« PreviousContinue »
Poems by J. Jones, reviewed,
Memoir of the Life and Times of Leo. Poles, Approximation towards tbe,
- of the Rev. Dan Taylor, do. .. 952
On the boiling of,
1153 Preservations, remarkable and extraordi-
No Fiction, reviewed,
Note from Aristarchus,
Oxygen, Reply to a Query on, ........ 373 Ring-worms, Cures for,
Royal Minstrel, by Pennie, reviewed, 481
137 Science, on the Aspect of, towards Reli-
1142 Screw-drivers, Reply to a Query on, ... 663
Imperial Magazine ;
OR, COMPENDIUM OF RELIGIOUS, MORAL, $. PHILOSOPHICAL KNOWLEDGE.
" MEN IN SAVAGE LIFE, ARE DESTITUTE OF BOOKS."
(1821. Monthly Observations, with a Catalogue
are not often led to complain of (including the Linnean names) of all
drought. really British Plants, as they come
The different changes which take into flower, each month throughout place in the air, are caused by altera
tions in its electric state. When well charged with the electric fluid, the air dissolves, and holds inuch moisture;
but having received as much as it is The ever varying seasons bring with capable of containing, as some other them new and interesting scenes in body in nature must in the same pronature; but from not having these ap- portion be reduced below its proper pearances pointed out to us, many of standard, a transfer takes place; and them pass by unnoticed, and many that moisture which was before inviare misunderstood. A calendar of sible, appears in the form of a cloud, nature is intended to supply these defi- which swims at a higher or lower eleciencies, and, hy enlarging our mental vation, according to its gravity, as views, to lead us through nature up to compared with that of the atmosphere nature's God. But these scenes and in which it floats. When high it is a occurrences differ in different regions, cloud, when low it is denominated a and in some instances in those which mist. But a cloud may have sufficient are not very remote from each other: electricity to suspend it in the air for it is necessary, therefore, to remark, a long time, though the air is not cathat we confine ourselves to our native pable of dissolving it; when this quanisland, in which the following obser- tity also is parted with, the aqueous vations, to be continued regularly particles, left to obey their own attracthrough the different months of the tions, assume the figure of globular year, have been chiefly drawn from a drops, and fall by their own gravity to careful observation of nature itself. the earth, carrying with them nearly
January, in all northern latitudes, all that electric fluid which the atmomay be considered as the chief winter sphere received from the earth during month: the weather, which has bcen the dry weather of summer. of a very fluctuating description before, Hail is nothing more than globules now setting in with rigour. This, how- of frozen rain; but certain circumever, is not always very considerable ; stances, not yet well ascertained, are it consists sometimes of snow and necessary to its production. Hail, at frost, and sometimes of hail, or floods least in the western counties, comes of rain. It is well known, that the with winds between N. W. and W., atmosphere always contains a very and sometimes from the S.W. When considerable portion of moisture; and, the wind has been at north, we bave what appears very much of the nature seen a dense cloud rise in the S. W. of a paradox, it is frequently the case with a rapid and violently whirling that there is more in dry weather than motion; and when it has reached the in wet; but the difference of these zenith, and covered half the horizon, states, consists rather in the manner in a violent rushing noise has been heard which the moisture exists, than in its for about a quarter of a minute before quantity. In dry weather it is in a the descent of the hail. Whirling state of solution, like salt in water; in clouds often bring hail; and it most wet weather, in a state of mere inix generally happens nat a brisk squall ture, and consequently visible. Rain attends it, even when the air before usually comes in this country with bas been very still. It appears, that winds between S. E. and N.W.; and the fluid drops form at a considerable as these are of very frequent occur- degree of elevation, and in their derence, it follows, that in England we scent meet with a counter current of No. 23.- VOL. III.
12 cold air, which congeals them before The expansion of water in freezing, they reach the ground. Hail is some-may be ascribed to two causes; first, times found of very large size ; in this to the disengagement of numerous case the globules are formed of many bubbles of air, which were before in smaller ones united together, which a state of solution in the fluid, or at causes them usually to be of yery irre- least of intimate union with it;-but gular figures.
principally to the solid crystals assumFrom what has been said of rain ing an angular arrangement, by u bich and hail, the nature of snow may be numerous interstices are left in the pretty well understood. It cousists of ice, that render it of less specific grafrozen particles of moisture, that were vity than water, and consequently congealed before they had time to cause it to swim on the surface; a form into drops ; and consequently circumstance, without which the inone of these two circuinstances is habitants of the waters must speedily necessary to its existence; it must perish, for the rivers would soon behave formed near the ground, or if at come a body of ice. Whereas when a considerable height, the air near the a sheet of ice covers the surface, it carth must be at such a low tempera- protects what is below from the accesture, that the flakes may not be dis- sion of cold, and consequently mainsolved in their descent: when this is tains its fluidity. Fisbes, however, the case, it forms sleet. If hail is seen are not exempted from the sufferings when the under current of air is warm, of the season, though in a different it is to be accounted for from the way from land animals. Air is necesswiftness of its fall. In this country, sary to their existence, and water consnow appears of two sorts : large tains but a definite portion of it, which flakes, consisting of particles that be- when deteriorated by having passed fore they were fully congealed have thro' their gills, the ice prevents from caused other particles to adhere to being renewed. Aware of this circumthem, and therefore indicate a less stance, the inhabitants of the northern severe degree of cold; the other is a regions make use of a stratagem to supfine and dusty snow, which is seen ply themselves with fish; they break a chiefly in more northern regions, but hole in the ice, and take with nets of which the heavy snow that covered those of the finny tribe that crowd to all England in Jan. 1814, consisted. the spot as to a place of safety. But
Frost consists of water deprived of if ice is capable of affording proteca large portion of its heat, by which it tion from great extremes of cold, snow becomes crystallized; for it must be does this in a much more effectual observed, that water does not simply manner; for being a very bad conducbecome solid by freezing, but its par- tor of heat, vegetables, and sometimes ticles assume a regular form, as dif- animals, are clothed by it as with a ferent kinds of salts when deposited garment; and hence it was that plants by water or the fluids in which they which bore without injury the rigours have been dissolved, are found to do, of a Lapland climate, perished in the and from the same cause. It is a winter, when transplanted to the more general law of nature, that bodies in a southern latitude of Stockholm, solely fuid state become more concentrated from being without their usual coveras they grow colder ; but an excep-ing of snow. tion to this, calculated to be of the It may be regarded as an establishutmost service in the cconomy of ed fact, that the coldness of a country divine providence, occurs in the in- is as the quantity of snow that falls in stance of water, which, when cool. it; for in order to its liquefaction it ing, contracts indeed like other bodies, absorbs so much matter of heat (cabut when it reaches the freezing point, loric) as reduces surrounding bodies or 32o, it expands with irresistible vio- to its own standard, and thus proves lence, and becomes solid. It is, how the cause of long-continued frost. At ever, possible to cool water below 32° this season, domestic cattle require without its freezing; but when placed the constant attention of the farmer, in circumstances that allow of its and thus are paid the wages of their consolidation, it immediately rises to toil in summer. Wild animals are 32o, a sufficient proof that something driven hard between the extremes of beside the abstraction of heat is ne- hunger and fear.
Hares enter garcessary to the formation of ice.
dens and plantations, and devour the
14 bark of trees as high as they can | is mostly torpid; yet a few make their reach; but are traced in the snow, and appearance, and gnats are found often fall a prey to those who follow sporting in the sunbeams, when the the healthful exercise of shooting. ground is thickly covered with snow. They seem at this time to be sensiblc How they live is hard to say, but they of the peculiar danger of leaving the resist the stupifying effects of cold tracks of their footsteps in the snow; more completely than animals of a for whep about to enter their form, much larger size are found to do. they are seen to leap about in various How dead the vegetable kingdom directions, in order to confound the lies! yet, having now the full enjoymarks, and at last with one great ment of air and light, this is the chief effort they spring from a distance at time for the vegetation of mosses; and once into their retreat.
even a few of Flora's higher orders The woodcock tribe quits the woods, shew their flowers, as the daisy, black where, in mild weather, they found hellebore, winter aconite, and furze ; both food and safety ; and betake but they give pain rather than pleathemselves to the open springs that sure, when viewed in connection with are near the sea coast; where they whistling winds and icy skies. Severe feed hoth by day and night, and fly frost is found to kill turnips in the chiefly in the morning and evening. field, and thus materially injure the Birds of the Thrush kind feel the property of the farmer. severity of the season, and the Red- Towards the end of the month, the wing in a very especial manner. This catkins of the hazel begin to appear in bird, though a native of a northern the hedgcs; and the buds of gooseberry clime, and of a wild and timid na- bushes, which are beginning to swell, ture, becomes more tame from cold are often devoured by Bulfinches, and hunger, than those of its genus which thus make great havock in which reside with us, and numbers of gardens. These birds are sometimes them perish. The Redbreast and Wren so stuffed with this food, as to appear almost cease their song. The former not to have room for a particle more. visits houses in the country, and is The Groundsel is very generally in considered by the children as a friend flower, and is a favourite food with whom at this severe season they are many birds, at a time when scarcely bound to feed and protect. Birds of any thing beside is to be obtained by the Finch tribe find it their interest to them. keep near farm-yards; and the domes- Come into flower this month : Comlic Sparrow, particularly, will share in mon Groundsel, Senecio Vulgaristhe housewife's allowance to her poul- Daisy, Bellis perennis-Furze, Ulex try, in defiance of all her vigilance. Of Europæus.-Catkins of the Hazel all large birds, the Gull tribe scem'to appear. suffer the most severe privations ; the trembling waves prevent their getting much supply from the sea shore,
AND CANDOUR, -A and the fry of fish, and water insects, have sought the shelter of deep water; they are therefore often seen following the plough in numbers, like a Envy. What do you think of this swarm of bees, where they are of Miss X- that is come among us? great service to the husbandman, hy Candour. I think her a very beautidevouring insects that are thus ex-ful, elegant, and accomplished young posed to light. In some instances it woman. has been known, that distress has Envy. That I am convinced is predriven them to devour such small cisely her own opinion. birds as they have been able to over- Candour. I am at a loss to know,
how you came to be convinced, from Herrings are at this season taken her manner of conversation, that she in vast quantities; but not in such thinks so highly of herself. numbers in the west, as on the shores Envy. O, it is quite evident, the of the more eastern counties; those of men have turn'd the girl's head; they the west are however esteemed as the tell every woman, as you know very larger and better fish, and sell at a well, my dear, that she is elegant, much higher price. The insect tribe beautiful, and accomplished.
BETWEEN TWO YOUNG LADIES.