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75
Essays on Creation and Geology.

76 served history of the globe. He refers bone, or portion, or small fragment of to an event not involved in chimerical bone, you are able to construct an aniconjecture, like that of the whole tribe mal, and demonstrate to what species, of enthusiastic system-builders ; but &c. it belongs ; and that, not only such to an event which was certain, and of as you have had the opportunity of which there were ten thousand wit- dissecting in the recent state, but such vesses. And, if I mistake not, he does as you confess you never saw nor as much as say, that that event alone heard of, till this iosolated fragment was the primary and grand cause of fell into your hands! How do such all, or almost all, the revolutionary ap- vaunting pretensions accord with your pearances of our globe. At all events own acknowledgment, when you say, he assures us, whatever men may urge that as for those fossil animals, “their to the country, that it has never uu- races have even become extinct, and dergone another catastrophe similar to have left no memorial of them, except the flood ; but that since the deluge, some small fragments which the na“ the present heavens and earth are turalist can scarcely recognize?"* And treasured up and preserved” from that, when you frankly acknowledge reor any other revolution that would specting others, that they have treated destroy them, “ by the same word or this subject in such a manner as to power which destroyed the old world,” have caused what you call the "Science for the purpose of being burot with of Geology, to have become ridifire, at the day of judgment and de- culous ?'* Now, if such was your struction of ungodly med.” 2 Pet.iii. 7. opinion of others, you must pardon

This, therefore, being a subject of us, if, in some of your positions, we prophecy, of some peculiar characters should bave the same opinion of which were to arise in the latter days, you ; for what can be more “ridilittle did those philosophers who have culous” than your theory respecting been so exceedingly industrious in the fossil remains of animals, and the examining the geognostic structure of visionary conclusions you draw from the earth, and in comparing the ana- them ?? tomy of the animals which at pre- Thus, when matters are fairly exasent exist upon it, with the petrified mined, without doubt it will indeed be and metamorphosed fossil remains of found, notwithstanding the assertions animals which have been dug from it, of some learned men to the contrary, sometimes at considerable depths ; | that there is still every reason to conand from thence drawing conclusions, clude, that in regard to the different which in their nature tend to sap the tribes of terrestrial animals, though foundation of the Christian system ;- one generation passeth away, yet anlittle did they imagine, I say, that, by other generation cometh ; so that the these very arguments, instead of giving species with the earth still abideth. Christianity its death-blow, as perhaps This fact, from the very nature of some of them intended, they have in- things, we are led strongly to presume. advertently given it the triumph of an It was evidently to preserve the aniadditional argument, arising from this mals alive that the earth was provided very conduct of theirs ; namely, that with the means of animal subsistence, such impious attempts to oppose the ere yet animals were created to subAlmighty were predicted of them.

sist upon it. The formation of aniThanks to you then, Messrs. H

mals in pairs, male and female, is an C, W-, and the whole class argument to the same effect. And it of theoretical philosophers, for what must ever be maintained, that as there you have inadvertently done for the is at the head of the Creation an ininterests of Christianity. And as for finitely wise Intelligence, who works you, M. Cuvier, we must single out nothing in vain; even so this very you, as an adventorer, that has even thing secures the preservation of his surpassed your brethren, and say to works. A demonstrating instance of you, that we could as soon believe the his superintending and preserving fantastic story of the moon's being a

care, we clearly have in the provision detachment from the tail of a comet, which he made for the preservation of which, happening to come too near the animals, where, by the delage of the earth, was attracted by it, and so has whirled round it as its humble vassal, ever since ; as that your powers

* Cavier's Theory on the Earth, p. 17. are infallibly such as, that from a single + Ibid. p. 30.

BY P. L.

77 Answer to Query. Anecdotes.--Northern Expedition. 78 Noab, at one stroke he cut off all posing impudence exclaimed---“Never flesh, both of man and beast, from the did I see so obstinate a corpse !” earth.

Sir John Maynard. As all the different tribes of land animals, from the perfect quadruped to When Sir J. Maynard, an eminent the crawling reptile, were created on | English lawyer, waited upon the prince this anterior part of the sixth day, we of Orange, the new monarch, after the leave it to the naturalist to make the abdication of James II. with an adenumeration of them, and to arrange dress; William observed to him, that, them into systematic order.

judging from his age, he must have outIf any should be disposed to con- lived most of the judges and eminent sider the objections above stated, To lawyers of his standing. To this Sir the idea of the extinction of certain J. replied, “ And I should have outtribes of animals, to be not sufficiently lived the law too; had it not been for demonstrated ; I only beg of such for the arrival of your Majesty.” a little to suspend their judgment, till Fareham, Oct, 6, 1820. we come to that part of the subject, where we shall have occasion to examine the nature of the proof on which

GENUINE ANECDOTE,-COMMUNICATED the assertion, That whole species of ani- The Hon. Wm.Gray, of Boston, (New mals have become extinct, is founded; when I hope to make it appear, to the England,) celebrated as “the rich," and satisfaction of every reasonable mind, respected for his exemplary virtues, that the proofs are of such a doubtful, some time since, on his accustomary precarious, and uncertain nature, as

visit to the inarket, found a newly-adto render the objections here advanced mitted lawyer seeking for a boy to safficiently conclusive.

carry home his meat. Mr. Gray, whose ordinary dress is plain and simple,

and whom the lawyer did not know, ANSWERS TO QUERY ON ESSENTIAL

stepped up, and offered to take it home OILS,

for him, which offer the attorney imInserted in No. 20. col. 814, of the Imperial mediately accepted; and on arriving Magazine.

at his house, and laying down the meat Query.-What is the reason of es- where he was directed, the attorney sential oils becoming milky on the ad- inquired how much he charged for dition of alcohol?

carrying it? Mr. Gray replied, he left Answer.--Essential oils, on expo- it to his “ generosity;" upon which he sure to air for some time, absorb gave him a shilling, which he acoxygen, and become resinous, by cepted with thanks, observing, that which they lose their volatility, fra- if he had at any time any market grance, and pungency:

things to carry home, he would readily Query.- What could be done to pre- do it for him; and if I should not vent it?

happen to be there,” said he,“ just inAnswer:-By keeping them in small quire for Billy Gray, and I will come opaque phials, completely full, and well immediately." It is unnecessary to stopped.

add, the surprise and mortification of Fareham, Oct. 5, 1820.

G*****

the lawyer, on bearing that a man

worth a million of dollars, had perANECDOTES.

formed this menial service for him; but Impudence of a Venetian Conjurer.

it had its effect, for he never afterwards A CONJURER of Venice, who boasted required the assistance of any one to that he was able to perform the greatest

aid him in performing his marketing, of miracles, that of bringing the dead

or to carry home his meat.–Savannah to life, had the audacity to exercise

Republican. this power on a corpse which was passing at the moment when he was NORTHERN EXPEDITION. haranguing the populace. He re- The long interval which elapsed, from peatedly summoned the deceased in the time that the Griper and the Hecla, the most urgent manner, to arise and under the command of captain Parry, walk home; but as all he said still pro- sailed into the Polar regions, with a duced no effect, he at length turned to design to discover the north-west pashis auditory, and with the most im- Isage, and the earliest accounts which 79

Northern Expedition.

80

were received from them, had created along the northern shore of America, serious apprehensions for their safety. and resumed their progress up BarThey have however at length return- row's Straits, leaving behind them ed; and although no oficial account Croker Bay (the Croker mountains of has yet been published of their voyage, Captain Ross.) They speedily diswe learn from the few particulars which covered a group of islands, nine in have transpired, that the enterprise has number, and nanied them New Georgia been attended with more success than Isles. Proceeding onward, they obany similar undertaking which pre- served, when rather more than half ceded it. The general outline which way to the ultimate point at which follows, we copy chiefly from the Lite- they arrived, that the variation of the rary Gazette.

needle was about 120° east : thus it apFrom some accounts which had been pears that the magnetic meridian must published, an opinion prevailed, that lie between that degree and the degree the mean temperature during twelve of 90, where the variation was towards months at the North Pole was from ten the west. At sea the compass had been to twelve degrees alove zero. This quite useless since the 7th of August, opinion was, however, found to be and it was only on land that the needle erroneous, it being ascertained by our traversed. The greatest dip was above adventurous navigators, that even in 88°; and our scientific readers, putting the latitude where they wintered, the these data together, will perhaps agree mean annual temperature was two de- with us in supposing that the magnegrees below zero. In consequence of tic pole is situated somewhere on the this intense cold, they endured great American continent, between the lonhardships ; of which it was no small gitudes we have mentioned, and below aggravation, that for the last nine the latitude of 70°. months they were upon short allow- On the 7th of September, after enance of bread, and, during the summer countering many dangers, the vessels months, of other necessaries; thus add- were anchored in Winter Harbour, ing the cravings of hunger to the pinch- Melville Island. In the beginning of ings of frost.

November their night began, and it It is nevertheless pleasing to learn, lasted till the beginning of February that amidst these privations and suffer- 1820, when the sun was seen for a few ings, the sailors bore their situation minutes above the horizon. This lunot only with resignation and fortitude, minary gradually prolonged the time but with cheerfulness and good hu- during which it rose, till in June it bemour. Frequently, when they had re- came constantly visible, circling round, turned from a day of fatiguing and un- and making changeless day. On the productive search for game, they wrap- | Ist of August the vessels were released ped themselves in their blankets, io from the ice, nearly as suddenly as they try by sleep to forget their exhaustion, had been overtaken by the winter; and and that appetite which they durst not our bardy countrymen,with the blessing satisfy, lest they should, by encroach- of Providence, were enabled to pursue ing on their next day's scanty allow a homeward, but still perilous course. ance, or on their general stock, be in Their furthest point was beyond 114° the end confined to these dreary re- west. The ice all around them in the gions, starving and without subsist- Polar Sea, was above 40 feet thick; and ence. Notwithstanding this, never a no vessel could by possibility navigate murmur escaped one of them ; but for farther in that direction, north, west, patience, fortitude, and firmness, they or south. Itis probable therefore that displayed a picture unsurpassed even Regent's Inlet will be more minutely by the noblest examples of English explored by the next expedition, sent seamen.

into these parts, and that hardly any The expedition arrived at the en- other attempt will be made to the westtrance of Lancaster Sound, on the 1st ward of Liddon's Gulf (so named from of August 1819. On the 7th the ships the commander of the Griper.) The were in the Regent's Inlet, and there, ships were roofed over during the winin about 90° of long. the variation of ter, and the crews did not, as reported, the needle was, we understand, about erect huts on shore. Melville's Island 120° west. Stopped by ice, they left was however explored by hunting the inlet, which is supposed either to parties, and Capt. Parry crossed it, extend to Hudson's Bay, or trend and was absent for three weeks to

81
Northern Expedition.

82 gether. It is reckoned about 150 miles coarse granite was found in round delong, and from 30 to 40 broad. It is tached pieces in the ravines, and other also supposed that the whole sea, mineral specimens were picked up. north of the American continent, is Some of the isles were amazingly prebroken into islands.

cipitously, arising from 3 to 800 feet It does not appear that natural above the water. From the entrance history has been much enriched thus of Lancaster's Sound to Melville Isfar by the objects obtained. Only one land, the land gradually declined, till, Bear was seen during their stay at from towering and pointed rocks, it Melville Island. This came smelling became gently undulated. up to the Hecla, when Captain Parry The distance between Winter Hardirected some of his men to shoot it. bour and Copper-mine River may be Unfortunately, through some miscon- above 150 or 200 miles. The whole ception of the directions given, they distance which the expedition went fired in platoon, and only wounded the from the mouth of Lancaster's Sound, shaggy monster, which retired growl. was about 500 miles.

There were ing and bloody. The crews of both traces of old Esquimaux huts on Melvessels immediately gave chase, and ville Island. The lowest temperature continued the pursuit two or three was 551° below zero. miles, when Bruin found security in These are the chief facts which we crossing some ice, and the sailors were have gathered respecting this truly compelled to return, disappointed. gratifying expedition, which not only

The wolves were large, and were reflects honour on all concerned in it, heard nightly howling in a most dis- but on the country. Mr. Barrow's preagreeable manner. The other quadru- science is happily illustrated by its repeds found, when the summer returned, sults, which have so completely estawere the musk-ox, of which several blished all that he predicated. Nor were killed, the deer, the fox, and the is Captain Parry's eulogy to be lightly mouse; the latter remained through spoken: his whole conduct has been the winter, were numerous, and chang- admirable; and we imagine that this ed from brown to white. The fowls sketch will greatly increase the public were chiefly the arcticgull, the glaucus, anxiety to see the precise details of a the ptarmigan (which has been called voyage which has opened a new sea to the partridge,) and a singularly beauti- British navigation, and gone far to inful duck denominated the king-duck. dicate the very seat of one of the great

The owl, in full beauty of feather, est wonders in nature. Upon this subseemed to inhabit this inhospitable re. ject, we have heard that Sir H. Davy gion throughout the year.

has made some important discoveries A curious circumstance in natural by experiments with the galvanic bathistory has been mentioned to us. It is tery at home; and we look with prostated that one of the she-wolves of the found curiosity to the further developcountry where the vessels were laid up, ment of the principles of magnetism, formed an intimacy with a ship dog, electricity, and attraction, to which and almost daily visited him for some these circumstances will stimulate and time, as if he had belonged to the same help the scientific world. The tables species. At last the dog, a setter, be- and other data in Captain Parry’swork, longing to one of the officers of the must be of immense consequence. Griper, followed his wild companion, It would appear from the hardihood and was never seen more. Ànother with which our countrymen bore the dog from Hecla also went off, but excessive cold to which they were exreturned, though with his throat all posed, that a good deal of exaggeramangled. There were no fish, and no tion must belong to the accounts pregame of any kind till the summer came, viously given of the sufferings endured when those birds and animals we in frozen regions. We never read of have mentioned made their appear- human beings existing at 55° below ance. Grass, saxafragium, and pop- zero, at more than 12° below the point pies, formed the herbage, in patches at which mercury becomes solid; nor and tufts, which looked green and gay indeed, at any thing like that temperaat a distance, but was very thinly scat- ture, without experiencing far greater tered over the marly surface of the inconveniences than seem to have atearth. In geology, limestone, sand-tended our navigators. The cold, howstone, and slate, were most prominent; I ever, must have been dreadfully in

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83
Northern Expedition.

84 tense, since the utmost care was ne- formed of boarding pikes, &c. and cessary, to prevent the most fatal con- covered with sails and blankets. sequences. An idea of this may be Sometimes they tried to eat the proformed from the fact, that a servant of duce of their guns; but the foxes were Captain Sabines, on some alarm of very disgusting, and the musk-ox refire being given, ran into the air with sembled the toughest beef stewed in out covering one of his hands; it was a musk sauce. immediately frost-bitten, and he lost During their perbiemation, the Authree of his fingers. We understand rora Borealis was but once or twice also that another man was deprived of slightly visible to the voyagers, 10all the extreme joints of one hand. wards the north. Towards the south Ulcers on the face were the effects of it was more vivid ; but about the latiincautious exposure ; but we hear of tude of 60°, seems to be the seat of no such fatal accidents as are common this phenomenon; and its appearance even in Russia. Our brave fellows is not only much more brilliant from stood the extremest weather with muf- Newfoundland, but from the northern flers up to their noses, and warm caps Scottish Isles, than from the Arctic descending to their eyes and covering Circle. Only one flash of lightning their ears; and after a little experience was observed by var sailors. of the climate, they avoided

casualties When the fine weather set in, seveby a very simple means. The person ral of the officers employed themselves bitten was himself unconscious of the in attempting to garden. Forcing attack; but each “ looking in his under mats, as well as growing in the neighbour's face" as they went, warn- free air, was tried. One succeeded ed his companion when he saw his in getting peas to shoot up eight or nose grow white in consequence of the ten inches; and these green stalks were frost. Turning from the wind, and a the only green peas they devoured as few minutes' gentle friction with the vegetables. Radishes got to the hand, (or, if very much injured, with second leaf, on the soil of Melville snow,) invariably restored the circula- Island. Onions and leeks refused to tion, and the tone of the part ; and un- grow. In the ships, small salad was less allowed to go too far, no pain produced for invalids ; happily, the whatever was felt. But when serious- scurvy never got the ascendancy. ly affected, the agony of restoring the Other oflicers were engaged in erectcirculation was dreadful.

ing monuments upon the heights, to Beer, wine, and spirits, became ice ; commemorate the extraordinary cirthe beer was destroyed, but the wine cumstances of the expedition. Huge and spirits were tolerably good when cairns, by these means, crown the most thawed.

obvious hills, and remain the rude but The ship's timbers were of the tem- proud monuments of British daring, perature of the surrounding element, with inscriptions to tell the date, and and wherever the iron bolts and fasten- inclosing bottles, in which the princiings ran through, they became studded pal events of the voyage are written with rosettes of transparent ice. The and sealed up. most comfortable sleep was obtained It was on their way home, when far by converting the blankets into large down Davis's Straits, that Captain bags drawn at the mouth. Into these Parry sell in with two families of Esthe slumberer crept, and some com- quimaux, of whose residence he was rade, wbo kept the watch, closed him apprised by a whaler. He accordingly in by pulling the strings.

visited them, and they in turn visited We have not many other particu- the ships. They betrayed none of the lars to state. Captain Parry, when terror which filled the tribe seen by out from the ships for three weeks, Captain Ross ; but accepted the beadswent entirely across Melville Island, and knives presented to them with inand beheld the sea on the other side. conceivable joy. Indeed their raptures It is evident that the icy ocean bere were so excessive, that it was with the contains a mighty archipelago of utmost difficulty one of them could be islands, of which Greenland is pro- made to sit still while his portrait was bably the greatest. When travelling sketched. He was continually starton land, our gallant countrymen hunt- ing and jumping up, shouting augh! ed, and rested in tents like those of augh! and playing off the most violent bucksters at a village fair. They were contortions of joy; which were parti

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