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llistorical Observations respecting Liverpool.

mon sense.

“ which the Lyrpul men ealt Lither- and execute his commands. These pul.". Since that charter, the name circumstances might suddenly have has been occasionally written Liver- augmented the number of the cottages pull, Lyurepol, Lyvrepole, Leerpool, and inhabitants, and thus have given Leverpool, and Liverpool.

commencement to those movements The antiquity of this town is not less which have raised Liverpool to its preuncertain than the etymology of its sent state of conimercial prosperity name. Ambition affects to trace it up and glory. to the days of the Romans; but this That a castle did exist on the elevat. claim is disowned by reason and com- ed ground which rises between Lord:

The situation of the town street and the harbour, is attested by was totally without the range of any the most decisive proofs; and although Roman roads hitherto discovered, and its visible vestiges are done away, the no monument of Roman greatness has name still survives in the names of ever been found, to give the least coun- Castle-street and Castle-riteh. By whoin tenance to the supposition.

this castle was erected, is a point on Nor is it absolutely certain that Li- which historians have also been diverpool had any distinct existence, vided. Movery asserts, that it was even so recently as the Norman con- built by King John; but he adduees no quest. The survey of the kingdom, authority in support of this assertion. which was taken as soon as William Camden oa the contrary, who wrote had secured the throne, was registered about the year 1586, expressly asin a book called Domesday, which is cribes the building of this castle to still extant. But although, in this ve- | Roger of Poictiers ; and he also adds, nerable record, mention is made of all that the wardenship of the eastle was the lands in England, together with the bestowed by the Earl on Vivian de names of their respective owners; and Molyneaux, whose descendants still notwithstanding Everton, Formby, and hold estates in the vicinity, and in this Litherland, appear under their respec. family it continued so late as the 30th tive appellations, the name of Liver- of Elizabeth. In 1704, the castle was pool is unknown. The traet of land granted to the town at the rent of now occupied by Liverpool and its vi- £6. 13s. 4d. the constable's salary; and cinity, seems to have been noticed in about this time the parish received a Domesday book, as Esmedune or Swe- rent from the corporation for some dune. It is described as “one carucate houses in it. About ten years afterof land worth thirty-two pence.” Sme- wards, the parish concerted its claims thorn or Smedone-lane, has probably to the corporation; in consequence of derived its name from this tract of which arrangement, the remains of land.

the castle were taken down, and St. It appears from Domesday, that all George's church was erected on the those lands which in Lancashire lie be- ground which this memorial of antitween the Ribble and the Mersey, were quity formerly occupied. granted to Roger of Poictiers, an inti- The conquest of Ireland, in 1172, mate friend of the Conqueror, and who was the first event which gave to Liwas created by him Earl of Arundel and verpool any commercial importance. Shrewsbury. It is not improbable that the relative situation of its harbour Roger of Poictiers, having taken pos- to that country, was noticed by governsession of his lands, erected a castle on ment: and it very soon became the it, for his own security, to display his established port, whence troops and grandeur, and to awe into obedience military stores were conveyed to or those, turbulent spirits which had only from Ireland; and the common inlet submitted to the force of arms. This, where the commodities of both counhowever, is a fact which wants corro- tries were interchanged. borative evidence; but if it could be Henry II, finding it thus advanascertained, it would furnish a plausi- tageous to his interests, granted its ble guide by which we might fix the first charter in the same year (1172) important era when the scattered ham- in which the conquest of Ireland was lets first started into notice.

completed, and erected burgage houses Nothing was more common during for its merchants. In 1207, a second these times of commotion, than for the charter was granted by John ; and dependant vassals to gather round the Henry III. in 1227, after confirming tyrant chief, to enjoy his protection, the grants of all former charters, for a

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Historical Observations respecting Liverpool.

58 fine of ten marks, constituted it a free season consigned over to solitude, borough for ever, with a merchant and was finally metamorphosed into a guild or society, and various other li. prison, which character it sustained berties and privileges. These advan- until the year 1811, when the prisoners tages being secured, Liverpool held were removed to a more humane manout an inviting aspect to traders, and sion built purposely for their reception. speculative men repaired thither, and From 1811 until 1819 this gloomy manby their united efforts laid the founda- sion, which had progressively witnesstion of that extensive commerce, for ed the magnificence of nobility, the prowhich it has been so long and so justly fusions of festivity, the songs of mirth, distinguished.

the exhilarations of music, the groans In the earlier periods of its his of the prisoner, and the clanking of tory, its exports consisted chiefly of his chains, was finally abandoned, and iron, charcoal, woollen-cloth, armour, left in a state of melancholy desolation. horses, and dogs; and its imports, of Towards the conclusion of 1819, its linen-cloth, yarn, fish, and hides. Its mouldering roof and walls were taken ships, which were then few in number, down, and this venerable monament of and diminutive in dimensions, only antiquity was completely demolished. carried on a coasting trade, and visited From the fourteenth until the comthe shores of Ireland, which bounded mencement of the sixteenth century, the extent of their communications the history of Liverpool is but little and intercourse. Its warehouses, which known. By Edward III. Richard III. are perhaps unrivalled both in number and Henry IV. its charters were conand magnitude, now contain the pro- firmed, and its privileges extended, duce of every nation; and its long and little doubt can be entertained, range of extensive docks, exhibits that its commerce and the number of ships which trade in every quarter of its inhabitants increased in proportion the globe.

with the advantages they enjoyed. Of Next to the ancient castle, of which this town Leland gives the following we have already spoken, the venerable account. tower which stood at the bottom of " Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid Water-street claims our attention. towne, hath but a chapel. Walton a This was an ancient building; but by ijii miles of nat far from the se is pawhom it was erected is rather uncertain. roche chirch. The king hath a castelet

By some it has been contended, that there, and the erle of Darbe hath a it was probably raised so early as the stone howse there. Irisch marchauntes days of Henry I. ; but others have ar- cum much thither, as to a good haven. gued that the year 1350 has a fairer After that Mersey water cumming claim to the erection of this building, towards Rumcorne in Cheshire liseth since at that time, the duke of Lan- amonge the commune people the caster, to whom it has been ascribed, name, and is Lyrpole. At Lyrpole received orders from the king to guard is smaule custume payid that causith the sea-coasts of Lancashire with un- marcbantes to resort. Good marchanremitting vigilance.

dis at Lyrpole, and moch Yrisch yarn The extent and form of this ancient that Manchester men do by ther.” pile, in its original condition, we have Flattering as this account may seem, now no means of knowing, as it is un- the town records state, that in 1565, certain what changes it underwent in the number of houses and cottages subsequent years, as it passed into the amounted to no more than 138. The hands of distinct possessors. So late shipping at this time consisted of ten as the year 1734, it was the occasional | barks (the largest of 40 tons burden) residence of the Earl of Derby; for in and two boats, navigated by 75 men ; the above year James Earl of Derby, and at Wallasey, a creek on the oppo. being mayor of Liverpool, gave enter- site shore, were three barks, making totaipments in it, to the inhabitants of the gether 36 tons, and navigated by 14 town. And after having been aban- men. In 1571, the declining state of doned as a residence of nobility, its Liverpool induced the inhabitants to great hall was converted into an as-petition Elizabeth that they might be sembly room, and was used for that relieved from a subsidy which had purpose until the middle of the last been imposed, and in this petition it is century ; when amusement finding styled Her Majesty's poor decayed better accommodations, it was for a town of Liverpool." No. 23.-Vol. III.



Strictures, &c. on Evans's Sketch.


In 1636, when ship-money was about tined long to enjoy them. In 1659 a to be exacted by Charles I. Liverpool bill passed for its demolition, and the was rated at £25, Chester at £26, and site, with a dwelling-house in the inBristol at £1000. These comparative terior, together with all the old mateestimates are not calculated to give rials, were given to Col. Birch, on any very exalted ideas of its wealth or condition of his carrying the order commercial prosperity.

into effect. “ The town,” says Seacomb, “in Towards the conclusion of the 17th 1644, was in the hands of the common- century, Liverpool was emancipated wealth, under the command of Col. from its parochial dependence on Moore, who defended it for some time Walton. An act for this purpose was against the army of Prince Rupert.” passed on the 24th of June 1699, emThis prince, about the 26th of June, powering the corporation to erect a 1644, sat down before it. At that time new church, and a house for the rector, it was well fortified, with a strong and and authorizing them to raise the sum high mud wall, and a ditch twelve yards of £400 by assessment on the inhabiwide, and nearly three yards deep, tants, for defraying the expense. It was enclosing the town from the east end also enjoined, that two rectors should of Dale-street, and so westward to the be appointed, one for the new church river. On every commanding emi- and the other for the parochial chapel. nence batteries were erected, and can- From this time the old chapel was callnon were placed in every assailable ed St. Nicholas, and the new church part.

St. Peter's. The patronage, and prePrince Rupert at this time fixed his sentation to the rectory, were vested in main camp round the beacon, the pre- the mayor, aldermen, and commonsent St. Domingo, about a mile out of council, subject, in case of disputes, to town, and his batteries were raised an appeal to the Bishop of Chester. upon the ridge of ground running The whole population of Liverpool was from the top of Shaw's-brow to the estimated at this time to be about 5000 Copperas works, having his trenches souls. in the lower ground just below.

( To be continued.) From these he frequently attacked the town, but was as often repulsed. At length, after many ineffectual Strictures, &c. on some of the Reflections efforts, he entered the town in the subjoined to Mr. Evans's Sketch of morning about three o'clock, and Al Denominations." marching to the spot on which the 1. The author seems anxious to protown-hais now stands, he put every mote Christian charity; but his labour person to the sword who opposed his will resemble that of the man who built progress. But having reached this his house upon the sand. In order to place, and finding himself master of offer the right hand of Christian felthe town, he committed the surviving lowship to another, it is not sufficient inhabitants prisoners to the Tower and that there is proof of his sincerity St. Nicholas's church, and took pos- merely; there must be a conviction session of the castle. Liverpool was that he is a child of God. soon afterwards retaken by the parlia.

The next point to be settled is, What mentary forces; and on the 5th of No-constitutes a child of God ? Faith in vember following, “thanks to God for Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and the recovering and retaking of Liver- Saviour of men. * But as words are pool,” were ordered by both houses of merely signs of ideas, it may be proparliament. Shortly afterwards an or

per to inquire, what is meant by the dinance was passed confirming former terms Son of God, and Saviour of grants and charters, and the sum of men? The Trinitarian says, Son of €10,000 was voted, to indemnify the God is equivalent to Immanuel-the inbabitants for the losses they had Word made flesh--or, God incarnate. sustained in their property during the The Unitarian says, it is equivalent to siege, at the same time to prevent the “ a man hig inspired, or one of the recurrence of a similar disaster, it was angelic order.” Now, our author conordered to be fortified with a garrison siders the difference between the defiof 600 men.

nitions of the Trinitarian and Unitarian The old castle, however, if permitted to share in these honours, was not des- John i. 12. Gal. iii. 26. 1 Johp v. 11.



Strictures, &c. on Evans's Sketch.



as a matter of trifling importance; see | have been a sufficientexample without Refl. 3. Is there, indeed, no differ- reference to the example of Christ. ence between faith in a being pos- That he would have been sufficient, sessed of the attributes of Deity, and and that others were sufficient, appears faith in a mere creature? If the Tri- from the epistle to the Hebrews, in nitarian maintains that the faith of which the apostle exhorts them to be every child of God, acknowledges followers of the ancient worthies.** Christ to be God-man; how can he, Upon the Unitarian scheme, the so long as he continues a Trinitarian, conduct of the apostle Paul, in the recognize a person who has not this prospect of death, is much more confaith, as a child of God?

solatory to the believer than that of Again, if a Trinitarian worships the prophet Jesus Christ; for the forJesus Christ, by honouring him with mer triumphed,tt while the latter the same honour with which he honours was “exceeding sorrowful even unto the Father; how can a Unitarian ac- death.”If It is to be observed, that knowledge him as a child of God, the object of Paul's love and confiwhile he is, according to the Unita-dence was Jesus Christ, a mere crearian's principles, an idolater, or De- ture ; while that of Christ's love and monolater; and the Scripture express- obedience was the eternal God! In ly condemns idolaters and idolatry.* this case, the servant is above his Hence it would seem, that Unitarian- Lord ! ism is founded upon a basis different 2. An attentive and impartial reader from that of Christianity.

can scarcely refrain from viewing our In the next place, it will appear, author's fourth Reflection as a piece of that there exists as great a difference sophistry. His words are as follows; between the views of a Trinitarian and "Let us reflect with pleasure in how those of a Unitarian, with regard to many important articles of belief ALL the official character of Christ as the Christians are agreed.” Saviour of men. The former considers “ Respecting the origin of evil, the Jesus Christ as our Saviour, because nature of the human soul, the existhis death was a sacrifice for sin ; † the ence of an intermediate state, and the latter, because he taught the will of duration of punishment, together with God, and exhibited an example for our points of a similar kind, opinions have imitation. But surely there is a great been, and in this imperfect state will difference between the knowledge of ever continue to be, different. But on our duty, and the acceptance of our articles of faith, far more interesting in persons. According to the Unitarian themselves, and far more conducive to scheme, the Gentiles are more indebted our welfare, are not all Christians to Paul than to Jesus Christ for their united? We all believe in the perfecsalvation; for the latter was the mi- tions and government of one God, in nister only of the circumcision,t while the degradation of human nature thro’ the former was peculiarly the minister transgression; in the unspeakable effiof the uncircumcision. The mystery cacy of the life, death, and sufferings that the Gentiles should, under the of Jesus Christ; in the assurance of Gospel dispensation, be made fellow- divine aid; in the necessity of exerheirs with the believing Jews, was cising repentance, and of cultivating made known to Paul by the special re- holiness; in a resurrection from the velation of the Spirit, after Jesus dead; and in a future state of rewards Christ, as a teacher, had finished his and punishments.” course.ll

Our author classes with Christians The example of Paul is highly the Swedenborgians, and the Shakers worthy of imitation. We are not left of America ; yet these two denominamerely to infer such a truth, for the tions, according to his own account, apostle himself enjoins the imitating deny the resurrection of the body. of his

As it regards the articles upon which It may be objected, that he had the rest agree, the agreement lies more Christ for a pattern. True ; but it in words tha in ideas. Take for an does not follow, that he would not example the following; "the unspeak• 1 Cor. vi. 9. Rev. xxi. 8. and xxii. 15.

1 Cor. iv. 16. xi. 1. Phil. üi. 17. + Heb.ix. 14, 26, 28.

** Pbil. ch. vi. 12. * Rom. xv. 8. - v. 16.

It Acts xxi. 13. 2 Tim. iv. 6-8. # Eph. ii. 1-8. Col. i. 25-27. iv. 3.

## Matt. xxvi. 38, 39.

Essays on Creation and Geology.

64 able effacacy of the life, death, and founded on liberal principles, and yet sufferings, of Jesus Christ.” Upon the depart from these rules when their own Unitarian scheme, the life, death, and peculiarities come to be examined. sofferings of Jesus Christ, can be of no Strange as it may appear, bigotry is more effacacy than the life, death, and sometimes found in the minds of persufferings of the apostle Paul: while, sons noted for their free-thinking. according to Trinitarian views, Jesus They are conscious of their exoneraChrist is not only a medium of know- tion from the yoke of authority, while ledge concerning the divine character they want the penetration to discover and will, but a meritorious medium, that they are bound by prejudices of through which the divine mercy is ex- their own manufacture; and hence tended to sinners consistently with di- they imagine, that none are equally vine justice, as through which, in the sincere with themselves in the pursuit language of Scripture, “ God might of truth.

Z. be just, and” yet“ the justifier of Aberdeen, 18th August, 1820. him that believeth in Jesus.”

In the list of subjects given by our author, concerning which there has

ESSAYS ON CREATION AND GEOLOGY. been a difference of opinion, nothing is said of the Divinity of Christ, and Essay IX.-The Creation of Living the Atonement by his death. If our

Creatures, and an inquiry into their author had these doctrines in his view,

nature, and the preservation of their he must bare confined them to“ points

species ; being the work of the fifth of a similar kind” with those men- and anterior part of the sixth days of tioned. If so, no persons needs find Creation. fault with him for concealing his own peculiar views. And if he did not in- Having in the preceding Essays clude these doctrines with points of a traced the various and gradually assimilar kind, his own views of Christian cending steps of Creative Power, and charity will warrant us to ask the ques- having at last seen the visible heavens tion, Where was his honesty ? illuminated with sun, moon, and stars,

3. Much is said, throughout the Re- and the earth, (furnished with vegeflections, in favour of the right of pri- tables) which, through the influence of vate judgment, and of the advantages the heavens, is now prepared to pour resulting from free inquiry ; while lit- forth in abundance her luxurant protle or nothing is said concerning the ductions; the question comes to be, danger which frequently attends the For what purpose were matters so arhabit of thinking for ourselves, or con- ranged? Shall we search for an ancerning the requisite qualifications for swer to this question in the theory of free inquiry. Infidels of every descrip- Mr. Macnab? Then we observe him tion think for themselves; and it is to having recourse to the geologists, and be suspected, that few of such charac- seemingly giving credit to all that they ters will be found free from pride of say respecting the amazing antiquity intellect, and insubordination to the of the globe. Supreme Being. It was justly ob- By the help of his aions, he says, served by a great man, well qualified “Generations after generations of veto judge, “that the greatest enemy to getables seem to have rolled away, the truth of the Bible is a bad heart.” during these immeasurable ages, de

Thousands of Christians who think positing immense masses of carbonafor themselves, would prefer the im- ceous matter, which are found far beplicit faith of the members of the neath the present surface of the earth.” Romish Communion, to the lawless li- Thus does he in effect charge folly berty of the Free-thinking Christians. upon the God of wisdom : for is it at It is, however, to be lamented, that so all becoming the majesty, power, and few think for themselves on religious wisdom of the Divine Being, to say, subjects. Of such as do think for that all this labour and grandeur of themselves at all, comparatively few operation, occupying such a space of do so uniformly. It is as easy to set time too, should be for the paltry purup one's own dogmas as a standard of pose suggested in this quotation ? But truth, as it is to become an implicit without regarding the vain speculafollower of others. There are some tions of men, when we have recourse that acknowledge rules of investigation to God's own account of the matter,

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