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Observations on Authors and Books.
Read also Melmoth's Translations claim a place in your library. Of of the Letters of Cicero, and of his English, and, indeed, of all other Treatises on Friendship and Old Age, poets, Shakspeare is the first. Milton and of Pliny's Letters. Vertot's need not be praised. Spenser's Fairy Revolutions Romaines is a book in Queen. Gray, before he composed some degree of estimation. Bossuet's poetry, always read some stanzas of Essai sur l'Histoire Universelle. The Spenser. You should have Warton's moral works of Plutarch must not be Annotations on Spenser,2vols.12mo.;-forgotten, nor the Memorable Sayings Derrick's Edition of Dryden, 4 vols. of Socrates by Xenophon, translated 8vo.;-Gray's Poems, with Mason's by Mr. Lennox. Among the ancient Memoirs ;-Swift, but rather for his poets, must be read Pope's Homer, prose than his poetry ;-—Thomson ;and Dryden's Virgil. If you wish to Goldsmith; the Histories which go trouble yourself about the ancient by his name are said not to have drama, you may look into Theatre proceeded from his pen;-Churchill;— des Grees, par le Pere Brumoi, and Mason's Caractacus and Elfrida ;Potter's Translation of Æschylus and Beattie's Minstrel ;—(It must_have Euripides; and read Colman's Trans- been through oversight that Pope's lation of Terence.
works are omitted. Prior deserves For English History, read Rapin, to be read, if a new Edition were with Tindal's Continuation, in 5 vols. printed, with omissions. Cowper folio; and Hume, who, however, is claims a place in every house.) not to be believed, when he would French History:—Histoire de France, persuade you that the people of Eng- par l'Abbe de Velley et Les Contiland were wolves, and the princes of nuateurs ;—Abrege de l'Histoire de the house of Stuart, lambs: for just France, par Henault, 2 vols. 8vo. information there is no comparison This masterly outline comprebends between him and Rapin. Lord Cla- more than many voluminous hisrendon is the first of English histories. Mémoires de Philip de Cotorians, and paints characters in co- mines. Mémoires de Sully: an exlours that make them live and breathe. act account of a great, though absoIf he is partial to the cause of which lute monarch, given faithfully by his he was the chief ornament, the sup- favourite minister, who was greater port, and victim, who can blame him? than himself, and proof against all the he was a man liable to error, open to temptations of power and fortune, has affection, but above corruption or been presented to the world but once. wilful misrepresentation. Burnet’s His- Mémoires de Cardinal de Rets. Més tory of his Own Times is an authentic moires de Madamel de Motteville, source of information for the period relate many curious particulars, of it embraces. Robertson's Histories, which the dignity of graver historians Melville's and Cary's Memoirs, pos- would have left no memorial. Siècle sess much interest. Walpole’s His- de Louis XIV.par Voltaire. Mémoires tory of Noble Authors, and Anecdotes de Gourville. Lettres de Madame of Painting in England, are full of de Sévigné, though not historical, are entertainment and information. The full of anecdotes of the times. LetBiographia Britannica is worth hav- tres du Comte Bussy Rabutin. Leting, to consult as a dictionary, if not tres et Memoires de Madame de Mainto read through. Mémoires de Gram- tenon. Souvenirs de Madame de mont may certainly be called English Caylus. Mémoires de Noailles. Mehistory: in them the gay court of moires de Madame de Stael; not Charles the Second will live for ever. historical, but very entertaining. (TO Bacon's Essays in English, Algernon these must be added the same Lady's Sidney's Letters, and the Spectator, work on the French Revolution, 3 must not be neglected. For the sake vols. 8vo.) of the style, Bolingbroke's Letters on Natural History, Moral Works, &c. the Study of History, and on the in French:-Histoire Naturelle, par Spirit of Patriotism, and Idea of a Buffon: Without this work, no library Patriot King,are worth reading. Burke can be complete. (This is a mistake: on the Sublime and Beautiful, and the whole theory of the Earth, and bis Junius's Letters, are valuable on the speculations on Man, occupying a same account. Clarissa, as the first large portion of the work, are erroneef novels, and Grandison (the inferior,) ) ous; many parts are highly indecent ;
Reflections on the Catholic Claims.
and on Birds and Fishes he is ex- | Reformation, Hooker's Ecclesiastical tremely deficient. Goldsmith's Natu- Polity, and Neal's History of the ral History will supply his place to Puritans, will afford valuable inforthe general reader; to which Pennant mation. On the subject of metaphymay be added.
To the naturalist, sics, Bishop Brown's Nature and Turton's edition of the System of Na- Extent of Human Understanding deture, by Limé, must be recommended.) serves deep attention. Locke's Works.) Caractères par la Bruyère. Of all books of morality, this appears to be the best adapted to the uses of Reflections on the Catholic Claims. common life. Ouvres de J. J. Rousseau ;-Ouvres de Voltaire, princi- TO THE EDITOR OF THE IMPERIAL pally his dramatic works, and histories. Lettres Persannes, par Montesquieu. Melanges et Eloges, par
Laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis. d'Alembert. All these works are to As your correspondents generally be read with judgment. (Contes Mo- seem to have taken up the Catholic raux, par Marmontel, are to be viewed question rather warmly against those as a picture of French manners to whom some great men wish to exbefore the Revolution.) Sermons tend relief, I think it necessary to par Bourdalone:-Sermons par Mas- premise, that if I should happen to say sillon :-Orasons Funèbres par Bos- something in favour of men who still suet :--Histoire Philosophique et adhere to the old national religion, it Politique des établissemens des Euro- will be by accident only; as I do not peens dans les deaux Indes, par l'Abbe profess to treat of any question of Raynal:--Memoires de Petrarch, par political and occasional import, but l'Abbe de Sade.
of human nature itself. Machiavel French Poetry :-Ouvres de Gres- has formed the ablest theory of policy set;-Fables par la Fontaine ;— The that ever was drawn up by any politiWorks of Boileau, Racine, Moliere, cal writer, on the mixed character of and Destouches.
every human being, as there never (The most modern Collections of did exist a man who was completely Voyages and Travels are worthy of bad or perfectly good. It is upon being studied. The author has said this principle, that all discord, and all so little of the important subjeet of parties, rest; national, local, and doreligion, that it is better to omit it mestic. As we are well or ill inclined, altogether, and to substitute the fol- we may with truth praise or censure lowing recommendation in its place: every man living. Historical events The Bible should be read in as many are produced by human beings; and languages as the student is master of; therefore, if the Tuscan be right, there by a comparison of the rendering of must be something to praise and different translators, much light is ob- something to censure, in the conduct tained. The principal versions are, of every change that takes place in the Septuagint vulgate; that of Cas- the course of our national revolutions. talio, which is rather an elegant para- Society itself does invent, without any phrase than a translation; and that of impulse of the legislature, some habiJunius and Tremellius : the folio tual way of discharging the bile that edition of the latter contains a Latin arises from this continual disputation, translation of the Syriac Version of and the ferment of contending affecthe New Testament, parallel with that tions. Among country neighbours, it of Beza from the Greek. Next is may be done by the abilities of two Paley's Natural Theology, and Evi- greyhounds or two horses. In a town, dences of Christianity; also Grotius by the patronage of two pugilists; and on the Evidences of Christianity, and in a district, by a brace of bull-dogs. Doddridge's three Sermons on the We are not much governed by judgsame subject. Wesley's appeals—and, ment in adopting the heat of party. as practical works that supersede We wait only to hear the opinion of every other, the same author's Chris- somebody that we dislike, to be outtian Library, now publishing in 30 rageously violent on the opposite volumes. There is no good history of side; and the idol of one party is the English Church ; but Burnet's often mistaken in supposing himself Abridgment of his own work on the beloved, when in fact his flatterers 721
Reflections on the Catholic Claims.
are only the enemies of bis opponents. | the Church and the State, is not always When the legislature does interfere, an advantage to both of them; for the method acquires rather an imagi- the State is governed by convenience nary importance from that reflection, and propriety, and the principles of than any refinement in the mode of religion seem to be less flexible than proceeding. The Italian republics, in the occasional compliances and bendthe middle ages, had an annual day ings of the civil. Those, who before fixed for the discharge of their sedi- our own revolution had taken the tious bile, by allowing every citizen oath of abjuration, imagined that it to beat his adversary with fists, from applied as much to a renunciation of sun-rise to sun-set, without being the authority of the Prince of Orange subject to any legal penalty. A simi- in their kingdoms, as to the sovereignty lar effect is produced by our method of the Pope. They were, therefore, of electing members of parliament. divided into Jurors and Nonjurors, If this succeeded more frequently, and many were deposed from their I think it would serve to allay the bishoprics and cures. It was then habitual bitterness and ill-temper that that the lofty names of Tillotson and infests society, and converts convivial Sherlock were stained with the foul meetings into clubs of hostility. When spots of duplicity and falsehood; and a member is returned for so long a they seized, under the protection of time, he has gained too great an ad- their new principles, the high prefervantage over his adversary, who has ments which Dutch Protestants beno hope of being soon able to annoy bim stowed upon them. The Archbishop again, and he torments himself with Sancroft died in retirement, objecting gloominess as well as envy. The dig- to the qualified doctrines of his sucnity of proceeding, however, is not cessor Tillotson; while Johnson, who greater upon these occasions than in had been the confessor and approver the bull-baitings and matches of foot of Lord Russell, upbraided the new ball. Upon this principle, of praise metropolitans with having changed always generating abuse, though both the very essence of his religious prinmay be well founded, it is not only ciple, to comply with the prejudice ; extremely difficult to form a due es- of a parricide from Amsterdam. The timate of the leading characters who Bishop of Salisbury, a creature of the live in our time, but it is perhaps im- revolution, of which he became the possible to appreciate justly the me- historian, wrote an “Essay on the rits of any eminent figure in our his- Memory of the late Queen,” in which tory. We are in the habit now, of he does not venture to discuss the speaking with respect of all those point of filial obedience. He cannot men, who brought about the British possibly find out that her persecution revolution; yet if we look a little more of her father might be the cause that narrowly into the history of those her days were not long in the land. times, we shall find imputations to Perhaps it was not. Religion must which a felon would not willingly be be under the control of the State, but truly liable. It was boldly stated at I think it both dangerous and imthat time by one party, that the crown moral to mingle them without necesis the gift of the people, and that the sity. It is the duty of every man to legal conveyance is by a bill of the obey the laws of the country in which two houses of parliament. By the he was born, and of the society, to other, that William and Mary had which he belongs, and this principle conspired, for the paltry interest of is inculcated in all the detached preadvancing one step in dignity, against cepts of the Bible; yet the Bible has the life and peace of their father. some examples that cannot escape the Foreign authors do generally agree in most superficial reader, which might adopting the latter opinion, and think authorize injustice. The army of this king and queen not much more Moses under Joshua treated the nahonest than Reoan and the Bastard of tions of Palestine as the Spaniards Gloucester. But distinctions of this treated the Americans; yet the Spasort are only brought forward, when niards were cruel and unjust. And revolutions are in their beginning, for the clergy at present are wrong in they very soon “trust to power,' and declaiming so violently against the violence dictates to reason.
principle of reform on sacred authoThe alliance, as it is called, between rity, if one missionary from Heaven
Reflections on the Catholic Claims.
drowned his king with his whole army did (as I find in an interesting book in the Red sea; and the very Being not just now upon my table) employ who sent him came afterwards in hu- | his spies and agents to promote a conman form, to subvert all the religions spiracy among the villains of the in the world. I know that this was country, always known to the secreright; but exhortations from the pulpit tary of the home-department, who were should be given with more caution, to blow his majesty and his parliaand managed with more address. ment into the air. The letter to Lord
Mr. Burke passes over all the Mounteagle was written by Cecil bimcrimes of our own revolution, by con- self, in skilful imitation of political sidering the value of the thing we oracular wisdom, which was to amuse gained in exchange. But perhaps he the king with a display of his own thoughtlessly condemned the French sagacity. The rest of the history of revolution, when he could not pos- the gunpowder plot is sufficiently sibly tell what they were to have in known, except that all the ammuniexchange. I mean only on his own tion was prepared by Cecil himself. principle, for it is my maxim that sins This project was, too, intended to conshould never be voluntarily committed vince the king that the Roman Cabecause good may possibly follow. tholics ought not to be cherished by There are some dark traits in the re- him. To lessen the power of the king, volution of England. For the list of he contrived to dilapidate and alienate the voters in the house of Lords, on the crown lands; in which monstrous the question of giving to William the exhibition of prodigality, he usurped crown of England, was published to his own share, as a reward for his under the title of the Black List, with zeal in the gunpowder plot, the mag. a view of exciting the populace to nificent seat of Hatfield, now in the marder all the dissentients; and it was possession of Lord Salisbury. The proposed to clothe in bear-skins many king, however, was not totally deof the nonjuring clergy, and amongst ceived, for he always spoke of the them the great Mr. Kettlewell, to fifth of November by the name of amuse the people with putting them to Cecil's holiday; and some spirited death.
remonstrances of Sir Walter Raleigh But enough of this: “Spartam nac- on the subject of the crown lands, and tus es hanc orna.” I take the govern- Hatfield in particular, ended fatally ment as I find it; and as I am without for this gallant and honourable adveninfluence even over the opinion of a turer. The time and manner of his single infant, I can only wish those who execution, 15 years after sentence was administer this government to make pronounced, with the general tenor of the people as happy and as virtuous Sir Walter's memoirs, makes this conas they can.
clusion probable. The history of the Stuart dynasty The excessive animosity of the nain this kingdom might form a most tion against the Catholics, from whose interesting and instructive volume ; conspiracy the Lords still pray to be but it will never be written with im- delivered, (though the Chancellor partiality and truth, as long as our thinks that they are praying to be present religious bickerings shall en saved from the hostility of one Titus dure. The accession of James I. took Oates) being thus imbittered by a place under circumstances the most new and dreadful plot, became a unfavourable to the tranquillity of the standard drain of seditious humours country that could well be imagined. for the people. Whenever the nation He was received by that Cabinet and was discontented, a crusade against Parliament who had applauded the the Catholics was set on foot, which assassination of his mother, and who resembled the hunting parties that, could never pardon him for the insults Mr. Bruce tells us, are annually conwhich they themselves had offered to ducted by the Ethiopian princes, into his family. Cecil had two main ob- the country of the Lhang-allahs. The jects to accomplish; to reduce the London fire was, perbaps, kindled for power of the crown for his own the same purpose; and ever since, safety, and at the same time to per- Englishmen have been obliged to suade the king that he took the great- swear a sort of hatred to the Cathoest personal interest in his happiness lics, about as humane as that which and security. For the first object, he Jean de Brie swore to tyrants. I wish
Essay III. On Caloric.
it were likewise as rational. I should | knowledgment of jurisdiction in a hardly have mentioned the pardonable foreign potentate. But this has been mistake of the Chancellor in what the too satisfactorily explained by the CaLords pray for, if it had not been a tholics, to excite any but a fictitious proof of the prejudice with which the jealousy. We can have now no more question is considered, and that the apprehension of the papal power, than dislike of these our fellow-citizens is of the cruelties of Tiberius. His founded upon any or no reason. The very existence depends on his perbest speech that has been made in the sonal merit; and the present Pope enpresent year on the subject, was, in joys all his influence, because he has my opinion, that of the Duke of Sus- displayed more than human virtue, sex; and the worst, that of the Chan- in stripes, in imprisonment, in revilcellor.
ings, &c. The most important consideration It is easy enough to perceive, that has, however, been omitted by all par- | I am an enemy to continuing longer ties; and that is, the effect that our the persecution against our fellowdisputes with the Catholics has had, creatures; and I think, that if all the and still continue to have, on religion ministers had zealously and sincerely itself. It is not necessary for a stran- ratified the full rights of our Roman ger to be previously indisposed to- Catholic brethren, they would have wards Christianity, to feel disgust made a worthy epilogue to their teragainst a religion productive of so mination of the continental war. What much uncharitable acrimony. If the indeed is the benefit of our victories, Catholics are right, we are guilty of if we still tremble at the flattering of gross blasphemy, and most unneigh- a leaf? if the recovery of Job from bourly malicious conduct towards his sickness may frighten us in our them. If they are wrong to the de- strong holds, and freeze up the blood gree that;we represent them, our in- of exultation in the heart in the most structors in Christianity taught us overbearing moments of triumphant nothing but paganism and idolatry, pride! Such a crime in the parent, may render the offspring suspicious, and give a final victory to infidelity. In suppressing their writings, we do not hinder the progress of their opinions.
(Continued from col. 535.) At all events, the subject of the sa- | ANOTHER effect of Caloric is vapo. crament was the most unfortunate rization. When bodies are reduced that could be selected for the aliment to a state of vapour, their particles of contention. In receiving this at are separated to a greater distance the altar, we pray so to eat the flesh of from each other, than when in a state Jesus Christ, and drink his blood, of fluidity. Some substances require that our sinful bodies may be made great degrees of heat before they clean by his body. It is a subject assume this form, whilst others bethat surpasses human reason, and come vaporized at very low temperaought to be left open; but if we will tures. Thus, for example, Ether is rush in where angels fear to tread, by converted into vapour at 104° of Fahour example infidels may justly re- renheit; Alcohol at 182o ; Water at ject what they do not understand, and | 212° ; whilst Mercury requires at least throw the highest mysteries of our a temperature of 650°. It must be faith wholly out of the creed. If the observed, however, that at the mescripture asserts the real presence after dium temperature of the atmosphere, consecration of the elements of the an evaporation to a greater or less exsacrament, it is certainly true, that if tent occurs in all fluid bodies. This we reject any part of a divine revela- is called spontaneous evaporation, and tion, we falsify the whole. The union may be regarded as an aërial solution of God and Man, the Trinity, the of different fluids. Vaporization is Birth, the Resurrection, are all be- to be understood as referring to that yond the powers and conceptions of process, by means of which a body our philosophy.
is converted into an elastic vapour by There is one part of the question caloric alone. Vapours may be with which the Government may and again condensed by the abstraction of ought to interfere, and that is, the ac- caloric.
ESSAY III.-ON CALORIC.