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Character of Christophe.


to himself the largest and the best of that he might be killed, and that they the estates in the country, that he so might have a better ruler. On bis managed as to have at command the return to the Cape, a villanous Romish property and labour of the highest as priest informed him of it. Exaswell as of the lowest of the natives, perated beyond measure, he immediand that this power, when he thought atoly issued a bloody mandate for all proper, he used to his own aggrandize- the mulatto women in his dominions ment,-it will be thought that this trait to be put to death. Three hundred of in his disposition was but too glaring: these poor wretches were instantly

Add to this, he was inflated with taken to a spot near the town, and vanity and pride. This was evinced were barbarously beheaded ; and had by the grandeur of his person, bis not his fury somewbat abated, it is court, and bis retinue. Perhaps no probable the whole would bave been court in all civilized Europe surpassed, cut off. in this respect, that of the black king Tbis is the worst part of Christophe's of Hayti; no monarch was more character; and truly it is bad enough. extravagantly apparelled, no retinue Nevertheless, it can by no means be greater. It was this too which led denied that he possessed some good him to send forth into the world ex- qualities. Indeed, had he not been aggerated accounts of the happy con- too ambitious of rule, there would not dition of his people ; of the plans he have been a man in Hayti so capable had adopted, and was pursuing, for of forming and executing plans which their benefit; and of the progress they would have been an honour to himself, were making in civilization. With and have greatly promoted the happithis, however, there might have been ness and prosperity of his people. By mixed a good deal of what is called his regulations, the state of bis subpatriotic feeling. He found himself jects was greatly improved, though at the head of a considerable number not so much so as he wished it to of people, but just liberated from be believed; they introduced order slavery; his own character, and that among them to a surprising degree, of his subjects, depended much on his and evinced that, though a Negro, he exertions; he felt it so; he wished the had a mind of no ordinary conception. exaggerated statements he sent forth It is true, the subordination he enhad been true, and was anxious they forced, too much resembled slavery ; should be credited by the world. but it is a question whether it was not

More than this,- he could also act absolutely necessary to their future the perfect tyrant. It may be thought | improvement, as well as to their seby many, and perhaps with consi- curity. The island had indeed dederable propriety, that when one with clared itself independent of France, the uncultivated mind, and the na- but France has not to this day acknowturally violent disposition, of this ledged its independence; and while aspiring chief, obtains power, he may, this is the case, it is necessary, in from that circumstance, be suddenly order to keep the country in a state of and almost insensibly prompted to defence, for the ruler, whoever he may acts of inhumanity, rather than pro- be, to have the people (so difficult ceed to them from an uncommon from their character and disposition cruelty of heart, and fixed purposes to be properly disciplined) in a state of barbarity. Whether this was the of obedience, and at perfect command. case with Christophe, it is difficult to Tyranny is to be abhorred, whereascertain; but the following circum- soever or by whomsoever it is exerstance is a striking and dreadful cised; but it is exceedingly doubtful instance of his acting a part perfectly whether a people like that of Hayti tyrannical and barbarous, while at can be governed at all-whether inwar with Petion,

deed they would not soon degenerate When he was once absent from Cape into perfect savages--without having Henry, the mulatto women of that some severe regulations established town, who, previously to the French among them, and occasionally enforced being driven from the island, were with some degree of severity. Chrisfree, and who now considered them- tophe knew his people too well not to selves as suffering little short of see the necessity of this, and his laws slavery, went frequently to an old were framed and enforced accordingly. church, to pray to the Virgin Mary The means le adopted to secure the


Observations on Colours.


country from being invaded by the had been taught less; and though, for French, of which they are in continual his ambition and occasional cruelty, fear, were no small proofs of his wis- he will be justly bated, it will hardly dom and prudence. It was an esta- be thought he was the common and blished law with him, that every man only enemy of his people." in his dominions should be a soldier. It would be useless to form conjecHis standing army was remarkable for tures respecting the future state of the order and discipline. It was fed and Haytians. From their present circlothed at his own expense. Proper cumstances there is much to be feared ; hospitals were provided for the sick those of the northern districts have and diseased, and were regularly rebelled against their chief, and have visited by himself as well as by his assigned his tyranny for their reason. surgeons. And while he was possessed that he was sometimes cruel, cannot with the idea that he was a good sol- be denied ; but such as have bad an dier himself, he gloried at seeing an opportunity of witnessing their ficklearmy of his own colour, the officers ness and love of change, their utter and privates of which promised, if want of principle, and their licentiousthere should be occasion, to fight in ness, will ascribe it chiefly to other desence of their country and their li- reasons. The whole country is now berty as bravely as himself had done. formed into one republic. What may Cape Henry, the principal town, was be their next change, it is impossible well guarded with cannon, and batte- to say. Yet it is sincerely hoped that, ries were erected beyond its limits. though a republican form of governA few miles in the interior, on a moun- ment is little suited to Negroes, they tain of amazing height, he had erected may now he united among thema citadel, the walls of which were selves, and in every way prosper as a stated to be seventy feet in thickness; people. it was so singularly situated, and so strongly defended, as to be deemed

OBSERVATIONS ON COLOURS. impregnable by assault.

At the same time he encouraged commerce. The natives brought their Mr. Accum, in his System of Chelittle produce of cotton, sugar, and mistry, or the Theory of Colours, coffee, to the Cape, and sold it to the remarks,-“That the most curious best advantage; though it must be composition of Light is that of Whiteacknowledged he always reserved to ness; that there is no one sort of rays himself the privilege of selling bis which can alone exhibit this colour ; own stock first.

that it is therefore always compound, The introduction of the Lancasterian and to its composition all the primary system of edueation into the country, colours are necessary."--To prove by qualified persons sent him from this, he observes—“The surface of a England, at his particular request, spinning-top may be painted with shewed that be truly valued education, the colours of the spectrum of the and was anxious to promote the im- prism, and that, when set in motion, provement of the younger part of the the rapidity with which it revolves population. Schools were established prevents the possibility of any one in all the chief towns ; they generally colour being distinguished singly, but prospered, and the masters were that the whole appears white.

- On handsomely remunerated for their ser- the contrary, Blackness," he says, vices ; but since his death, they have “ is produced by a total absorption of been broken up.

the incidental light, which being He had also begun to introduce the stopped or absorbed in the body, is arts of agriculture, especially the use not reflected outwards, but refracted of the plough ; and the persons sent within,--hence it is lost, and produces him by Mr. Wilberforce for this pur- darkness. If this be correct, may not pose, succeeded in teaching the natives | Blackness also be considered a colour, much to their satisfaction.

if we are to understand it to be proIt will be remembered that these duced by an absorption of all the priwere the regulations of a Negro, who mitive colours ; Whiteness having was, in one sense, born and also bred been proved to be a colour from a a Slave; who had had no opportunity concentration or intimate admixture of of learning; who had seen little, and the primitive colours ?

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Mr. Burke, on the “ Sublime and colours of all natural bodies," says Mr. Beautiful,” observes, “ Blackness is Accum,“ depend on this the abovebut a partial darkness, and therefore it mentioned) refrangibility of light; they derives some of its powers from being may be considered as prisms, which mixed and surrounded with coloured decompose or rather divide the light

. bodies. In its own nature it cannot Some reflect the rays without prodacbe considered as a colour. Black ing any change, and these are white; bodies reflecting none or but a few others absorb them all, and are thererays, with regard to sight, are but fore black. The greater or less afi

many vacant spaces dispersed nity of the several rays with various among the objects we view.”

bodies, is no doubt the cause, that Mr. Accum goes on to speak of the when a pencil of light falls upon a effect of Light on vegetables, and ob- body, some rays enter into it, whilst

the more plants are ex- others are reflected ; and it is this posed to the Light, the more colour which affords the diversity of colours, they acquire ; but if raised in perfect and the prodigious variety of shades, obscurity, they are colourless," or under which bodies appear to our white, I presume.' He adds, that Pro- eyes; and thus are formed the pellufessor Davy assures us, red rose- cid stream, the green sea, the white trees, carefully excluded from the froth, the dark pool, the azure sky, Light, produced roses nearly white. the varying colour of the pigeon's Here then we are given to under- neck, the opal, the mother of pearl

, stand, that a combination of the solar the silk called changeable, &c.; and rays produces whiteness, and that hence the white colour of the Eurowhiteness is therefore a colour; and pean, the copper colour of the Ameon the other hand, that a total abstrac-rican, and the black colour of the tion of those rays produces white- Negro.” How, I would ask, can this ness also, by leaving the vegetable refrangibility of light possibly apply colourless. Is not this contradictory, to the animal and mineral kingdoms ? and how can it be reconciled ?

With regard to precious stones, That solar light bas very extensive more particularly in the mineral kinginfluence in the vegetable kingdom, dom, it is well known their colours are is certain, but I question its agency affected by chemical agents. The coin the animal and mineral kingdoms. lour of the emerald, for instance, is inMr. A, observes in another place, debted to the presence of iron, and " that whatever pleasure we derive other precious stones to other metals; from the beauty of colouring, is owing and again, their being found deeply to the different refrangibility of light, buried in the earth is proof positive each object sending back to our eyes against their being indebted to the those rays which the peculiar struc- agency of light for their colours. ture of its surface is best adapted to Again, as it regards the animal kingreflect. In this sense, the blushing dom, if the varied colours of people beauties of the rose, and the modest of different nations are dependent on blue of the violet, may be considered the action of solar light, why are as not in the objects themselves, but not the hands and face of a European in the light that adorns them in those as black as the whole body of a Negro, robes." Now, I conceive, there is a seeing they are equally exposed to it! material difference between the rays but we know the Negro is black from of light received directly from the sun, his birth ; and this, as well as the vaand those produced by the light of a ried colours of the feathered tribe, candle ; yet all colours preserve their have not, I apprehend, their origin in character in candle-light, sufficiently any of the effects produced by solar to be distinguished, although the va- light, but also, as with vegetables

, rious shades of any one colour may from a principle they originally posdiffer.

scss, imprinted on them by a divine That vegetables are dependent on hand. Were the negro, the blacksolar light for the preservation of their bird, the swan, the peacock, or any colours, I believe; but I also feel con animal whatever, to be born in total vinced they possess an original prin obscurity, and suffered to live for a ciple in themselves, for displaying number of years secluded from the their various tints, impressed on them light of day, can it be supposed, or by the hand of Deity. Again, “ The proved, that they would have colours

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Review- Mexican Revolution.


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different from others of their own Mexico had long abounded in men of republican tribes ?

principles; but as the revolution unfortunately With regard to blackness, I cannot, began among the most ignorant and wretched for my own part, find a circumstance ligent part of society, for the reasons which

population of the country, nearly all the intelin nature to prove, that it is effected have already been set forth, rallied around the by an absorption of incidental light. royal standard ; awaiting the moment when It may be produced by various means, the revolutionary paroxysms among the lower in wbich light has no agency what orders should subside, or some leader of more

consequence than had hitherto appeared, should ever,---yet there are some cases whe

spring up. They would then have thrown their it acts as a chemical agent; black ink, exertions into the scale of their country on the for example, becomes blacker by ex- first favourable occasion. In Mina they at posure to solar light; also, if a piece length beheld the man on whom they could of linen be immersed in a colourless rely. To him they looked, as the individual solution of nitrate of silver, by ex-Mexican capital.

who should plant the banners of liberty on the posure to light it soon acquires co- “ Nor was this seeling confined to the Creoles. lour, and gradually becomes black; Many European Spaniards were enthusiastically and this is effected by the oxidating attached to Mina, and the only cause of regret power of light on the metals. Accord was, that he had not brought a sufficient number ing to Mr. Burke, and without his tes- although his name alone struck terror into the

of foreign troops to inspire confidence; for timony it is well known, that bodies royal authorities, and a party in his favour was originally black, refract pone, or but daily augmenting, yet it was not in his power few of the solar rays, but absorb them to hold out a certainty of personal protection. all; and vice versa with bodies ori- And since, under a vigilant and despotic governginally white; but colours used in site to form a combination; many individuals

ment, time and caution were absolutely requipainting, dyeing, &c. have not, in

were restrained from abandoning their families my opinion, any dependence on the to the horrors which they knew must result agency of light, in forming the bright from the premature espousal of the cause of est yellow or the deepest black.

liberty. These considerations operated as a My principal object in submitting and other royal towns, but they secretly panted

check on the patriotic inliabitants of the capital the above to the attention of the for his advance, and were prepared to join him readers of the Imperial Magazine, has at the first auspicious moment. been to propose the Query,--" Are So much encouraged were his partisans by the appearances termed Black and his extraordinary successes, that they met in

coffee-houses in the city of Mexico, discussed White, -Colours, or not? and to re

the news of the day, and betrayed their hopes quest proof in support of a reply.” and fears so openly, that it could not escape the

G.O. knowledge of the government. Coercive mea

sures were adopted against some distinguished Review.-Memoirs of the Mexican citizens, but still the ferment in the capital did Revolution, &c.

not subside. (Continued from col. 675.)

“ After the defeat of the royal troops at The successes which had crowned the Peotillos, the viceroy saw that the invasion

was assuming a formidable aspect, and that if early efforts of Mina, had inspired him Mina was not immediately checked, all would and his followers with fresh courage, be lost. Roused, therefore, by this critical and the Spaniards were alarmed at his state of affairs, he withdrew as many of the progress and daring exploits in a simi- European troops as could be spared, or seasoniar proportion. These fears, and the tonments, and united them with some native in

ably procured, from the numerous royal canstate of the capital, the author thus fantry and his best Creole cavalry. But, great describes :

as was the emergency, he could concentrate only "Whilst Mina was making his arrangements about five thousand men. Upon this army dein Sombrero, opening a correspondence with pended the fate of the government; and if it the royal towns, and adopting the best measures had been destroyed, which would have been in his power for future military operations, the the case had Padre Torres acted as he ought to royalists were likewise more than commonly have done, no similar force could have been active. The government of Spain had early raised. Our reasons for this assertion will be sent orders to the viceroy, to abandon, if ne- adduced in their proper place. cessary, every other object, and to direct all “ The command of the army destined for the his exertions to the crushing of Mina. The overthrow of Mina, was conferred on Don viceroy had calculated, that after the measures Pasqual Linan, a mariscal de campo. He held which had been previously adopted, the large likewise the distinguished rank of inspector force collected in the internal provinces was general of Mexico, the officer next in military sufficient to overwhelm Mina. 'Bat when the rank to the viceroy. Linan, by rapid marches, news of the rencounter at Peotillos reached arrived in the province of Guanaxuato, in the Mexico, it aroused him at once to a sense of middle of July. Mina was accurately and rehis danger. The state of the capital was also gularly advised of the movements of the enesuch as to aggravate lis fears : for the city of iny, from their own towns; but, placing a firm

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Review Mexican Revolution.


reliance on the arrival of the supply of provi- Recovering from their panic, and sions, ammunition, and men, which he hourly urged by an apprehension for the fate

Torres, and having no doubt, likewise, that the of their capital, the Spaniards seized latter, as well as the other patriot chiels, would the earliest opportunity of attacking concentrate their forces to assist him, as had Mina in his fort; the siege,and the condibeen arranged, he determined to await the ar- tion of which, and the deplorable state rival of Linan at the fort of Sombrero. Mina's of its brave defenders, the author deliforce in the fort, at that time, had been aug- neates in the following passages. mented to five hundred rank and file.

" At the close of the month, information was “The fort was not calculated to sustain either brought to Mina, that the troops composing the a formal siege or a vigorous assault. Padre garrison of the Villa de Leon had that morning Torres had not sent any of the expected provimarched from the town, leaving only a small sions ; and a supply for ten days was all that detachment for its defence. Conceiving that the fort contained. The ammunition also was this afforded him a good opportunity to try the deficient, but twenty-five boxes remaining. But character of his recruits, and strike a blow the most serious evil was, that the third divi. against the enemy, he determined to attack the sion of the enemy was so posted as to eat off place. The Villa de Leon is an extensive, all communication between the garrison and the populous, and wealthy town, situated in a plain, water in the ravine. It was, however, boped abounding with whea: fields. After Mina's that this evil would not be seriously felt, as the arrival at Sombrero, the enemy, anticipating rainy season bad commenced. The only sucan attack on Leon, strengthened its works. cour which the garrison received from Padre Its garrison was likewise augmented to seven Torres, came about two days previous to the handred men, who were under the command arrival of the enemy, and consisted of sixty of Brigadier Don Pedro Celestino Negrete, a cavalry, under the command of Don Miguel de man famous in the annals of the revolution for Borja. The whole force of the garrison, inacts of depravity and cruelty. The streets cluding these and a party of the cavalry of Don leading to the principal square of the town Encarnacion Ortiz, did not exceed six hundred were defended by a traverse composed of a and fifty. When to these were added the pea. wall, with a ditch on the outside. This work santry, who were employed in working parinclosed the buildings, consisting of lofty ties, and the women and children, the whole churches and beavy mansions. The place had number of souls in the fort was about nine hitherto been considered impregnable, baving hundred. battled all the efforts of the patriots to take it. " At day-break of the 31st, the enemy openFrom their massive architecture, every house ed a heavy fire of shot and shells, which con. and church was in itself a fortification.

tinned incessantly till dark; their fire being “ Mina, on the evening he received the in- occasionally returned by the fort. This canformation, after having taken every precaution nonading continued, with little intermission, to prevent intelligence of his design being con- during the whole of the siege; and on some veyed to the enemy, marched from the fort with days, the besiegers discharged from their bathis division and some Creole cavalry, in all tery on the hill, as many as six bundred shot about five hundred men, and a piece of artillery and shells. To the besieged, this appeared a His intention was to take the enemy by sar- useless expenditure of ammunition, unless it prise, in the night. On arriving within half a was intended to display the great resources and mile of the town, a picquet of the enemy was indefatigable exertions of the enemy; for, as unexpectedly encountered; it fed, and alarmed the principal buildings were under cover of the the garrison, which, it afterwards appeared, conical hill, and the others were in such posihad been strongly reinforced by a division of tions as to be protected by the rocks, and is no Linan's army; a circumstance of which Mina one moved from his covert unless compelled was totally ignorant. On arriving near the by duty, the fire of the enemy was ineffectual, square, his troops were received by a beavy their shot falling harmless among the rocks, or fire of artillery, and musquetry from the tops of flying entirely over the fort. Indeed, their the houses. The attack was made with vigour, artillery was so upskilfully served, that it anbut all attempts to carry it failed, the storming noyed their own works on the south side. parties being overpowered by numbers. The This random firing continued for several days, Guard of Honour and regiment of the Union, without any casualty occurring, except among succeeded, however, in dislodging the enemy the horses which were roaming about the fort. from a strong barrack, and took a few pri- .: The enemy undoubtedly flattered himself soners; but they could not force their way any with the hope of making an easy conquest of farther. At dawn, the general, finding it im- the fort, expecting that the first assault wonld practible to carry the place, drew off his troops, produce a surrender. At two o'clock A.M. and fell back upon the fort. So well satisfied on the 5th of August, a spirited attack was were the enemy to get rid of him, that they made upon the fort, at three points, which were made no attempt to harass him on bis retreat. considered assailable: but it failed, and the This was the first reverse experienced by the enemy were compelled to retire, with some arms of Mina ; it was severe: the killed and loss. In this affair, the general, who comwounded were nearly one hundred, and among manded in person at the main entrance, disthem were several foreigners. Some of the played his usual intrepidity. With a lance in wounded, who could not be brought off, fell his hand, he was foremost in withstanding the into the hands of the enemy, and were imme- enemy, and received a slight wound. diately put to death ; while, on the contrary, “ But now another circumstance created the prisoners that Mina had taken were li more serious uneasiness than the assaults of berated".-pp. 1 to 7.

the enemy. The communication with the na

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