there is a tradition from Al-Walid Ibn-Muslim, on the authority of a Shaikh of the sons of Shaddad-Ibn-Awís, from his father, from his grandfather,—That Omar, when he had concluded a treaty of peace between himself and between the people of the Holy House, said to the Patriarch thereof, Conduct me to the Mosqué of David. He said, Yes.

He said, Yes. Then Omar went forth, belted with his sword, amidst four thousand of his comrades, who went forward with him, belted with swords; and all of us who were therein had no arms but swords; and the Patriarch was at a short distance from Omar, with his companions; and we went after Omar when we entered the city of the Baitu-l-Mukaddas.

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