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seated on a small saddle, conspicuous among the men. Then it was called out, Is there any one among you who knows the Commander of the Believers ? And they were silent, and passed on. Proceeding onwards, they met others, who saluted us, and then asked, Respecting the Commander of the Believers, have any of

you any knowledge of him? Upon this it was said to us, Inform the people as to your master. Then we said, This is the Commander of the Believers. Therefore they proceeded to cast themselves from their horses; and Omar called out to them to cause to return the others who had passed by. Then they returned with us, and the Musalmáns came forward, forming their horses, and brandishing their spears in the path of Omar, until Abú-Ubaidah appeared among the chiefs. Now he was upon a (young) she-camel, covered with goats’-hair trappings, and her bridle of hair, armed in full panoply (with bow, quiver, lance and sword), with his bow over his shoulder. When, therefore, he beheld Omar, he caused his camel to kneel, and Omar caused his camel (a poor beast) to kneel. Then Abú-Ubaidah dismounted. Thus, when Abú-Ubaidah came near, Abu Ubaidah stretched out his hand to clasp Omar's band. Then Omar stretched out his hand. Then Abu-Ubaidah took it, and Omar wished to (pre-occupy) him in


taking it. Upon this said Abú-Ubaidah, Do not, O Commander of Believers ! And Omar said, Do not, O Abú-Ubaidah! Then the two Shaikhs embraced, and they remounted to proceed, the

going in front of them; and some of the Syrian people thought fit to offer Omar a charger and white robes ; and they earnestly desired him to mount the charger, that the enemy might behold him, and he be reverenced among them thereby, and that he should clothe himself in the robes, and throw away his garment of skins from him ; but he refused. Then they vehemently urged him; therefore he mounted the charger in his skin robe, and his garments. Then the chargers went slowly on with them, and the bridle of his camel was after him, (held) in his hand.

Then he descended and mounted the camel, and said, This troubled me, whilst I feared lest you should consider yourselves great, , and become proud, since, O people of the Moslems! it is Moderation (Temperance) which hath made you great. Go on therefore in that way whereby God, the great and glorious, hath exalted you."

Moreover, we have a tradition in the chapter of Ibn-Shabáh, to the following effect :- When Omar (with whom may God rest content !) was coming from Syria, a ford (of a river) fell in his way. Then he dismounted from his camel, and drew off the sandals, or lower soles, of his greaves, and, holding them in his hand, thus forded the water, and his beast with him. Upon this said AbúUbaidah to him, Thou hast done a great deed in the sight of the people of the land. But Omar struck his breast, and said, “You are not great in that word,* Abú-Ubaidah ; for ye were the most despicable of people and the vilest of men, and the fewest in number of men; yet God hath exalted you with Islám. And he who seeks to be great without God, him shall God abase.” Moreover, there is a tradition from Yusuf, who had it from his father Hatim, on the authority of Othmán, who had it from Khalid and his servants, as follows:-Omar-Ibn-Al-Khattáb (with whom may God rest satisfied !) concluded articles of capitulation with the people of Elia, in the village Jabít. This treaty of capitulation is a model for capitulation of every city besides the people of Elia. " In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate! The following are the terms of capitulation, which I, Omar, the servant of God, the Commander of the Faithful, grant to the people of Elia. I grant them security for their lives, their possessions, and their children, their churches, their crosses, and all that appertains to them in

* i. e. Your remark is not worthy of you-is vain.

their integrity, and their lands, and to all of their religion. Their churches therein shall not be impoverished, nor destroyed, nor injured from among them ; neither their endowments, nor their dignity; and not a thing of their property; neither shall the inhabitants of Jerusalem be exposed to violence in following their religion ; nor shall one of them be injured ; nor shall one of the Jews be impoverished in Elia. And it is stipulated) with the people of Elia, that they pay a tribute, according to the tribute paid by the people of the cities, (i. e. by the inhabitants of other capitulated cities). Moreover, it is incumbent on them that the Greeks and robbers depart therefrom. And whosoever departeth therefrom, he also is secure as regards his life and his property, or until whilst they bring out what is in their houses. And whosoever remaineth, to him there is security in like manner as to the people of Elia, and security for their goods, whilst they are conveying that which is in their houses. And whosoever there be of the people of the land, who wish to reside therein, upon him is the same tribute as upon the people of Elia. And whosoever wisheth to go with the Greeks, or to return to his land, from him there shall not be taken a thing which his repositories (warehouses, magazines) produce. And of all this may God be Ratifier! and be this the Covenant of his Apostle (upon whom be the blessing and peace of God !) and the covenant of the orthodox Khalífs, if they yield possession. Witness to this, Khalid-Ibn-AlWalíd, and Abu-Urrahmán-Ibn-Uf, and MúashIbn-Jabil, and Muáwwiyah-Ibn-Abú-Sufián.”

Again, Khalid-Ibn-Abi-Málik relates traditionally in his account derived from his father. When the Musalmáns came down upon the Holy City, and had remained besieging it, and their stay thereon was prolonged, they sent to them to open the city to us, for that we would give them security for their blood and for their possessions. Then they sent word to them, We will not confide in a capitulation from


Khalíf Omar Ibn-Al-Khattab shall come; for we have been informed of his superexcellence, and goodness, and probity. Therefore, if he come, then will we surrender, and trust in his capitulation, and open the city to you. Upon this they wrote to Omar, informing him of this. Then Omar rode from Medina, until he came to them. Now they had taken possession of places of which they had not taken possession before, and had seized a vineyard that day, which was in their power, belonging to a man who had been received into the protection of the Musalmáns, in which were grapes; and they began to eat them. So the client (i. e. the man received into protection) went to Omar-Ibn-Al

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