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ON THE SUBSTRATUM OF MATTER.

535
On the Substratum of Matter.

536 sphere, which, when they touch the , its identity.” As I never “presumed cooled surface, cause it to freeze. on the existence of no permanent prinThese phenomena, have been explain- ciple," however similar the plight may ed on the principle, that the congela- have been in which we have both been tion of a fluid such as water, is a spe- placed, there must have been somecies of crystallization, in which the thing of difference in it. Your corparticles, by agitation, and the intro- respondent's “ permanent principle," duction of an extraneous substance, is the substratum of matter; mine is at a certain temperature assume dif- matter itself. I deny a substratum, ferent forms, and become differently but do not deny a permaneat princiarranged.

ple. His principle is something dis(To be continued.)

tinct from its attributes; mine is not, except it be in name and in imagina

tion. The denial of an ulterior sub(Continued from col. 362.)

stratum, therefore, does not involve

the startling consequences which M.S. In the article that gave birth to “ a

has deduced from it. Constant Reader's” remarks, some

However absurd my notion of the doubts were expressed on the exist- identity of subject and attributes may ence of an unknown substratum of appear to M. S. it cannot appear more matter; and the reasons urged against so to him than does bis incongruous it were as follow. *—First, that when notion of the existence of something in the mind excluded from its concep

which properties are united. His protions the essential properties of mat- perties are things that he well knows; ter, it had nothing left within its grasp. -- his some-thing, is no-thing that he Secondly, that as far as the essential does know; and yet it appears to him properties of any being are known, so

more rational to unite his known promuch is known of its essence or na- perties to his unknown something, ture. Thirdly, that the doctrine of an and to give it“ a local habitation and unknown substratum leads to specu

a name,” than to deny a doubt of its lative atheism.

existence, and admit that an assemA conjecture was somewhat hastily blage of attributes constitute as well expressed, namely, that “ solidity

as iniply a subject. may be the essence of matter, and

It must, I think, be admitted, that, consciousness the essence of spirit.” which side soever we take of this quesBut as I know nothing of essences, as tion, difficulties and inconsistencies real entities, distinct from certain ag- present themselves; and we only difgregates of indissolubly united proper

fer as to the side on which they preties, I cannot admit that any single ponderate. M. S. thinks that they property is entitled to such a denomi- incline to the latter; and I judge them nation. I therefore disapprove of to be more numerous and weighty that phraseology, and pass over the against the former; and with these remarks wbich it occasioned.

views we shall probably both throw M. S. has frequently found himself down our pens, and agree to differ. in the same plight as myself, but

M. S. observes very justly, “ that adopted a different plan to extricate God can create substances different in himself; he has reasoned thus ; " If principle, and bearing different and I presume on the existence of no per

even opposite properties; and infers, manent principle or substance, I must “ therefore there may be matter and then grant that there is solidity while spirit.” But is not one of these subthere is nothing that is solid ; exten- stances matter? and is not matter one sion, while nothing is extended; of these substances ?--and though the shape, while nothing possesses figure; terms are different, and do not produce and I suspected that I was thus in- precisely the same mode of concepvolved in greater difficulties, and sur- tion, yet do they not both refer to the rounded by greater inconsistencies, same thing, namely, to a substance than if I allowed the existence of called matter? And as a particular something in which these properties constitution, or the essential properties were united, though I could not sepa- of any being, constitutes the nature of rate them from it without destroying that being, as we know something of

the constitution and properties of mat* Imperial Magazine, vol. i. col. 980. ter, how can its nature or essence be

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537
On the Substratum of Matter.

538 unknown? The essential properties | they would be a novel negative inof any being, bear a similar relation to deed!“ It is because we have no that being, that the parts of an object idea of spirit, (says a great writer) bear to the whole, with this difference, that we are naturally led to express it that while the parts of a whole may by a negative, to call it immaterial exist separately, essential properties substance, or something that is not cannot; they are indissolubly united. matter, something that is not anyAnd as a whole is not distinct from all thing we know.”+ its parts, though distinguished by a M. s. has backed his opinion by a different name ; so neither are proper- quotation from an authority to whom ties different from their subjects, tho' I yield more than a common deference; distinguished by particular names. A but should the inference which atheists material substance is a certain aggre- have drawn from the doctrine of an gate of properties, and a certain indis- unknown substratum prove illogical solubly united aggregate of properties when closely examined, if the princiis a material substance.

ple be false, and the phraseology imIn contending for his “mysterious proper that leads to such a result, it principle,” your correspondent, after is of importance to reject them. the example of others, presents it to Allow me, Sir, to write another paus in very different capacities. 1. We ragraph, and I will then thankfully have it as a prop; in this it bears pro- quit this “ land of darkness,” this perties. 2. As a subject of inhesion; “thorny path,”these“ bogs and brakes in this properties stick in it. 3. As a of metaphysics;" for," my weary soul” cement; and in this capacity, it unites is already “ sick of journeying," and properties with itself. But how solid- I am almost ready to “sink into a ity, extension, and figure, can either state of supineness and apathy,"countrest upon, inhere in, or be blended ing it all " vanity, and vexation of spiwith, this unknown phantom, com- rit.” It is a charge of treason I have pletely bafftes my conceptions. That it now to repel, and perhaps nothing elso cannot perform all these offices, is cer- would have raised this last muscular tain, as each of them presents to us effort, and the last particle of mental modes of existence incompatible with energy, that will be directed by me each other. There scems to be as against this “ palpable obscure." It much mystery about the use of this seems, that to deny a substratum of “ principle" as of its nature; and all matter, is an attempt to shift from his that is said in its favour amounts to seat an aged and an unseen sovereign. this, that it is some thing, and is con- This is a serious charge, but it is " as nected with properties some how. false as it is foul.” To deny the exist

Your correspondent says, that “the ence of a sovereign, is not the same thing “principal charge I bring against the as an attempt to depose him. The “gen“existence of a primary material sub- tlemen" who deny the existence of this “ stance is, that it cannot be the object mysterious, unseen, aged sovereign, have of our senses, and therefore we can been at no small pains to discover his “know nothing of it."* In this he nature, and his residence; but having has erred; I bring no such charge, nor failed in their attempts, they suspect ever intended. I reject it, because it that he is nobody, and that his resiis inconceivable by the mind, not be- dence is nowhere. In this opinion I cause it is imperceptible by sense. I concar with them ; but lest there should confess that I do believe that the ma- be, after all, such an old gentleman, terials of our knowledge are originally I will say no more against him, but derived through the medium of the leave him in the undisturbed possessenses. But then we have evidence sion of his invisible sovereignty. It sufficient to justify a belief in the ex- was my intention to extend my remarks istence of objects impervious to sense, on the origin of human knowledge; I though their particular nature is not have, however, declined this, and shall directly known. The existence of spi- only notice the opinion, that “ all our rits, we infer from their operations: notions of the spiritual world are pureof their nature we know little, but as ly negative.” On this subject, the negative of matter. And if the happy that we are not left to the wild nature of matter itself were unknown, vagaries of unassisted reason.

• Imperial Magazine, vol. i. col. 848. + Wesley's Philosophy, vol. v. p. 153, No, 28.-VOL. III.

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539

Fragment of a Day-Book.

540

FRAGMENT OF A DAY-BOOK.

ing of Orestes and Pylades, in the most

comical manner imaginable. Riviére (Concluded from col. 413.)

performed also the operation of a dent16th July.—The king assisted with ist with Mandini. After a few scenes the whole court at the marriage of of the like nature, one represented count Dietrichstein, with the lady of living pictures, according to wellbonour Alexandrine Schuwaloff: the known subjects, viz: Achilles (Maceremony took place in the dining- dame Le Brun) discovered by Ulysses room, and the Nuntius Litta wore the amongst the companions of Deidamia dress of a bishop. After that, the act (princess Dolgorucki:) Stratonice on was repeated in the chapel, according the sick-bed of her son, (the princess to the rites of the Greek church, again;) the tent of Darius, &c. Mme. whereby Count Schuwaloff held the Le Brun ordered the positions, the garland over the head of the bride. illumination, &c. with so much taste, The empress bad adorned the bride that this kind of spectacle afforded with her own hands, and she wore great amusement. All Petersburg diamonds to the value of a million of regretted the departure of Cobenzl ; rubles.

because nobody equals him in com“ On the 17th the emperor embark- placency, ease, and all that renders ed with his whole family for Cronstadt, society agreeable. On his theatre and took the most hearty leave of the performed princess Dolgorucki the king.”

part of Camilla, to the admiration of Kammenoy-Ostrog, near Peters- every one; and on the very evening burg.-On the 24th the king went to a of his setting off, the embassador lent country-seat of prince Kurakin. The himself, for the pleasure of the comprincess Dolgorucki,an intimate friend pany, by fitting himself out as a hen, of the family, celebrated, as usual, the and all the present children as chickens, birth-day of princess K at Alex- which he defended against every androwskie. The festivity had been attack in a very ludicrous manner.advanced this year by a whole month, Gatschina, 9th September, and folon account of the approaching depar- lowing days.-One of the three Russian ture of the Austrian embassador, count bishops, who had been knighted, made Cobenzl, who is a great friend of both a speech to the emperor. It is to be the ladies, and whose taste bas always remarked, that only under the present enlivened their social amusements. government the bishops have received The company went first to a thicket; red and blue ribands. At the ball, where the children of both families which was given in the evening, the offered, in shops of green branches, empress asked the king, whether he various things for sale, such as flowers, played at cards? and when he acknowfruit, music, &c. Instead of sign- ledged his ignorance on that point, boards, these shops had inscriptions the emperor said that it was the same drawn from the best and most known with him: but I, said the empress, authors, and befitting the occasion. must play a little at picquet par conOne of the children made a speech, tenance; and she did then play for and then they all united in merry about half an hour with the fieldmardances. From this place, one pro- shals Soltikoff, Repnin, and Kamensceeded to the theatre of the castle : koy. On the 10th, the king requested the princess Dolgorucki acted most the emperor to give him somebody, excellently a scene of Nina, or insanity who could point out to him all the caused by love. Thereupon followed | beauties of Gatschina; and immedirepresentations of the magic lantern ately was the general-adjutant Plesbehind a curtain of gauze: the direcchtschejeff sent to him as his guide: tor of the lantern appeared, and an- this man, who has served in the Engnounced the rising of the sun, and lish navy, has the reputation of saying this sun was—the Austrian embassa- always what he thinks; and whatever dor dressed in brocade, and his head he says, bespeaks a man of honour. surrounded by beams of gilded paste- He went with the king through the board; he was followed by the moon, subterraneous passages, which remind represented by Mandini, the first Ita- one of the catacombs, to the top of lian singer, who gave afterwards, with the tower: the interior division of the Mr. De Riviére, a brother-in-law of walls is still the same as in the time Mme. Le Brun, the painter, the part when Count George Orloff was in pos

541
Fragment of a Day-Book.

512 session of the castle; but the emperor enfeld, a marquis de Montmort, the has enlarged it very much, and has old well-known French performer Ausdecorated it entirely to bis own liking. rène, and Mr. Riviére, were appointed A Polish painter, Labinski, has fur- for the remainder. In the second nished, amongst others, the finest Ara- piece performed princess Dolgorucki besks. Under the great number of herself with her wonted superiority, paintings, one remarks five large por- and her charming children appeared traits by Robert; one seven feet high as harlequins. by Vernet; Charles the Third of Spain “ On the 230 October, a Greek at dinner; and a stag-hunt, which bishop lodged with the king; his name prince Condé gave to the emperor is Eugene, and he was born at Corfu. when he visited him at Chantilli as Without having ever been a monk, he grand duke, &c. The three graces, was named by Catharine to be bishop painted on a piece of marble, are less of Tauria. He resigned after a few remarkable for their beauty, than be- years, to spend his pension here. He cause they have been dug up at Her- has translated an Æneide in Greek culaneum. A representation of Peter verses, and, according to the judgment the Great on horseback, is perhaps the of connoisseurs, his performance is a best which one has of him, but the very good one: he speaks French and borse might be better: the dress is Italian, and knows the best authors more modern than one is accustomed of these nations. His conversation is to see from that epoch, and the painter spiritual, and one does not perceive has forgotten the star of the order of his eighty years. St. Andrew. In the drawing-room an Gatschina, 26th October.-The emantique basrelief is placed over the peror treated the empress to-day to an chimney, which has been so well pre- Italian Opera seria by Anfossi, which served, that one might almost doubt was excellently executed. The decothe truth of what is asserted about it: rator, (scene-painter,) Gonzaga, has they say, that it had originally deco- surpassed himself: he is one of the first rated a monument of Trajan, and that artists in his line, and knows how to from that it had been transplanted with produce optical effects which border several others to the triumphant arch on enchantment; although the house of Constantine, whence thieves had is but small, and the principal spectorn it off during the night, and sold tators are placed immediately behind it to chief-chamberlain Schuwaloff, the orchestra: even on the curtain who was just then travelling in Italy: stands a temple which seems to proIn the cabinet of the emperor hang ject, seen at a distance of only six fire portraits-Prince Henry of Prus- feet: a woody district of bis produces sia, betwixt four Russian fieldmar- the effect of a painting by Breughel: shals. As for the garden, the king a sun-beam coming through a window has but slightly glanced at it, for the of a prison, was absolutely deceiving ; present. The emperor seemed highly and he has painted walls al fresco, pleased with the king's good opinion which delude the eye, notwithstanding of a place in which he delights so much prior information. After the opera, Le himself: he said, it appears to me as Pieg gave a ballet, in which he showed if I were no where at home but here. himself to great advantage, in spite of It certainly must be acknowledged that his sixty years. On the 24th Novemeven Pawbowski, pretty as it is, can ber, the emperor had the opera repeated be called but a small diamond, when on the court theatre in Petersburg ; compared with Gatschina.

and as this is by far larger than that Petersburg, 17th October.-Prince in Gatschina, Gonzaga was obliged to Dolgorucki surprised the king in the paint fresh sceneries in the greatest evening with a theatre, which he had haste: this served anew to prove his erected, during the king's absence, in fruitful genius, and his extraordinary the marble palace. One gave two skill. The play which had been anFrench pieces: Lecon seit paternel; and nounced for the 28th, was counterLe bon menage, by Florian. The author manded as soon as the emperor learned of the first is a count Golotilin, who of the death of the king of Prussia."

is actually full of new and interesting day, prince Condé visited the king, and scenes. Madame Litwinoff acted the declared that he should have known principal part; a Bavarian count Lerch- him again, as he had had the pleasure

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543 Extract of a Letter from New South Wales. 544
of seeing him once at his ball in 1754. / male? and then he guesses from the
When prince Condé descended at his characters, not only the age of the per-
dwelling in the Taurish palace, he son, but even the moral disposition.
found there all the servants dressed in He has guessed several times with an
the same livery which his own domes- astonishing exactness; and Lavater
tics had worn at Chantilli, when the might become jealous of him.”
emperor Paul saw him there : (how Extract of a Letter from the state-
delicate an attention!) on the court-
chariots, which are intended for the

counsellor Boeder, chicf physician

of the king, to Monsieur Bacciarelly, prince's use, the emperor had his arms painted; and on the colours of his

cabinet-secretary at Warsaw. regiment, the Russian eagle is sur- Petersburg, 6th April, 1798.-Our rounded by French lilies. The pa- good master died merely through an lace of Czernischeff he gave him as a attack on the nerves, which was present; and when he went there for brought on by the painful and disthe first time, he found Hotel de Condé agreeable labour to get out of the emwritten over the gates."

barrassing situation in which unfortu“ On the 15th December, 1797,—the nate projects had involved him. For king was present at a dinner which the rest, bis end was like that of the prince Besborodko gave. Besides the empress Catharine, and he was buusual splendour, and the completely ried with the same honours." exhausted art of cookery, one remarked about twenty perfuming pans, which exhaled the most precious odours. EXTRACT OF A LETTER FROM MR.JOHN There appeared also the famous bomb

COWELL, TO ROBT. FOWLER, BROMPof Sardanaple, with the epicurean

TON, --DATED SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH sauce, invented by a butler of Frede- WALES, AUG, 31, 1820. rick the Second. The most costly “I have to inform you of the death of wines of all countries were in abun Mayree, the New-Zealander: he died dance, and hundreds of wax candles on the 9th of April, about half past illuminated the tables. At the dessert, two o'clock in the afternoon, in lat. every dish was covered with a glass 43. 34. S. long. 89. E. I have great bell, of beautiful workmanship. Etru- hopes that he died rejoicing in Christ rian painting adorned these bells, and Jesus as his saviour. During the pasthey did great credit to prince Jusu- sage, he was very attentive to the inpoff, who is the director and active structions given him in reading, writmanager of this manufactory." ing, &c. He was particularly atten

“ On the 8th January, 1798,—the tive to the reading of the scriptures. king was present at the consecration The morning of his death, I atiended of the water; but his balcony had been on him until half past ten o'clock; dursurrounded with windows. The em- ing that time I endeavoured to point out press, although very far gone with Jesus Christ to him as his saviour: he child, had walked to the wooden cha- was very thankful for my attention and pel, which had been erected on the ice advice. My dear partner then came of the ditch that encloses the admi- into his cabin to relieve me, while I ralty: she came afterwards likewise to attended divine service in the afterthe balcony, had the windows opened, cabin, it being the sabbath-day. Dur. and stood there longer than two hours ing the morning he was perfectly senwithout umbrella, and apparently with sible, and about half an hour before out any inconvenience, although it his death, he begged Mrs. Cowell to snowed very hard, and the snow lay pray with him ; which she did. After two inches high around her feet. The prayer, he said, “Now, Mrs. Cowell, count of Montmorenci, son of the you make a write: tell all my England duke of Laval, has given several proofs friends that Jesus Christ is Mayree of a very singular art, which he pre-friend-Mayree die and go to hcatends to have learned from the bishop ven.” After divine service I attended of Nanci: One gives him something in bis cabin, and in a few moments he in writing, even the mere address of a expired ; leaving this world, I hope, to letter, by a person of whom he knows dwell with Christ his saviour in the nothing at all, and whose name one kingdom of heaven. During his illdoes not tell him : he asks only whe- ness on board the ship, he expectorather it is the writing of a male or fe- ted very little. I was desirous to as

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